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Page 9, line 7 from bottom, for multas paleas read multis paleis. 

Page 38, line 2 from top, for July 3th read July 8th. 

Page 45, line 28 from top, for regentsteinensis read reyensteinensis. 

Page 51, line 4 from bottom, for cos rulea read cmrulea. 

Page 94, line 5 from bottom, for Epinephale read Epinephile. 

Page 109, line 5 from bottom, for Cephanodes read 

Page 113, line 16 from bottom, for charonia, Dru. read canace, Linn. 

Page 115, line 17 from top, for undularis read caudata, Butl., an aberra- 
tion with a broad fulvous shade from the base parallel to the inner 
margin, approximating to the colouring of the ? . 

Page 125, line 7 from top, for Calysime read Calysisme. 

Page 127, line 24 from top, for ariadne read minorata, Moore. 

Page 128, last line but two, for daretis, Hew. read drypetes, Hew. 

Page 129, lines 5,6, 7 from top, insert a comma after "took," and delete 
" a single . . . also." The sentence will then read — . . . " I took, 
settled on a leaf . . . , a specimen . . . ." 

Page 136, line 14 from top, for skakra read schakra. 

Page 378, line 22 from top, for phlceas read ^Wajfls. 

Page 400, line 21 from top "j 

Page 404, line 6 from top 1- for Mount read Md. 

Page 406, line 19 from top J 

Page 406, line 2 from bottom 1 . _. , ^ 

]■ for Bon read Bou 
Page 408, line 22 from top 



Page sxxv, line 16 from top, and line 26 from top, for Syricthus read 

Page xliii, line 13 from top, for G. album read C. album. 
Page liv, line 2 from top, for Laemophilus read Lmmophlseus. 


















Part I. (Trans., pp. 1-202, Proc, i-xvi) was published 20th May, 1905- 
„ II. ( „ 203-268, „ xvii-xliv) „ 15th July, „ 

„ III. ( „ 269-364) „ 4th Oct., 

„ IV. ( „ 365-438, „ xlv-lxxvi) „ 3rd Jan., 1906 

V. ( „ lxxvii-cxlv) „ 7th Mar., „ 

r In-, 


Founded, 1833. 

r ~ Incorporated by Royal Charter, 1885. 

OFFICERS and COUNCIL for the SESSION 1905-1906. 



Prop. EDWARD B. POULTON, D.Sc, M.A., F.R.S. 




Commander JAMES J. WALKER, M.A., R.N., F.L.S. 



©tber /Members ot Council. 









Colonel JOHN W. YERBURY, R.A., F.Z.S. 

Resident Librarian. 

( vii ) 



Explanation of the plates 
List of Fellows... 
Additions to the Library 


I. The Life History of Gerydus chinensis, Felder. By John C. W. 

Kershaw, F.L.S., F.E.S 1 

II. Butterfly-destroyers in Southern China. By John C. W. Kershaw, 

F.L.S., F.E.S 5 

III. On Erebia palarica, n. sp., and Erebia stygne; chiefly in regard 

to its association with E. evicts, in Spain. By Thomas A. 
Chapman, M.D., F.Z.S 9 

IV. Another Entomological Excursion to Spain. By George Charles 

Champion, F.Z.S., and Thomas Algernon Chapman, M.D., 
F.Z.S. ; with descriptions of two new species of Hemiptera, by 
' Prof. O. M. Reuter 37 

V. The Egg and Early Larval Stages of a Coreid Bug, probably 
Dalader acuticosta, Amyot et Serv. ; with a note on its Hymeno- 
pterous Parasite. By Nelson Annandale, B.A., Deputy 
Superintendent of the Indian Museum, Calcutta 55 

VI. Notes on the Butterflies observed in a tour through India and 

Ceylon, 1903-4. By G. B. Longstaff, M.D., Oxon 61 

VII. The genus Criocephalus. By D. Sharp, M.A., F.R.S. With Notes 
on the habits of Asemum striatum and Criocephalus ferus. 
By F. Gilbert Smith 145 

(VIIa. The Habits of Asemum striatum and Criocephalus ferus) 165 

VIII. On the matrivorous habit of the species Heteroqynis, Rmbr. 

By T. A. Chapman, M.D., F.Z.S 177 

IX. Descriptions of some new species of Satyridw from South 
America. By Frederick Du Cane Godman, D.C.L., F.R.S., 
etc 185 

X. Additions to a knowledge of the Homopterous Family Cicadidse. 

By W. L. Distant ... 191 | 

XI. On the Pupal Suspension of Thais. By T. A. Chapman, M.D., 

F.Z.S 203 

XII. Notes on New Zealand Lepidoptera. By E. Meyrick, B.A., F.R.S., 

F.E.S 219 

XIII. On three remarkable new genera of Microlepidoptera. By Sir 

George F. Hampson, Bart., B.A 245 




XIV. Descriptions of some new species of Diurnal Lepidoptera, collected 

by Mr. Harold Cookson, in Northern Rhodesia, in 1903 and 
1904. By Herbert Druce, F.L.S. Lycwnidse and Hesperiidse, 
by Hamilton H. Druce, F.Z.S 251 

XV. Pseudacrwa poggei and Limnas chrysippus ; the numerical pro- 

portion of mimic to model. By Horace A. Byatt, B.A., 
F.E.S. With a note by Professor E. B. Poulton, D.Sc, 
M.A., F.R.S., etc 263 

XVI. A Monograph of the genus Ogyris. By George T. Bethune- 

Baker, F.L.S., F.Z.S 269 

XVII. The structure and life history of Psychoda sexpunctata, Curtis. 

By John Alexander Dell, B.Sc. Communicated by Prof. 

L. C. Miall, F.R.S., F.E.S 293 

XVIII. New African Lasiocampidw in the British Museum. By Prof. 

Chr. Aurivillius, Hon. F.E.S., F.M.Z.S., etc 313 

' XIX. Memoir on the Rhynchota collected by Dr. Arthur Willey, 
F.R.S., chiefly in Birara (New Britain) and Lifu. By G. W. 
Kirkaldy, F.E.S 327 

XX. The Blind Coleoptera of Australia and Tasmania. By Arthur 

M. Lea, F.E.S., Government Entomologist, Tasmania ... 365 

XXI. On a Collection of Butterflies and Moths made in Marocco, in 
1900-01-02. By E. G. B. Meade-Waldo. Communicated 
by H. J. Elwes, F.R.S.,etc. ... 369 

XXII. A new species of the Hymenopterous Genus Megalyra, West- 
wood. By J. Chester Bradley, Ithaca, N.Y., U.S.A. 
Communicated by Col. C. T. Bingham, F.Z.S 395 

XXIII. Hymenoptera Aculeata collected in Algeria by the Rev. A. E. 

Eaton, M.A., F.E.S., and the Rev. Francis David Morice, 
M.A., F.E.S. Part II. Diploptera. By Edward Saunders, 
F.R.S.,etc 399 

XXIV. On the Ichneumonidous Group Tryphonides schizodonti, Holmgr. 

With descriptions of new species. By Claude Morley, 


Proceedings for 1905 
Annual Meeting 
President's Address 
General Index 
Special Index 

i — lxxvi 






Plate I. 

See page 4 

Plates II to VI. 


Plate VII. 

„ 54 

Plate VIII. 


Plate IX. 


Plate X. 

<, 190 

Plate XI. 



Plate XII. See page 

Plate XIII. 

Plate XIV. • „ 

Plate XV. 

Plate XVI. 

Plate XVII. 

Plates XVIII, XIX. „ 


( " ) 

fist of Jtllohre 



Marked * have died during the year. 



1900 Aurivillius, Professor Christopher, Stockholm. 

1905 Bolivar, Don Ignacio, Paseo de Recoletos Bajo, 20, Madrid. 

1901 Fabre, J. H., Se'rignan, Vaucluse, France. 

1894 Forel, Professor Auguste, M.D., Ghigny, pris Morges, Switzerland. 

1906 Ganglbauer, Professor Ludwig von, Hof Museum, Vienna. 
1898 Grassi, Professor Battista, The University, Rome. 

1884 Osten SackeN, Baron C. R., Bunsenstrasse 8, Heidelberg. 

1884 * Packard, Dr. Alpheus S., Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.A. 

1906 Reuter, Professor Odo Morannal, The University, Helsingfors, 

1872 * Saussure, Henri F. de, Tertasse 2, Geneva. 

1895 Scudder, Samuel Hubbard, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. 

1885 Snellen, P. C. T., Rotterdam. 

1893 Wattenwyl, Hofrath Dr. Carl Brunner Von, Lerchenfeldstrasse 28, 

1898 Weismann, Dr. August, Freiburg, Baden. 


Marked f have compounded for their Annual Subscriptions. 

Date of 

1901 1 Adair, Sir Frederick E. S., Bart., Flixton Hall, Bungay. 
1877 Adams, Frederick Cliarlstrom, F.Z.S., 50, Ashley-gardens, Victoria- 
street, S.W. 
1877 Adams, Herbert J., Roseneath, London-road, Enfield, N. 
1902 Adkin, Benaiah Whitley, Trenotveth, Hope-park, Bromley, Kent. 
1885 Adkin, Robert, Welljield, Lingards-road, Lewisham, S.E. 
1904 Agar, E. A., La Haut, Dominica, B. W. Indies. 
1904 Alderson, Miss E. Maude, Park House, Worksop, Notts. 
1899 Andrews, Henry W., Shirley, Welling, S.O., Kent. 
1901 Anning, William, 39, Lime Street, E.C. 

( * ) 

1899 f Arrow, Gilbert J., 87, Union-grove, Clapham, S.W. ; and British 
Museum (Natural History), Cromwell-road, S.W. 

1886 Atmore, E. A., 48, High-street, King's Lynn. 

1850 f Avebury, The Right Honble. Lord, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., 
etc., High Elms, Farnborough, Kent. 

1901 Bacot, Arthur W., 154 Lower Clapton-road, N.E. 
1904 | Bagnall, Richard S., South Hylton, nr. Sunderland. 

1903 Baldock, G. R., Oakburn Villa, Enfield Highway, Middlesex. 
1886 Bankes, Eustace R., M.A., Norden, Corfe Castle, Wareham. 

1890 Barclay, Francis H., F.G.S., The Warren, Cromer. 

1886 Bargagli, Marchese Piero, Piazza S. Maria, Palazzo Tempi No. 1, 

Florence, Italy. 
1895 Barker, Cecil W., Rownham, Malvern, Natal, South Africa. 

1887 Barker, H. W., 147, Gordon-road, Peckham, S.E. 

1902 Barraud, Philip J., Bushey Heath, Watford. 

1894 f Bateson, William, M.A., F.R.S., Fellow of St. John's College, 

Cambridge, Merton House, Grantchester, Cambridge. 

1904 Bayne, Arthur F., Gerencia, Ferro Carril del Sud, Plaza Constitu- 

tion, Buenos Ayres. 
1896fBEARE, Prof. T. Hudson, B.Sc, F.R.S.E., 10 Regent Terrace, 

1851*fBEAUMONT, Alfred, Gosfield, Halstead, Essex. 

1905 Bedford, The Duke of, KG., Pres. Z.S., etc., Woburn Abbey, Beds. 
1899 Bedwell, Ernest C, Elmlea, Clevedon-road, Norbiton, Surrey. 

1903 Bell-Marley, H. W., c/o Messrs. Chiazzari and Co., P.O. Box 3, 

Point-street, Natal. 

1904 Bengtsson, Simon, Ph.D., Lecturer, University of Lund, Sweden ; 

Curator, Entomological Collection of the University. 
1897 Bennett, W. H., 15, Wellington-place, Hastings. 
1885 Bethune-Baker, George T., F.L.S., 19, Clarendon-road, Edgbastov, 


1895 Bevan, Lieutenant H. G. R.,R.N., Fairfield, Weymouth. 
1880 Bignell, George Carter, The Ferns, Homepark-road, Saltash. 

1895 Bingham, Lieut.-Col. Charles T., F.Z.S., Bombay Staff Corps, 
6 Gwenrfwr-road, West Kensington, S.W. 

1891 Blaber, W. H., F.L.S., 12, Great Castle-street, Regent-street, W. 
1904 Black, James E., Nethercroft, Peebles. 

1894 f Blackburne-Maze, W. P., Shaw House, Neivbury. 
1904 Blair, Kenneth G., 23, West Hill, Highgate, N. 
1889 Blandford, Walter F. H., M.A., F.Z.S., 12, Arundel Gardens, 
Ladbroke-grove, W. 

1885 Blathwayt, Lieut.-Col. Linley, F.L.S., EagleHouse, Batheuston, 

1904 Bliss, Maurice Frederick, Coningsburgh, Montpelier-road, Ealing,W. 

1886 Bloomfield, The Rev. Edwin Newson, M.A., Guestling Rectory, 


( xi ) 

1903 Bogue, W. A., Wilts and Dorset Bank, Salisbury. 

1891 Booth, George A., Fern Hill, Grange-over-Sands, Camforth. 
1876*Borre, Alfred Prudhoinme de, Villa la Fauvette, Petit Saconnes-, 

1875 Borrer, Wm., F.G.S., Pahjns Manor House, Hurstpierpoint, 

Hassocks, R.S.O., Sussex. 
1902 Bostock, E. D., Holly House, Stone, Staffs. 

1904 Bourgeois, Jules, Ste. Marie-aux-Mines, Markirch, Germany. 

1892 Bouskell, Frank, Market Bosworth, Nuneaton. 

1888 Bower, Benjamin A., Lang ley, Willow Grove, Cliislehurst. 
1894 f Bowles, E. Augustus, M.A., Myddelton House, Waltham Cross. 
1852 f Boyd, Thos., Woodvale Lodge, South Norwood Hill, S.E. 

1893 Brabant, Edouard, Chateau de Morenchies, par Cambrai (Nord), 


1905 Bracken, Charles W., B.A., 18, Whiteford-road, Mannamead, 

1904 Bridgeman, The Lieut. Hon. Richard O. B., R. N., Weston Park, 
Shifnal, Salop, and H.M.S. " Clio," China Station. 

1877 Briggs, Charles Adolphus, Rock House, Lynmouth, B.S. 0., N. Devon. 
1870 Briggs, Thomas Henry, M.A., Rock House, Lynmouth, B.S.O., N. 


1894 Bright, Percy M., Chunar, Lansdowne-road , Bournemouth. 

1897 Brightwen, Mrs. E., The Grove, Great Stanmore. 

1890 Bristowe, B. A., The Cottage, Stoke D'Abernon, Cobham, Surrey. 

1878 Broun, Capt. Thomas, Drury, A uckland, New Zealand. 
1902 Broughton, Captain T. Delves, R.E., Alderney. 

1904 Brown, Henry H., Castlefield Tower, Cupar, Fife, N.B. 
1886 Brown, John, 5, King's Parade, Cambridge. 

1892 Browne, Lieut. -Colonel Clement Alfred Righy, ~R.K,Calcidta,India. 

1898 f Buchan-Hepburn, Sir Archibald, Bart., J. P., D.L., Smeaton- 

Hepburn, Prestonkirk. 
1883*Buckton, George Bowdler, F.R.S., F.L.S., Weycombe, Haslemere, 

S.O., Surrey. 
1902 Buller, Arthur Percival, Wellington, New Zealand. 
1896 f Burr, Malcolm, B.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S., F.G.S., Boyal Societies Club, 

St. James's, S.W., and 23, Blomfield Court, Maida Vale, W. 
1868 f Butler, Arthur G., Ph.D., F.L.S., F.Z.S., The Lilies, Penge-road, 

1883 Butler, Edward Albert, B.A., B.Sc, 53, Tollington Park, N. 
1902 Butler, William E., Hayling House, Oxford-road, Beading. 

1905 Butterfield, Jas. E., B.Sc, Comrie, Eglinton Hill, Plumstead. 
1904 Byatt, Horace A., B.A., Berbera (via Aden), Somaliland Protectorate. 

1886 Calvert, Wm. Bartlett, Liceo de Quillota, Quillota, Chili. 
1902 Cameron, Malcolm, M.B., R.N., R.N. Hospital, Chatham. 
1885 Campbell, Francis Maule, F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c, Brynllwydwyn, 
}[achynlleth, Montgomeryshire. 

( xii ) 

1898 Candeze, Leon, 64, Rue de VOuest, Liege. 

1880 Cansdale, W. D., Sunny Bank, South Norioood, S.E. 

1889 Cant, A., 69, Hampden-road, Homsey, N.; and c/o Fredk. DuCane 

Godman, Esq., F.R.S., 10, G hand os- street, Cavendish-square, W. 

1890 Capper, Samuel James (President of the Lancashire and Cheshire 

Entomological Society), Huyton Parle, Liverpool. 

1894 Caracciolo, H., H.M. Customs, Port of Spain, Trinidad, British 

West Indies. 
1892 Carpenter, The Honble. Mrs. Beatrice, 22, Grosvenor-road, S.W. 

1895 Carpenter, G. H., B.Sc, Royal College of Science, Dublin. 
1898 Carpenter, J. H., Redcot, Behnont-road, Leatherhead. 
1868 Carrington, Charles, Hailey Hall, Hertford. 

1890 Carter, George Wm., M.A., F.L.S., Eccleshall Castle, Staffordshire. 
1895 Carter, Sir Gilbert, K.C.M.G., 43, Charing Cross, W.C. ; and 

Government House, Nassau, Bahamas. 
1900 Carter, J. W., 25, Glenholme-road, Manningham, Bradford. 
1900 Cassal, R. T., M.R.C.S., Ballangh,' Isle of Man. 

1903 Cattle, John Rowland, Nettleton Manor, Caistor, Lincolnshire. 

1889 f Cave, Charles J. P., Ditcham Park, Petersfield. 

1900 Chamberlain, Neville, Highbury, Moor Green, Birmingham. 
1871 Champion, George C, F.Z.S., Librarian, Heatherside, Horscll, 

Woking ; and 10, Chandos-street, Cavendish- square, W. 

1891 Chapman, Thomas Algernon, M.D., F.Z.S., Vice-President, Betula, 

1902 Charnley, James Roland, The Avenue, Moor Park, Preston, 

1890 Chatterton, Frederick J. S., 5, Camden Studios, Camden-street,'N.W. 

1897 Chawner, Miss Ethel F., Forest Bank, Lyndhurst, R.S.O., Hants. 

1898 Chawner, Lawrence C, Forest Bank, Lyndhurst, R.S.O., Hants. 
1902 Cheesman, E. M., c/o J. Garson, 63, Railway -street, Durban, Natal. 

1891 f Chittt, Arthur John, M.A., 27, Hereford-square, S.W.; and Hunt- 

ingfield, Faversham, Kent. 
1905 Chopard, Lucien, 98, Bd. St. Germains, Paris. 
1889 Christy, William M., M.A., F.L.S., Watergate, Emsworth. 
1886 f Clark, John Adolphus, 57, Weston Park, Crouch End, N. 
1867 Clarke, Alex. Henry, 109, Warwick-road, Earl's Court, S.W. 
1886 Clarke, Charles Baron, M.A, F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., 13, Kew 

Gardens-road, Kew, S.W. 

1891 Clarke, Henry Shortridge, 2, Osborue-terrace, Douglas, Isle 

of Man. 

1904 Cockayne, Edward A., 30, Bedford Court Mansions, W.C. 
1873 Cole, William, F.L.S., Springfield, Buckhurst Hill, Essex. 

1899 Collin, James E., Sussex Lodge, Neiomarket. 

1901 Connold, Edward, 7, Magdalen Terrace, St. Leonards-on-Sea. 

1900 Cotton, Dr. John, 126, Prescot-road, St. Helens. 

1892 Cowan, Thomas William, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.R.M.S., 8, Henrietta- 

street, Covent Garden, W. C. 

( xiii ) 

1886 Cowell, Peter (Librarian of the Liverpool Free Public Library), 

William Brown-street, Liverpool. 
1867 Cox, Herbert Ed., c/o Mrs. Eve, 125, Harley -street, W. 
1895 Crabtree, Benjamin Hill, The Oaklands, Levenshulme, Manchester, 
1888 Cregoe, J. P., Tredinich, Mayow-road ', Sydenham, S.E. 

1890 Crewe, Sir Vauncey Harpur, Bart., Calke Abbey, Derbyshire. 
1880 f Crisp, Frank, LL.B., B.A., J. P., F.L.S., 17, Throgmorton-avenue, 

E.C., and Friar Park, Henley-on-Thames. 

1902 Cruttwell, The Rev. Canon Charles Thomas, M.A., Ewelme 

Rectory, Wallingford. 

1901 Dadd, Edward Martin, Bismarckstrasse 1, Charlottenburg, Germany. 

1873 Dale, C. W., Glanville's Wootton, Sherborne, Dorset. 

1900 Dalglish, Andrew Adie, 21, Prince's-street, Glasgow. 

1886 Dannatt, Walter, Donnington, 75, Vanbrugh Pari; Blackheath, S.E. 
1905 Davidson, James D., 32, Drumsheugh Gardens, Edinburgh. 

1903 Day, F. H., 12, Goodioin-terrace, Carlisle. 

1898 Day, G. O., Parr's Bank-house, Knutsford. 

1905 Dewar, W. Pi., Government Entomologist, Orange River Colony. 
1875 Distant, Win. Lucas, Steine House, Selhurst-road, Soidh Norwood, S.E. 

1887 Dixey, Frederick Augustus, M.A., M.D., Fellow and Bursar of 

Wadham College, Vice-President, Wadham College, Oxford. 
1895 Dobson, H. T., Ivy House, Acacia Grove, New Maiden, S.O., Suwey. 
1905 Dodd, F. P., Kuranda, via Cairns, North Queensland. 

1903 Dollman, J. G, Hove House, Neioton-grove, Bedford-park, W. 

1891 Donisthorpe, Horace St. John K., F.Z.S., 58, Kensington-mansions y 

South Kensington, S.W. 

1885 Donovan, Major Charles, M.D., R.A.M.C, c/o Messrs. P. Macfadyen 

& Co., Winchester House, Old Broad-street, E.C. 
1845 * Douglas, John Wm., 61, Craven Park, Harlesden, N.W. 

1899 Drewitt, Frederick G. Dawtrey, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P., F.Z.S., 14, 

Palace Gardens-terrace, Kensington, W. 
1884 Druce, Hamilton H. C. J., F.Z.S., 43, Circus-road, St. John's 

Wood, N.W. 
1867 Druce, Herbert, F.L.S., F.Z.S., 43, Circus-road, St. John's Wood, N.W. 

1900 Drury, W. D., Rocquaine, West Hill Park, Woking. 

1894 Dudgeon, G. C, The Imperial Institute, South Kensington. 
1883 Durrant, John Hartley, The Cottage, Merton Hall, Thetford. 

1890 Eastwood, John Edmund, Enton Lodge, Witley, Godalming. 
1865 Eaton, The Rev. Alfred Edwin, M.A., Pentlands, Mill-road, West 
Worthing, Sussex. 

1904 Eckford, George, F.Z.S., c/o Sir Morgan Tuite, Bart., Kilruane, 

Nenagh, co. Tipperary, Ireland. 
1902 Edelsten, Hubert M., The Elms, Forty Hill, Enfield, Middlesex. 

1886 Edwards, James, Colesbome, Cheltenham. 

( xiv ) 

1884 Edwards, Stanley, F.L.S., F.Z.S., 15, St. Germans-place, Black- 

heath, S.E. 
1900 Elliott, E. A., 16, Belsize Grove, Hampstead, N.W. 
1900 Ellis, H. Willoughby, Knowle, Birmingham. 
1886 Ellis, John W., M.B., L.R.C.P., 18, Rodney-street, Liverpool. 
1903 Eltringham, Harry, M.A., F.Z.S., Eastgarth, Westoe, South Shields. 
1878 Elwes, Henry John, J.P., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., Colesbome, 

1886 Enock, Frederick, F.L.S., 42, Salisbury-road, Bexley, Kent. 
1903 Etheridge, Robert, Curator, Australian Museum, Sydney, N.S.W. 

1899 Farmborough, Percy W., F.Z.S., Lower Edmonton, N. 

1890 Farn, Albert Brydges, Mount Nod, Greenhithe, Kent ; and Medical 

Department, Local Government Board, Whitehall, S.W. 

1900 Feltham, H. L. L., P. O. Box, 46, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
1861 Fenn, Charles, Eversden House, Burnt Ash Hill, Lee, S.E. 
1886 Fenwick, Nicolas Percival, The Gables, New-road, Esher. 
1889 Fernald, Prof. C. H, Amherst, Mass., U.S.A. 

1898 Filer, F. E., 122, Stockivell Park-road, Brixton, S.W. 

1878 Finzi, John A., 53, Hamilton-terrace, N.W. 

1900 Firth, J. Digby, F.L.S., Boys' Modern School, Leeds. 

1874 Fitch, Edward A., F.L.S., Brick House, Maldon. 

1886 Fitch, Frederick, Hadleigh House, Highbury New Park, N. 

1905 Fleet, Wilfred James, Imatra, King's Boad, Bournemouth. 

1900 Flemyng, The Rev. W. Westropp, M.A., Coolfin, Portlaw, Co. 

1898 f Fletcher, T. Bainbrigge, R.N., H.M.S. "Sealark," Special Service. 
1883 f Fletcher, William Holland B., M.A., Aldwick Manor, Bognor. 
1905 Floersheim, Cecil, 16, Kensington Court Mansions, S.W. 

1885 Fokker, A. J. F., Zierikzee, Zeeland, Netherlands. 

1900 Foulkes, P. Hedworth, B.Sc, Harper-Adams Agricultural College, 

Newport, Salop. 
1898 Fountaine, Miss Margaret, 7, Lansdoione-place East, Bath. 
1880 Fowler, The Rev. Canon, D.Sc, M.A., F.L.S., Earley Vicarage, 

near Beading. 

1883 Freeman, Francis Ford, Abbotsfield, Tavistock. 

1896 Freke, Percy Evans, Southpoint, Limes-road, Folkestone. 

1888 Fremlin, H. Stuart, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., Mereworth, Maidstone. 

1903 French, Charles, F.L.S., Government Entomologist, Victoria, 


1891 Frohawk, F. W., Ashmount, Bayleigh. 

1855 * Fry, Alexander, Thornhill -house, Dulwich Wood Park,Norwood, S.E. 
1900 Fryer, H. Fortescue, The Priory, Chatteris, Cambs. 

1884 Fuller, The Rev. Alfred, M.A., The Lodge, 7, Sydenham-hill, 

Sydenham, S.E. 
1898 Fuller, Claude, Government Entomologist, Pietermaritzburg, Natal. 

1904 Furnival, Thomas F., 63, Coleman-st., E.C. 

( xv ) 

1887 Gahan, Charles Joseph, M.A., Whyola, Lonsdale-road, Bedford 

Park, W. ; and British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell- 
road, S.W. 

1892 Garde, Philip de la, E.N., Manor-house, Shaldon, nr. Teignmouth. 
1890 Gardner, John, 6, Friars-gate, Hartlepool. 

1901 f Gardner, Willoughby, F.L.S., Deganwy, N. Wales. 
1899 Gayner, Francis, Oxshott, Surrey. 

1899 Geldart, William Martin, M.A., Trinity College, Oxford. 

1902 Gillanders, A. T., Park Cottage, Alnwick. 

1904 Gilliat, Francis, B.A., Forest Dene, Worth, Sussex. 

1865fG0DMAN, Frederick Du Cane, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., South 
Lodge, Lower Beeding, Horsham; 7, Carlos-place, Grosvenor- 
square ; and 10, Chandos-street, Cavendish-square, W. 

1890 Goldthwait, Oliver C, 5, Queen's-road, South Norwood, S.E. 
1886 f Goodrich, Captain Arthur Mainwaring, Lennox Lodge, Malvern 

Link, Malvern. 

1904 Goodwin, Edward, Canon Court, Wateringbury, Kent. 

1898 Gordon, J. G. McH., Corsemalzie, Whauphill, R.S.O., Wigtownshire. 
1898 Gordon, R. S. G. McH., Corsemalzie, Whauphill, R.S.O., Wigtown- 
1855 Gorham, The Rev. Henry Stephen, F.Z.S., Highcroft, Great Malvern. 
1874 Goss, Herbert, F.L.S., The Avenue, Surbiton-hill, Surrey. 

1891 f Green, E. Ernest, Government Entomologist, Royal Botanic 

Gardens, Peradeniya, Ceylon. 
1894 Green, J. F., F.Z.S., West Lodge, Blackheath, S.E. 
1850 Greene, The Rev. Joseph, M.A., Rostrevor, Clifton, Bristol. 

1898 Greenshields, Alexander, 38, Blenheim-gardens, Willesden, N.W. 

1899 Greenwood, Edgar, 49, Melrose-avenue, Willesden Green, N.W. 

1893 t Greenwood, Henry Powys, F.L.S., Sandhill Lodge, Fordinghridge, 


1888 Griffiths, G. C, F.Z.S., 43, Caledonian-place, Clifton, Bristol. 

1894 Grimshaw, Percy H., Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh. 

1905 Grist, Charles J., Apsley, Banstead, Surrey. 

1900 Groom, Prof. Percy, M.A., F.L.S., Royal Indian Engineering 

College, Cooper's Hill, Staines. 
1869 Grose-Smith, Henley, J.P., B.A., F.Z.S.,5, Bryanston- square, Hyde 

Park, W. 
1899 Gunning, Montague, Narborough, Leicester. 

1897 Hague, Henry, 2, Woodland Avenue, Glen Ridge, N.J., U.S.A. 

1890 f Hall, A. E., Norbvry, Pitsmoor, Sheffield. 

1885 Hall, Thomas William, Stanhope, The Crescent, Croydon. 

1898 Hamlyn-Harris, R., D.Sc, F.Z.S., F.R.M.S., Toowoomba Grammar 

School, Queensland, Australia. 

1891 Hampson, Sir George Francis, Bart., B.A., F.Z.S., 62, Stanhope- 

gardens, S.W. 
1891 Hanbury, Frederick J., F.L.S., Stainforth House, Upper CTapfcm,N.E. 

( m ) 

1905 t Hancock, Joseph L., 3757, Indiana Avenue, Chicago, U.S.A. 

1903 Hare, E. J., Dunham, Boscombe, Hants. 

1904 Harris, Edward, St. Cunan's, Chingford, Essex. 

1897 f Harrison, Albert, F.L.S., F.C.S., Delamere, Grove-road, South 

Woodford, Essex. 
1889 Harrison, John, 7, Gawber-road, Burnsley. 

1905 Harrison, T. W. H., B.Sc, The Avenue, Birttey, BS.O. Durham. 
1881 Henry, George, Ivy Bank, 112, London-road, St. Leonards-on-Sea. 
1903 Herrod, William, W.B.G. Apiary, Old Bedford-road, Luton, Beds. 

1898 Heron, Francis A., B.A., British Museum (Natural History), 

Cromwell-road, S.W. 
1888 Higgs, Martin Stanger, F.C.S., F.G.S., Mine Office, Venterskroon, 

1876 f Hillman, Thomas Stanton, Eastgate-street, Lewes. 
1888 Hodson, The Rev. J. H., B.A., B.D., Bhyddington, Clifton Drive,. 


1902 Hole, R. S., Indian Forest Service, c/o Messrs. King, King and 

Co., Bombay. 

1887 Holland, The Rev. W. J., D.D., Ph.D., 5th Avenue, Pittsburg, 

Penn., U.S.A. 
1898 Holman-Hunt, C. B., Talaivakelle, Ceylon. 

1901 Hopson, Montagu F., L.D.S., R.C.S.Eng., F.L.S., 30, Thurloiv-road, 

Bosslyn Hill, N.W. 
1897 Horne, Arthur, 60, Gladstone-place, Aberdeen. 
1876 f Horniman, Fredk. John, M.P., F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c, c/o The 

Librarian, Horniman Museum, Forest Hill, S.E. 

1903 Houghton, J. T., 1, Portland-place, Worksop. 

1900 Howes, George H., Box 180, Dunedin, New Zealand. 
1865 f Hudd, A. E., Clinton, Pembroke-road, Clifton, Bristol. 

1888 Hudson, George Vernon, The Post Office, Wellington, New Zealand. 

1902 * Hutton, Captain Frederick W., F.R.S., Director of the Canterbury 

Museum, Christchurch, Neiv Zealand. 

1897 Image, Selwyn, M.A., 20, Fitzroy-street, Fitzroy-sguare, W. 
1893*Ibby, Lieutenant-Colonel Leonard Howard Loyd, F.L.S., F.Z.S., 

14, Cornwall-terrace, Regent's Park, N.W. 
1891 Isabell, The Rev. John, Sunnycroft, St. Sennen, B.S.O., Cornwall. 

1886 Jacoby, Martin, 1, The Mansions, Hillfield-road, West Hampstead, 

1869 Janson, Oliver E., Cestria, Claremont-road, Highgate, N.; and 44, 

Great Russell-street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 

1898 Janson, Oliver J., Cestria, Claremont-road, Highgate, N. 
1886 Jenner, James Herbert Augustus, 209, School Hill, Lewes. 

1899 Jennings, F. B., 152, Silver-street, Upper Edmonton, N. 
1886 John, Evan, Llantrisant, B.S.O., Glamorganshire. 

( xvii ) 

1889 Johnson, The Rev. W. F., M.A., Acton Rectory, Poyntz Pass, 

Co. Armagh. 

1888 Jones, Albert H., Treasurer, Shrublands, Ellham, Kent. 
1894 f Jordan, Dr. K., The Museum, Tring. 

1902 Joy, Norman H„ M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., Bradficld, Beading. 

1884 Kane, W. F. de Vismes, M.A., M.R.I. A., Drumleaslce House, 

1884 Kappel, A. W., F.L.S., Hilden, 18, Sutton Court-road, Chiswick, W. 
1876 f Kay, John Dunning, Leeds. 

1896 f Kaye, William James, Caracas, Ditton Hill, Surbiton. 
1902 Kemp, Stanley W., Trinity College, Dublin. 

1890 Kenrick, G. H., Whetstone, Somerset-road, Edgbaston, Birmingham, 

1904 Kershaw, G. Bertram, Ingleside, West Wiclcham, Kent. 

1898 Kershaw, J. A., Morton Banks, Leioisham-road, Windsor, 

Melbourne, Victoria. 
1901 Kershaw, John C. W., Macao, China. 

1900 Keys, James H., Morwell, Freedom-villas, Lipson-road, Plymouth. 

1889 King, J. J. F. X., Lecturer on Economic Entomology at the West of 

Scotland Agricultural College, 1, Athole Gardens-terrace, Kelvin- 
side, Glasgow. 

1861 Kirby, William F., F.L.S., Hilden,18, Sutton Court-road, Chiswkk,W. 

1893 Kirkaldy, George Willis, Board of Agriculture, Division of 
Entomology, Honolulu, Hawaii. 

1905 Kitchen, Vernon Parry, The Priory, Watford. 

1889 Klapalek, Professor Franz, Karlln 263, Prague, Bohemia. 

1887 f Klein, Sydney T., F.L,S.,F.R.A.S.,//«/Wow, Raglan-road, Reigate. 

1876 Kraatz, Dr. G., 28, Link-strasse, Berlin. 

1901 Lane, E. W., Parkholmc, 40, Fletching-road, Clapton, N.E. 
1868 Lang, Colonel A. M., R.E., Box Grove Lodge, Guildford. 

1900 Lang, The Rev. H. C, M.D., All Saints' Vicarage, Southend-on-Sea. 

1901 Lathy, Percy I., Penton House, Cheshunt. 

1895 Latter, Oswald H., M.A., Charterhouse, Godalming. 

1899 Lea, Arthur M., Government Entomologist, Hobart, Tasmania. 

1900 Leproy, H. Maxwell, B.A., Muzaffarpur, Behar, Bengal. 

1901 Leigh, George F, Woodside, off Umbilo-road, Congella, nr. Durban, 

1883 Lemann, Fredk. Charles, Blackfriars House, Plymouth. 
1898 Lethbridge, Ambrose G., Nordrach-on-Dee, Banchory, N.B.; 

Guards Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 
1903 t Levett, The Rev. Thomas Prinsep, Frenchgate, Richmond, Yorks. 
1898 Lewis, E. J., F.L.S., 4, Clements Inn, W.C. 
1876 Lewis, George, F.L.S., 87, Frcmt-road, Tunbridge Wells. 

1902 Lewis, J. H., Ophir, Otago, New Zealand. 

1892 Lightfoot, R. M., Bree-st, Cape Town, Cape of Good Hope. 

1903 Littler, Frank M., Althorne, High-street, Launceston, Tasmania. 


( xviii ) 

1865 f Llewelyn, Sir John Talbot Dillwyn, Bart., M.A., F.L.S., 

Penllergare, Swansea. 
1881 f Lloyd, Alfred, F.C.S., The Dome, Bognor, 
1885 f Lloyd, Robert Wylie, St. Cuthberts, Thurleigh-road, Balham, S.W. 

1903 Lofthouse, Thomas Ashton, The Croft, Linthorpe, Middlesbrough. 

1904 f Longstaff, George Blundell, M.D., Highlands, Putney Heath, S.W. 

1899 Lounsbury, Charles P., B.Sc, Government Entomologist, Cape 

Town, S. Africa. 
1894 Lowe, The Rev. Frank E., M.A., St. Stephen's Vicarage, Guernsey. 

1893 Lower, Oswald B., St. Oswalds, Hartley Crescent, Wagville, South 

1901 Lower, Rupert S., Dauonport-terrace, Wayville, South Australia. 
1898 Lucas, William John, B.A., 28, Knight's Park, Kingston-on-Thames. 

1904 Luff, W. A., La Chaumiere, Brock-road, Guernsey. 

1880 Lupton, Henry, Lyndhurst, North Grange-road, Headingley, Leeds. 

1903 Lyell, G., Junr., Gisbome, Victoria, Australia. 

1901 Lyman, Henry H., M.A., F.R.G.S., 74, McTavish- street, Montreal, 


1902 Macdonald, George B. Douglas, M.B. 

1887 M'Dougall, James Thomas, Dunolly, Morden-road, Blackheath, S.E. 

1888 Mackinnon, P. W., Lyundale, Mussoorie, N.W.P., India. 

1900 Mackwood, The Hon. F. M., M.L.C., Colombo, Ceylon. 

1898 Maddison, T., South Bailey, Durham. 

1899 f Main, Hugh, B.Sc, Al/nondale, Buckingham-road, South Woodford, 


1905 Mally, Charles Wm., M.Sc, Government Entomologist, Grahams- 

town, Cape Colony. 
1887 Manders, Lieut.-Colonel Neville, R.A.M.C., Curepipe, Mauritius. 
1892 Mansbridge, William, 27, Ehnbank-road, Scf ton-park, Liverpool. 

1894 f Marshall, Alick, Auchinraith, Bexley, S.O., Kent. 

1895 Marshall, G. A. K., P.O. Box 149, Salisbury, Mashonaland, 

S. Africa. 

1896 Marshall, P., M.A., B.Sc, F.G.S., University School of Mines, 

Dunedin, New Zealand. 
1856 f Marshall, William, Auchinraith, Bexley, S.O., Kent. 

1897 Martineau, Alfred H., Solihull, Birmingham. 

1895 MasseY, Herbert, Ivy-Lea, Burnage, Withington, Manchester. 

1865 Mathew, Gervase F., F.L.S., Paymaster-in-chief, R.N., Lee House, 

Dorercourt, Harwich. 
1887 Matthews, Coryndon, Stentaioay, Plymstock, Plymouth. 
1899 May, Harry Haden, 12, Windsor Terrace, Plymouth. 

1904 Meade-Waldo, Geoffrey, Stonewall Park, Edenbridge, Kent. 

1872 f Meldola, Professor Raphael, F.R.S., F.C.S., 6, Brunsioick- 

square, W.C. 
1885 Melvill, James Cosmo, M.A., F.L.S., Mcole Brace Hall, Shrewsbury. 
1887 Merrifield, Frederic, President, 24, Vernon-terrace, Brighton. 

( xix ) 

1905 Merry, Rev. W. Mansell, M.A., St. Michael's, Oxford 
\fl JJ eyer - Darcis ' G -> c /° Sogin and Meyer, Wohlen, Switzerland 
880 Meyrick Edward B.A., F.Z.S., F.R.S., Thornhanger, Marlborough. 
1894 Mull, Professor Louis Compton, F.E.S., 1, JJ^ mond Mount, 

Headingley, Leeds. 
1883 Miles, W. H., The New Club, Calcutta. 
1905 Mitford, Robt. Sidney, C.B., 35, Bedcliffe Square, S.W 
1896 Moberly, J. C, M.A., Woodlands, Bassett, Southampton 
18.9 Monteiro, Dr. Antonio Augusto de Carvalho, 70, Rua do Alecrinar 


1902 Montgomery Arthur Meadows, 34, Shaliman Gardens, Pembridge- 
road, North Acton, N. 

JsS uT E ' ? ederiC ' D ; SC " A - L - S - RZ - S " 17 ' Inroad, Penge, S.E. 

1899 Moore, Harry, 12, Lower-road, Rotherhithe. 

]HL M° HGAN, £ °/-' RL>S -' 135 ' 0aJ ™°d-court, Kensington, W. 
1889 f Morice, The Rev. F. D., M.A., Fellow of Queen's College Oxford, 

Brunswick, Mount Hermon, Woking 
1895 f Morley, Claude, The Hill House, Monk's Soham, Suffolk. 
\ll JJoiiton, Kenneth J, 13, Blackford-road, Edinburgh, 

1900 Moser, Julius, 60, Bulow-strasse, Berlin 

)lml a!^ Fl ' ed A e !'! Ck ' E T dS - AfHcan Tde ^ h *■> Mozambique. 
1869 t MuLLER, Albert, F.R.G.S., c/o Herr A. Miiller-Mechel, Gren- 

zacherstrasse, 60, Basle, Switzerland 
1904 Mumford Frank S., 10, Mountfield Gardens, Tnnbridge Wells. 
18,2 f Murray, Lieut-Col. H., 43, Cromwell Houses, Cromwell-road, S.W. 

1903 Neave, S. A., B.A., Mill Green Park, Ingaiestone. 

896 Nesham, Robert Utrecht House, Queen's-road, Clapham Park, S W 
"Z"' S .W a S6 ' M,A -' F,Z - S -' 3 ' T * d ™rth-s*uare, 

1901 Nevinson, E. G. B., 5, Bentinck-terrace, Regent's Park, N.W. 
890 Newstead E, Johnston Tropical Laboratory, University, Liverpool 

904 nZt'' W 1 ^^ 

1904 Nicholson, W. A., 36, Promenade, Portobello, NB 

1886 Nicholson, William E., School Hill, Lewes 

1893 Nonfried, A. F., Rakonitz, Bohemia 

1886 Norris, Herbert E., 15, Market-place, Cirencester. 

18/8 Nottidge, Thomas, Ashford, Kent 

1895 Nurse, Major C. G, Timworth Hall, Bury St. Edmunds. 

1869 Oberthur, Charles, Rennes (Ille et Vilaine), France. 
\J1 . S™ 8 ™ R ' Rei ^> *«"« (Hie et Vilaine), France. 
1893 f Ogle, Bertram S., Steeple Aston, Oxfordshire 

1893 <"Wt,T,,„ 1 T> __ _ 



Oliver, John Baxter, 22, Ranelagh Villas, Hove, Brighton. 
Ulivier, Ernest, Ramillons, pres Moulins (Allier), France. 

Page, Herbert E., Bertrose, Gellatly-road, St. Catherine'* Park, S.F. 

( xx ) 

1898 Palliser, H. G., Holmwood, Addlestone, Surrey. 
1901 * Peal, Henry Woolner, Indian Museum, Calcutta. 
1883 PiSringuey, Louis, South African Museum, Cape Town, South Africa. 
1903 f Perkins, R. C. L., B.A., Board of Agriculture, Division of Ento- 
mology, Honolidu, Hawaii. 
1879 Perkins, Vincent Robt., Wotton-under-Edge. 

1900 Philips, The Rev. W. J. Leigh, The Cottage, Parlcwood-road, 


1897 Phillips, Hubert C, M.R.C.S., M. and L.S.A., 262, Gloucester-terrace, 
Hyde-park, W. 

1903 f Phillips, Montagu A., F.R.G.S., F.Z.S., 22, P ether ton-road, High- 
bury, New Park, N. 

1901 Pickett, C. P., 99, Dawlish-road, Leyton, Essex. 

1891 Pierce, Frank Nelson, 1, The Elms, Dingle, Liverpool. 
1901 Pipfard, Albert, Felden, Boxmoor, Hemel Hempstead. 

1903 Pilcher, Colonel Jesse George, I.M.S., F.R.CS., 133, Gloucester- 

road, Kensington, W. 

1885 Poll, J. R. H. Neervvort van de, Driebergen, Netherlands. 
1870 t Porritt, Geo. T., F.L.S., Magfield, Edgerton, Huddersfield. 

1884 f Poulton, Professor Edward B., D.Sc, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., 
F.Z.S., Hope Professor of Zoology in the University of Oxford, 
Vice-President, Wykeha/m House, Banbury -road, Oxford. 

1905 Powell, Harold, 7, Rue Mirelle, Hyeres (Var), France. 

1878 Price, David, 48, West-street, Horsham. 

1904 Priske, Richard A.R., 66, Chaucer-road, Acton. 

1893 Prout, Louis Beethoven, 246, Richmond-road, Dalston, N.E. 

1900 Rainbow, William J., The Australian Museum, Sydney, N.S.W. 

1874 Reed, E. C, Director del Museo de Concepcion, Concepcion, Chile. 

1900 Reid, Percy Charles, Fcering Bury, Kelvedon, Essex. 

1893 Reid, Captain Savile G., late R.E., The Elms, Yalding, Maidstone. 
1898 Relton, R. H., c/o Perkins and Co., Ltd., Brisbane, Queensland. 
1890 Rendlesham, The Right Honble. Lord, Rendlesham Hall, Wood- 

1898 Reuter, Professor Enzio, Helsingfors, Finland. 

1894 Riding, William Steer, B.A., M.D., Buckerell Lodge, Honiton. 
1853 Ripon, The Most Honble. the Marquis of, K.G., D.C.L.,F.R.S., F.L.S., 

etc., 9, Chelsea Embankment, S.W. 

1905 Robinson, Herbert C, Curator of State Museum, Kuala Lumpur, 


1892 Robinson, Sydney C, Goldsmiths' Hall, E.C. 

1869 f Robinson-Douglas, William Douglas, M.A., F.L.S., F.R.G.S., 

Orchardton, Castle Douglas. 
1890 Robson, John Emmerson, 15, Northgate, Hartlepool. 

1886 Rose, Arthur J., 15, Boxwell-road, Berkhamstead. 

1868 Rothney, George Alexander James, Pembury, Tudor-road, Upper 
Norwood, S.E. 

( xxi ) 

1894 f Rothschild, The Honble. Nathaniel Charles, M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S., 

148, Piccadilly, W. ; and Tring Park, Tring. 
1888 f Rothschild, The Honble. Walter, D.Sc, M.R, F.L.S., F.Z.S., 148, 

Piccadilly, W. ; and Tring Park, Tring. 
1890 Rodtlkdge, G. B., Tarn Lodge, Heads Nook, Carlisle. 
1887 Rowland-Brown, Henry, M.A., Secretary, Oxhey-grove, Harrow 

1903 Rowlands, Osbert William, Lickcy Grange, nr. Bromsgrove. 

1898 Russell, A., The Limes, Southend, Catford, S.E. 
1892 Russell, S. G. C, 19, Lombard-street, E.G. 

1899 Ryles, William E., B.A., 14, Arthur-street, Nottingham. 

1905 St.-Quintin, W. H., Scampton Hall, RUUngton, York. 

1865 f Saunders, Edward, ¥.R.S.,F.L.S.,St. Ann's, Mount Hermon,Woking. 

1861 f Saunders, G. S., F.L.S., 20, Dents-road, Wandsworth Common, 


1886 Saunders, Prof. Wm., Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. 

1901 Schaus, W., F.Z.S., Trentham House, TurickenJiam. 

1881 Scollick, A. J., 8, Mai/field- road, Merlon Park, Wimbledon. 
1864 Semper, George,, Elopstock-strasse 23, Altona, Elbe, Germany. 

1862 Sharp, David, M.A., M.B., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., Lawnsidc, 

Brockcuhurst, Hani*. ; and University Museum of Zoning// and 
Comparative Anatomy, Cambridge. 

1902 Sharp, W. E., 9, Qneen's-road, South Norwood, S.E. 

1883 Shaw, A. Eland, M.R.C.S., Overdale, Laxey, Isle of Man. 

1905 Sheldon, W. George, Youlgreave, South Croydon. 

1901 Shelford, R., M.A., C.M.Z.S., University Museum {Hope Depart- 
ment), Oxford, Hythe, Eent. 

1883 f Shelley, Capt. George Ernest, F.G.S., F.Z.S., 39, Eger ton- gardens, 

1900 f Shepheard-Walwyn, H. W., M.A., Dalwhinnie, Eenley, Surrey. 

1887 Sich, Alfred, Corney House, Chiswick, W. 

1904 Simmonds, Hubert W., 17, Aurora-terrace, Wellington, New 

1901 Skertchly, Ethelbert Forbes, c/o ' Penang Gazette,' Penang, Straits 

Settlemev ts. 

1902 Sladen, Frederick William Lambart, 2, Sydney-road, Walmer, 

1904 Slipper, Rev. T. J. R. A., M.A., Tivetshall Rectory, Norwich. 
1902 Sloper, Gerard Orby, Westrop House, Highworth, Wilts. 
1901 Smith, Arthur, 16, Ech card-street, Grimsby. 
1901 Smith, W. G., Mount Side, Bushey Park, Bristol. 
1895 Smith, W. W., Ashburton, Canterbury, New Zealand. 
1898 Sopp, Erasmus John Burgess, F.RMet.S., 104, Liverpool-road, 

Birkdale, Lancashire. 
1885 South, Richard, 96, Dralccfield-road , Upper Tooting, S.W. 
1889 Standen, Richard S., F.L.S., Toamlands, Lind field, Sussex. 

( xxii ) 

1898 Stares, C. L. B., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., The Infirmary, Wandsworth, 

1890 Stearns, A. E., 99, Gloucester-terrace, Hyde-park, W. 

1897 Stebbing, E. P., Indian Forest Service, c/o King, Hamilton and 

Co., Calcutta. 

1898 Stebbing, Henry, 6, The Chase, Warley Mount, Brentwood, Essex. 
1889 Straton, C. R., F.R.C.S., West Lodge, Wilton, Salisbury. 

1896 Strickland, T. A. Gerald, Darlingworth House, Cirencester. 

1900 Studd, E. A. C, Kerremens, B.C. 

1895 Studd, E. F., M.A., B.C.L., Oxton, Exeter. 

1903 Swale, Harold, M.B., Arawa House, Rotorua, New Zealand. 

1882 Swanzy, Francis, Stanley House, Granville-road, Sevenoaks. 

1884 Swinhoe, Colonel Charles, M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S., 42, Oampden House 
Court, Campden Hill, W. 

1894 Swinhoe, Ernest, G, Gunterstone-road, Kensington, W. 
1876 Swinton, A. H., c/o Mrs. Callander, Vineyard, Totnes. 

1893 Taylor, Charles B., 22, Rae-street, Bae Town, Kingston, Jamaica. 
1892 Taylor, The Rev. George W., F.R.S. (Canada), St. Mattheio's 
Rectory, Wellington, British Columbia. 

1903 Taylor, Thomas Harold, M.A., Yorkshire College, Leeds. 

1901 Thompson, Matthew Lawson, 2, Thomdiff Villas, Saltbum-by-the-Sea. 

1892 Thornley, The Rev. A., M.A., F.L.S.", The Gables, Ilacknall-road, 


1897 Tomlin, B., M.A., 3Iathow Lodge, West Malvern. 
1859-J-Trimen, Roland, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., Ovingdean, King Charles- 
road, Surbiton, Surrey. 

1895 Tunaley, Henry, 13, Beemead-avenue,, Streatham, S.W. 

1897 Tunstall, Wilmot, Caerleon, Greenlaw Drive, Paisley. 

1898 Turner, A. J., M.D., Widsham Terrace, Brisbane, Australia. 

1893 Turner, Henry Jerome, 98, Brake] "ell-road, St. Catherine's Park, 

Hatcham, S.E. 

1894 Turner, Thomas, Cullompton, Devon. 

1886 Tutt, James W., Rayleigh Villa, Westcombe Hill, S.E. 

1904 Tylecote, Edward F. S., M.A., Ravensdene, Warwick Park, 

Tuubridge Wells. 

1893 Urich, Frederick William, Port of Spain, Trinidad, British West 

1904 f Vaughan, W., Cocogalla, Madulsima, Ceylon. 

1866 Verrall, George Henry, Sussex Lodge, Nevmiarket. 

1897 Vice, William A., M.B., 19, Belvoir-street, Leicester. 

1895 Wacher, Sidney, F.R.C.S., Dane John, Canterbury. 
1901 Waddington, John, Park Holme, Harehill-avenue, Leeds. 

1899 Wade, Albert, 52, Frenchwood-street, Preston, Lancashire. 

( xxiii ) 

1897 Wainwright, Colbran J., 45, Haiulsworth Wood-road, Handsworth, 

1870* Walker, The ftev. Francis Augustus, D.D., F.L.S., Dun Mallard, 

Cricklewood, N.W. 
1878 Walker, James J., M.A., R.N., F.L.S., Secretary, Aorangi, 

Lonsdale-road, Summertown, Oxford. 
1863 f Wallace, Alfred Russel, D.C.L., Oxon., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., 

Broadstone, TVimbortte, Dorset. 
1866 f Walsingham, The Right Honble. Lord, MA., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., 

F.Z.S., High Steward of the University of Cambridge, Merton 

Hall, Thetford ; and 66a, Eaton-square, S.W. 
1886 Warren, Wm., M.A., 61, Wilton-avenue, Chiswick-lane, W. 
1869 Waterhouse, Charles O., Ingleside, Avenue-gardens, Acton, W. ; 

and British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell-road, S.W. 
1901 Waterhouse, Gustavus A., B.Sc, F.C.S., Royal Mint, Sydney, Neio 

South Wales, Australia. 
1900 Watkins, C. J., King's Mill House, Painsivick, Stroud, Gloucestershire. 
1904 Watson, Rev. W. Beresfonl, St. Martins Vicarage, St. Philip, 

Barbados, W. Indies. 

1893 Webb, John Cooper, 218, Upland-road, Didwich, S.E. 
1876 f Western, E. Young, 36, Lancaster Gate, Hyde Pari:, W. 

1886 Wheeler, Francis D., M.A., LL.D., Paragon House School, Norwich. 
1884 White, William, 75, Thurlow Park-road, West Dulunch, S.E. 

1903 Wiggins, Clare A., M.R.C.S., Kisumu, Lake Victoria Nyanza, 

British East Africa. 
1896 Wileman, A. E., c/o H.B.M.'s Consul, Kobe, Japan. 

1894 Wilson, Edwin, Mill-lane, Cambridge. 

1904 Winterscale, J. C, F.Z.S., Karangari, Kedah, c/o Messrs. Patterson, 

Simons and Co., Penang, Straits Settlement. 
1894 Wolley-Dod, F. H., Millarville P. O., Alberta, N.W.T., Canada. 

1900 Wood, H., 9, Church-road, Ashford, Kent. 

1881 Wood, The Rev. Theodore, The Vicarage, Ly ford-road, Wandsworth 
Common, S.W. 

1905 Woodbridge, Francis Charles, Northcroft, Cornwall-road, Uxbridge. 

1901 Woodforde, F. C, Market Drayton. 

1899 Woolley, H. S., 7, Park-row, Greenwich, S.E. ; and P. 0. Box 
1047, Waterbury, Conn., U.S.A. 

1891 Wroughton, R. C, Inspector General of Forests, Indian Foreat 

Service, c/o Army and Navy Co-operative Society, Ltd., 105, 
Victoria-street, S.W. 

1888 Yerbury, Colonel John AY, late R.A., F.Z.S., Army and Navy 
Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 

1892 Youdale, William Henry, F.R.M.S., Daltonleigh, Cockcrmouth. 
1904 Young, L. C. H., 10, Bar nam- street, Fort, Bombay. 

( xxiv ) 


During the Year 1905. 

[The works marked with an asterisk (*) were presented by Mr. Henry 
McLachlan, and belonged to the family of the late R. McLachlan ; those 
marked with a dagger (t) are second, copies of works already in the library. ~] 

AldriCH (J. M.). Catalogue of North American Diptera. 
[Smithsonian Misc. Coll., No. 1444, 1905.] 

The Smithsonian Institution. 

Ashmead (W. H.). Descriptions of New Genera and Species of Hymeno- 
ptera from the Philippine Islands. 
[Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XXVIII, 1905.] 

Additions to the recorded Hymenoptera of the Philippine Islands, 

with descriptions of new species. 
[Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XXVIII, 1905.] 

New Hymenoptera from the Philippines. 
[Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XXIX, 1905.] 

New Genera and Species of Hymenoptera from the Philippines. 
[Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XXIX, 1905.] 

The Smithsonian Institution. 

Auitivnxius (Chr.). Cerambycidcn aus Bolivien und Argentina, Gesammelt 
von Freiherrn Erland Nordenskiold. 
[Entom. Tidskrift, XXV, 1904.] 

Tutt's British Lepicloptera, Vol. IV (Eeview). 
[Entom. Tidskrift, XXV, 1904.] 

Svensk Insektfauna. 13. Steklar. Hymenoptera, I. Gaddsteklar, 

[Entom. Tidskrift, XXV, 1904.] 

Eine interessante neue Papilio-Art aus Afrika, von Papilio 

[Ins. Borse, 1904.] 

Lepidoptera Heterocera. 

[Arkiv fur Zoologi, Band 2, No. 4, 1904.] 

Verzeichnis von Lepidopteren gesammelt hei Mukimhungu am 

unteren Congo von Hernn E. Laman. 
[Arkiv fur Zoologi, Band 3, No. 1, 1905.] 

Lieut. A. Schultze's Sammlung von Lepidopteren aus West- Afrika. 
[Arkiv fur Zoologi, Band 2, No. 12, 1905.] The Author. 

* Ausseker (Carlo). Neurotteri Tirolesi colla diagnosi di Tutti i Generj 
Europei. Parte 1. 
[Ann. Soc. Nat. Modena, IV, 1869.] 

( XXV ) 

Baker (C. F.). The Classification of the American Siphonaptera. 
[Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XXIX, 1905.] 

The Smithsonian Institution. 

Bargagli (P.). Oration on Stefano Bertolini. 

[Bull, della Soc. Entom. Italiana, XXXVI, 1904.] The Author. 

* t Barrett (C. G.). The Lepicloptera of the British Islands. Vols. I-VIII, 

8vo, London, 1893-1902. 

Beare (T. Hudson). Notes on some Coleoptera from the Flannan Islands. 
[Annals of Scottish Nat. Hist., Jan., 1905.] 

Retrospect of a Coleopterist for 1904. 

[Reprinted from the Entomologist's Record, Vol. XVII, No. 2.] 

The Author. 

* Becher (Eduard). Zur kenntniss der Mundtheile der Dipteren. 

[Denksehr. Math.-Naturwiss. Classe K. Akad. Wissensch., Vol. XLV, 


Becker (Th,), Bezzi (M.), Kertesz (K.), and Stein (P.). Katalog der 
Paliiartischen Dipteren, Band IV. 

Cyclorrhapha Schizophora : Holometopa von Th. Becker. 
Cyclorrhapha Schizophora: Pupipara von Dr. M. Bezzi. 

Bell (R. G.). [See Kellogg (V. L.).] 

Bergenstamm (J. Ealen v.). [See Bratjer (F.).] 

Bezzi (M.). [See Becker (Th.).] 

Blandfokd ("W. F. H.). [SeeGoDMAN (F. D.). P>iologia Centrali- Americana.] 

* Bolivar (Ignacio). Sinopsis de los Ortopteros de Espana y Portugal. 

4 parts. 
[An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., V. pp. 79, 259, VI. p. 249, VII. p. 63, 


* Analeeta Orthopterologica. 

[An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., VII, 1878.] 

* Orthopteres recueillis en Portugal et en Afrique par M. C. Van 

[Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., 1878.] 

* Catalogus Orthopterorum, Europre et Confmium. 
[An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., VII, 1878.] 

* Artropodos del Viaje al Pacifico verificado de 1862 d 1865. Insectos, 

Neuropteros y Ortopteros. 4to, Madrid, 1884. 

* Hemipteros Nuevos del Museo de Madrid. 
[An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., VIII, 1879.] 

* Observations sur les Orthopteres d'Europe et du Bassin de la 

[Compt. Rend. Soc. Ent. Belg., 1S84.] 

* Monografia de los Pirgomorfinos. 8vo, Madrid, 1884. 

* y Chicote (O). Enurneracion de los Hemipteros observadas en 

Espafia y Portugal. 
[An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., VIII, 1879.] 

Brants (A.). Nederlandsche Vlinders, Beschreven en Afgebeeld. An. 1 and 2, 
's Gravenhage, 1905. 

[Derde Serie van Sepp's Nederlandsche Insecten.] Pin-chased. 

( xxvi ) 

*Brauer (F.). Beitr'age zur kenntniss Aussereurop'aischer Oestriden und 
Parasitischer Muscarien. 
[Denkschr. Math.-Naturwiss. Classe K. Akad. Wissensch., LXIY, 

* und Bergenstamm (J. Edlen v.). Die Zweifliigler des Kaisler- 

lichen Museums zu Wien. Parts 1-7. 

[Denkschr. Math.-Naturwiss. Classe K. Akad. "Wissensch., 1880- 


* und Low (Franz). Neuroptera Austriaca. Die im Erzherzogthum 

Oesterreich bisjetzl aufgefundenen Neuropteren nach der analy- 
tischen Methode zusammengestellt. 8vo, Wien., 1857. 

Bruner (L.). [See Godman (F. D.). Biologia Centrali-Auiericana.] 

* t Buokton (G. B.). The Natural History of Eristalis tenax or the Drone-fly. 

8vo, London, 1895. 

Observations on some uudescribed or little-known species of Hemi- 

ptera-Homoptera of the Family Membracidae. 
[Trans. Linn. Soc, Zool., 2nd ser., Vol. IX, Part 9, 1905.] 

The Author. 

Buller (A. P.). Notes on tbe occurrence of some rare Species of Lepidoptera. 
[Trans. New Zealand Inst., Vol. XXXVII, 1904.] 

Burr (Malcolm). Memoir of Henri de Saussure (1829-1905). 
[Entom. Record, Vol. XVII, No. 7.] 

Earwigs of the Indian Museum, with descriptions of New Species. 
[Journal and Proc. Asiatic Soc. of Bengal (New Ser.), Vol. I, No. 2, 

Notes on the Forficularia, IX : On New Species, with Synonymic 

[Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, Vol. XVI, Nov. 1905.] 

The Author. 

* Calvert (P. P.). The Odonata of Baja California, Mexico. 

[Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 2, Vol. IV, 1895.] 

[See Godman (F. D.). Biologia Centrali-Americana.] 

* t Cambridge Natural History (The). Edited by S. F. Harmer and A. 

E. Shipley. Vols. V and VI. Svo, London, 1895-99. 

Vol. V, Peripatus, by A. Sedgwick. Myriapods, by F. G. Sinclair. 
Insects, Part 1, by D. Sharp (1895). 

Vol. VI, Insects, Part 2, by D. Sharp (1899). 

Cameron (P.). Descriptions of New Species of Sphegidae and Ceropalidse, 
from the Khasia Hills, Assam. 
[Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, Vol. XV, 1905.] 

G. A. James Rothney. 

*Carpenter(G. H.). Insects, their Structure and Life. A Primer of Ento- 
mology. 8vo, London, 1899. 

Champion (G. C). [See Godman (F. D.). Biologia Centrali-Americana.] 

Chicote (C). [See Bolivar (Ignacio).] 

* Comstock (J. Henry). Report upon Cotton Insects, prepared under the 

Direction of the Commissioner of Agriculture. Svo, Washington, 

( xxvii ) 

* Costa (A. ). Eapporto preliminaire e sommario sulle ricerche Zoologiche 

fatte in Sarclegna durante la primavera del 1S82- 
[Rend. R. Accad. Sci. Fis. e Mat. di Napoli, 1882.] 

* Nota intorno i Neurotteri della Sardegna. 
[Rend R. Accad. Sci. Fis. e Mat. di Napoli, 1884.] 

* Notizie ed Osservazioni sulla Geo-Fauna Sarda. Memoria Terza. 
[Atti R. Accad. Sci. Fis. e Mat. Napoli, ser. 2, Vol. I, 1884.] 

* Notizie ed Osservazioni sulla Geo-Fauna Sarda, Memoria quinta. 
[Atti R. Accad. Sci. Fis. e Mat. Napoli, ser. 2, Vol. II, 1886.] 

* Notizie ed Osservazioni sulla Geo-Fauna Sarda, Memoria sesta. 
[Atti R. Accad. Sci. Fis. e Mat. Napoli, ser. 2, Vol. II, 1886.] 

Currie (Rolla P.). Catalogue of the Exhibit of Economic Entomology at the 
Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition, Portland, Oregon, 1905. 
[U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bur. of Ent., Bull. No. 53, 1903.] 

* Dale (C. W.). The Lepidoptera of Dorsetshire ; or, A Catalogue of the 

Butterflies and Moths found in the County of Dorset. 2nd ed., 
8vo, Dorchester, 1891. 

Davis (K. C). [See Needham (J. G.).] 

Distant (W. L.). A Naturalist in the Transvaal. London, 1S92. 

The Publisher. 
[See Godman (F. D.). Biologia Centrali-Americana.] 

Dixon (H. H.). Note on the Supply of Water to Leaves on a Dead Branch. 
[Scientific Proc. Royal Dublin Soc. Vol. IX (New Ser.), No. 2, 1905.] 

The Author. 

Deuce (Herbert). Description of some new species of Noctuidse from 
Tropical South America. 
[Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, Vol. XV, 1905.] 

Description of some new species of Syntomidse and Arctidae from 

Tropical South America. 
[Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, Vol. XV, 1905.] 

Hie Author. 

Dyar (H. G.). A Descriptive list of a Collection of Early Stages of Japanese 
[Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XXVIII, 1905.] 

A list of American Cochlidian Moths, with descriptions of new 

genera and species. 
[Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XXIX, 1905.] 

New genera of South American Moths. 
[Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XXIX, 1905.] 

The Smithsonian Institution. 

*t Edwards (James). The Hemiptera-Homoptera(Cicadina and Psyllina) 
of the British Islands. 8vo, London, 1896. 

* Edwards ("William H.). Butterflies of North America. Second series. 

4to, Boston, 1884. 

Butterflies of North America. Third series. 4to, Boston and New 
York, 1897. 

* Ehrenberg (C. G.) et Hemprich (F. W.). Symbolae Physicse, seu 

Icones et Descriptiones corporum Naturalium novorum aut 
minus coguitorum quas ex itineribus per Libyam, iEgyptum, 
Nubiam, Dongalam, Syriam, Arabiam, et Habessiniam, etc. 
(Neuroptera, by F. Klug.) Folio, Berolini, 1828-45. 

( xxviii ) 

* Encyclopldie Methodique. Histoire Naturelle— Text. Tomes iv-x. 

Insectes. By Mauduyt, Olivier, Latreille, Godart, Saint- P'argeau, 
Serville et Guerin. Histoire Naturelle — Plates. Crustaces, 
Arachnides et Insectes. By Latreille. 2 vols., 4to, Paris, 1789- 

* Enderlein (Dr. Giinther). Zur kenntnis der Insekten Deutsch- 

[Mittheil. aus dem Zool. Mus. zu Berlin, II, 1902.] 

Eustace (H. J.). Winter Injury to Fruit-trees. 

[New York Agric. Exp. Stn., Bull. No. 2C>9, Oct. 1905.] 

The Author. 

* Felt (E. P.). Insects Injurious to Elm-trees. 

[Fifth Ann. Report Fisheries, Game and Forest Commission, State 
of New York.] 

Insects affecting Forest Trees. 

[Reprinted from Seventh Keport Forest, Fish and Game Commis- 
sion, State of New York, 1900.] The Author. 

* Fernald (Mrs. M. E.). A Catalogue of the Coccidw of the World. 8vo, 

Amherst, Mass., 1903. 
[Special Bulletin, Hatch Experiment Station of the Massachusetts 
Agricultural College.] 

* Finot (A.). Les Orthopteres de la France. Perce-Oreilles, Blattes, Mantes, 

Criquets, Sauterelles et Grillons. 8vo, Paris, 1S83. 

* Forbes (Henry O.). The Natural History of Sokotra and Abd-el-Kuri. 

Being the Report upon the Results of the Conjoint Expedition to 
the Islands in 1898-9, by Mr. W.R. Ogilvie-Grant, of the British 
Museum, and Dr. H. O. Forbes, of the Liverpool Museums, 
together with information from other available sources, forming 
a Monograph of the Islands. 8vo, Liverpool and London, 1903. 

* Forbes (S. A.). 17th, 19th, 21st, 22nd Reports of the State Entomologist 

on the Noxious and Beneficial Insects of the State of Illinois. 
8vo, Springfield, Chicago, and Champain, 1891-1903. 

Forel (A.). Miscellanea Myrmecologiques, II. 

[Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., XLIX, 1905.] The Author. 

[See Kraepelix (Karl).] 

Fowler (W. W.). [See Godman (F. D.), Biologia Centrali-Americana.] 

* Frisch (J. L.). Beschreibung von allerley Insecten in Teutschland nebst 

nutzlichen Anmerkungen und nothigen Abbildungen von die- 
sem kriechenden und fliegenden inlandischen Gewiirme. Thiele, 
1-10, 13, sm. 4to, Nicolai, 1720-38. 

* Froggatt (N. W.). Scale Insects that produce Lac. 8vo, Sydney, 1900. 

* Notes on Australian Coccidse (Scale Insects). 8vo, Sydney, 1900. 
[Dept. of Agric. N. S. Wales, Misc. Publ. No. 358.] 

* Plague Locusts. 8vo, Sydney, 1900. 

[Dept. of Agric. N. S. Wales, Misc. Publ. No. 303.] 

* The Hessian Fly (Cecidomyia destructor, Say) and Allied Grain 

Pests. 8vo, Sydney, 1900. 
[Dept. of Agric. N. S. Wales, Misc. Publ. No. 369.] 

* Insects and Birds. 8vo, Sydney, 1900. 

[Dept. of Agric. N. S. Wales, Misc. Publ. No. 387.] 

* Insects living in Figs, with some account of Caprification. 8vo 

Sydney, 1900. 
[Dept. of Agric. N. S. Wales, Misc. Publ. No. 388.] 

( xxix ) 

* Furnrohr (A. E.). Naturhistorische Topographie von Regensburg. Iu 

Verbiu flung unit Forster, Herrich-Schaffer, Koch, v. Schmoger 
imd v. Voith. 3 vols. Svo, Regensburg, 183S-40. 

* Fuller (G). First and Second Reports of the Government Entomologist 

for Natal, 1899-1901. 8vo, Pietermaritzburg, 1901-2. 

Fourth Report of the Government Entomologist, Natal, Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, 1903-4. 8vo, Pietermaritzburg, 1905. 

* Gay (Claudio). Historia fisica y politica de Chile, segun documentos 

adquiridos en esta republica durante doce anos de residencia en 
ella y publicada bajo los auspicios del supremo gobierno por C. 
Gay. (Zoologia.) Orthopteros and Neuroptera (Atlas only). 
Folio, Paris, 1847-54. 

* Girard (Maurice). Catalogue Raisonne des Animaux Utiles et Nuisibles 

de la France. 2 parts, 8vo, Paris, 1878. 

Fasc. 1. Animaux Utiles, leurs services et leur conversation. 

Fasc. 2. Animaux Nuisibles degats qu'ils produisent, moyens de 
les detruire. 

* + Le Phylloxera de la Vigne, son organisation, ses moeurs choix 
des precedes de destruction. 3rd ed., 8vo, Paris, 1880. 

Godman (F. Ducane). Biologia Centrali-Americana. Parts OLXXXVI — 
CLXXXIX. The Editor. 

Arachnida Araneidea and Opiliones. by F. O. Pickard-Cambridge. 
Insect a, by W. F. H. Blandford, L. Bruner, P. P. Calvert, G. C. 
Champion, W. L. Distant, W. W. Fowler, and D. Sharp. 

Goeldi (Emilio Augusto). On Mosquitos in Para. 

[Memorias do Museu Goeldi (Museu Paraens) de Historia Natural e 
Ethnographia, 1905.] The Author. 

Green (Ernest E.). Toxorhynchites immisericors (Walker), The Elephant 
[Spolia Zeylanica, Yol. II, Part VIII, 1905.] The Author. 

* HagEN (H. A.). Phryganidarum synopsis synonymica. 

[Verhandl. K. K. zool.-bot. Gesellsch. in Wien, 1864.] 

Hammond (A. R.). [See Miall (L. E.).] 

HamRson (Sir Geo. F.). Catalogue of the Noctuidse in the Coll. of the 
British Museum, Vol. V and one vol. of Plates, 1905. 

In Exchange. 

Hancock (J. L.). The Habits of the Striped Meadow Cricket {(Ecanthus 
fasciatus, Fitch). 
[American Naturalist, Jan. 1905.] The Author. 

The Tettigidse of Ceylon. 

[ « Spolia Zeylanica," Vol. II, Part 7, Oct. 1904.J The Author. 

Handlirsch (Anton). Friedrich Moritz Brauer (Obituary Notice). 
[Verhandl. K. K. zool.-bot. Gesellsch. in Wien, 1905.] 

The Author. 

Hemprich (F. W.). [See Ehrenberg (C. G.).] 

Herzog (M.). The Plague: Bacteriology, Morbid Anatomy and Histopa- 
thology, including a consideration of insects as plague carriers. 
[Dept. of Interior, Bureau of Gov. Lab., Manila, No. 23, 1904.] 

The Bureau of Gov. Lab. 

( XXX ) 

Hinds (W. C.) and Hunter (W. D.). The Mexican Cotton Boll Weevil. 

[Dept. of Agric, Div. of Eutom., Bull. No. 45, also No. 51, a revision 
of the above.] V. S. JJe^it. of Agriculture. 

Holland (W. J.). Moth Book. 8vo, New York, 1903. The Author. 

* Holmgren (Aug. Emil. ). Ichneumonologia Suecica. Tom. iii. Ickneu- 

monides Pneustici. 8vo, Holmiee, 1889. 

* Hudson (G. V.). New Zealand Neuroptera. A popular introduction to the 

life-histories and habits of May-flies, Dragon-flies, Caddis-flies, 
and allied Insects inhabiting New Zealand, including notes on 
their relation to Augling. 8vo, London, 1904. 

* f Index Zoologicus. An Alphabetical List of names of genera and sub- 

genera proposed for use in Zoology, as recorded in the 
"Zoological Becord," 1880-1900. By Charles Owen Water- 
house. Svo, London, 1892. 

Jacoby (Martin). Description of New Genera and Species of Phytophagus 
Coleoptera obtained by Dr. Loria in New Guinea. 
[Ann. del. Museo Civico di Storia Nat. di Geuova, ser. 3, Vol. I 

(XLI), 1905.] 
Diagnoses of Phytophagous Coleoptera. 
[Fasciculi Malayensis, Zool.-Append., Vol. II, 1905.] 

The Author. 
[See Wytsmah (P.).] 

Janet (Charles). Observations sur les Guepes. Svo, Paris, 1903. 

Description de Materiel d'une Petite Installation Scientifique. Ire 

Partie. Svo, Limoges, 1903. 
Observations sur les Fourmis, 1904. 8vo, Limoges, 1904. 

The Author. 

Johannsen (O. A.). Aquatic Nematocerous Dipteria, II. May-flies and 
Midges of New York. 
[N. York State Mus., Bull. No. 86, Albany, 1905.] The Author. 

[See Needham (J. G.).] 

* Johanson (C. H.). Odonata Suecise. Sveriges Trollslandor. Svo, 

Westerns, 1S59. 

Jordan (Karl). Der Gegensatz Zwischen Geographischer und Nichtgeo- 
graphischer Variation. 
[Zeitschrift fur Wissenchaftliche Zoologie Bd. LXXXIII, 1905.] 

The Author. 

* Kane (W. F. de Vismes). European Butterflies. 8vo, London, 1885. 

Kearfott (W. D.). Descriptions of New Species of Tortricid Moths from 
North Carolina, with Notes. 
[Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XXVIIL] 

The U. S. Nat. Museum. 

Kellogg (V. L.). Influence of the Primary Reproductive Organs of the 
Secondary Sexual Characters. 
[Journal of Exp. Zool., Vol. I, No. 4, 1904.] 
Regeneration in Larval Legs of Silkworms. 
[Journal of Exp. Zool., Vol. I, No. 4, 1904.] 
American Insects. New York, 1905. The Author. 

and Bell (R. G.). Studies of Variation in Insects. 

[Proc. Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. VI, 1904.] 

Notes on Insect Bionomics. 

[Journal of Exp. Zool., Vol. I, 1905.] The Authors. 

( xxxi ) 

Kerremans (CI.). Monographic des Buprestides. Parts I-XII, 1905. 

Kertksz (K.). Katalog der Palaarktischen Dipteren. 

Band I. Orthorrapha Nematocera, by K. Kertesz, Budapest, 1903. 
Band II. Orthorraj^ha Brachycera, by M. Bezzi, 1903. 

[See Becker (Th.).] Purchased. 

Kerville (Henri Gadeau de). Note sur les Fonctions de la piuce des Insectes 
Orthopteres de la F amide des Forficulides. 
[Extrait du Bulletin de la Societe Zoologique dc France, Tome 
XXX, 1905.] J/. Burr. 

* t Kirbv (W. F.). A Synonymic Catalogue of Diurnal Lepidoptera. 8vo, 

London, 1871. 
Synonymic Catalogue of Orthoptera. Vol. I, Orthoptera, Euplexo- 
ptera, Cursoria et Gressoria, 1904. la Exchange. 

* Klug (F.). Versuch einer Systematischen Feststellung der Iuseeteu Familie: 

Panorpatae und Auseinandersetzung ihrer Gattungeu und Arten. 
[Abhandl. d Kouigl. Akad. d. Wissensch. zu Berlin, 1836.] 

Kraepelin (Karl) und Forel (A.). Ameisen aus Java. Gesammelt von K. 
Kraepelin. Beschrieben von A. Forel. 
[Mitteil. aus dem Naturhistorischen Museum, XXII ; 2 Beiheft zum 
Jahrbuch der Hamburgisehen AVissenschaftlichen Anstalten, 
XXII.] The Authors. 

Lameere (Aug.) . Discours prouonce a lAssemblee G6nerale Commemorative 
du 9 Avril 1905 ; Le Cinquantenaire de la Societe Entomologique 
de Belgique. Bruxelles, 1905. The Author. 

* Lepidoptera (British), An Accentuated List of the, with hints on the 

Derivation of the Names. Published by the Entomological 
Societies of Oxford and Cambridge. 8vo, London, 1S58. 

Lewis (George). A Systematic Catalogue of Histerida?. London, 1905. 

Low (F.). [See Brauer (F.).] 

* Lounsbury (C. P.). Report of the Government Entomologist, Cape of 

Good Hope, for the years 1896, 1898, and 1901. 8vo, Cape 
Town, 1897-1902. 

Lucas (Robert), "Wandolleck (Benuo), und Kuhlgatz (Th.). Bericht iiber 
die wissenschaftlichen Leistuugen im Gebiete der Eutomologie 
wahrend des Jahres 1900. Insecta (Schluss), Myriopoda, Arach- 
nida, Prototracheata. Purchased. 

* Ltjcas (W. J.). British Dragonflies (Odonata). 1 vol., 8vo, 1900. 
Macgillivray (A. D.). [See Needham (J. G.).] 

Marchal (Paul). Sur une Cochenille Nouvelle. 

[Annales de la Soc. Ent. de France, Vol. LXXIII, 1904.] 

Sur quelques Cochenilles Nouvelles. 

[Bull, du Museum d'Historei Naturelle, 1904, No. 7.] 

Sur la Biologie du Chrysomphahis dictyospermi (var. minor, Berlese). 

[Bull, de la Soc. Ent. de France, 1904, No. 16.] 

Observations Biologiques sur un Parasite de la Galeruque de L'Orme 

(Le Tetrustichus xanthomelaense). 
[Bull, de la Soc. Ent. de France, 1905, No. 4.] 
Identification du Parasite des ceufs de la Galeruque de L'Orme (Te- 

t rastich us xa » th omelaense). 
[Bull, de la Soc. Ent. de France, 1905, No. 5.] 
Recherches sur la Biologie et le Developpement des Hym^nopteres 

Parasites (La Polyembryonie Specifique ou germinogonie). 
[Arch, de Zoologie, Vol. II, 1904.] The Author. 

( Xixii ) 

McCracken (Isabel). A Study of the Inheritance Dichroinatism in Lina 
[The Journal of Experimental Zoology, Vol. II, No. 1, Baltimore, 
1905.] V. L. Kelloya. 

Melichar (L.). Homopteren-Fauna von Ceylon. 8vo, Berlin, 1903. 


* Meyrick (E.). The Label List of British Lepitloptera, compiled after "A 

Handbook of British Lepidoptera." 8vo, Loudou, 1S96. 

*t Miall (L. G.) and Hammond (A. R.). The Structure and Life History 
of the Harlequin Fly (Chironomus). 8vo, Oxford, 1900. 

* Michael (Albert D.). British Tyroglyphidse. (Ray Society.) 2 vols., 

8vo, London, 1901-3. 

Miskin (W. H.). Note on a Collection of Lepidoptera from S.E. New 
[Administrator's Report on British New Guinea, 1888-9, No. 103, 
pp. 117-124 (1890).] Hamilton Bruce. 

*tMoRLEY (C.). Ichneumonologia Britannica. The Ichneumons of Great 
Britain. 8vo, Plymouth, 1903. 

Morse (Albert Pitts). Researches on North American Acridiidae. 

[Carnegie Inst, of Washington, 1904.] The Carnegie Institute. 

Natal. Government Entomologist's Reports. [See Fuller (C.).] 

* Needham (J. G.). Insect Drift on the Shore of Lake Michigan. 

[Occ. Mem. Chicago Entom. Soc, Vol. I, No. 1, 1900.] 

* Macgillivray (A. D.), Johannsen (O. A.), and Davis (K. C). 

Aquatic Insects in New York State. 8vo, Albany, 1903. 
[Bull. New York State Museum, No. 68.] 

Osborn (Herbert). Notes on S. American Hemiptera-Heteroptera. 

[Dept. of Zool. and Entom., Ohio State University, No. 20, 1904.] 

Jassidse of New York State. 

[Ohio State University Contrib. Dept. of Zool. and Entom., No. 22. 

The Author. 

Packard (A. S.). Monograph of the Bombycine Moths of North America, 
including their transformations and origin of the larval markings 
and armature. Part II. Family Ceratocampidee, sub-family 
[Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci.. IX, 1905.] 

The Author. 

Peckham (G. W.) and Peckham (E. G.). Spiders of the Phidippus Group 
of the Family Attidas. 

[Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and 
Letters, Vol. XIII.] The Authors. 

Peringuey (L.). A Brief Sketch of the South African Insect Fauna. Cape 
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For the Year 1905. 

I. The Life History of Gerydus chinensis, Felder. By 
John C. W. Kershaw, F.L.S., F.E.S. 

[Read November 16th, 1904.] 

Plate I. 

Although the imago of Gerydus chinensis is peculiar, 
with its very long body and broad, flattened legs, yet its 
early stages are still more curious. The butterfly is fairly 
common throughout the year in certain localities near 
Macao and Hongkong, but it keeps more or less strictly to 
these shady and usually damp places, and is to a certain 
extent crepuscular, though it is also on the wing during 
the day. 

It lays its eggs towards evening and till night fairly sets 
in, on stems and leaves of plants and trees infested with 
Aphides or Hemiptera and overrun by a host of ants of two 
species (Polyrrhachis dives, Sin., and Doliehoderus bitu- 
berculatus, Mayr.), both Aphides and ants apparently feeding 
on juice exuding from the plant. Any vegetation subject 
to these secretions seems to be attractive to them, the ants 
not appearing to use the Aphides as ant-cows, though of 
this 1 am not quite certain. The Aphides swarm so thickly 
that the plant-stem or leaf is invisible, and, barring heavy 
rain, they are as a whole stationary for days together, 
though slowly changing their positions individually, and 
going through various transformations, fresh lots continu- 

trans. ent. soc. lond. 1905. — PART I. (may) 1 

2 Mr. J. C. W. Kershaw on 

ally replacing the old. The plants they seem specially to 
affect are various species of bamboo, lichee, Stillingia 
sebifcra and a species of bur-marigold, Bidens pilosa, repre- 
sented in the drawing. This latter is a very common 
plant here, possessing bunches of spiky seeds with branched 
ends armed with microscopic spines pointing downwards, 
which catch in every imaginable thing that touches them. 

The $ butterfly, after almost interminable dancing up 
and down and wandering hither and thither, finally alights 
after two or three attempts in the midst of the Aphides 
and ants, which she thrusts aside with a brushing move- 
ment of her tail, immediately laying a single egg. She 
then generally moves slightly and remains for some time 
sucking up the exuding juice of the plant; both $ and $ 
are very fond of it : half-a-dozen may occasionally be seen 
close together on one leaf or stem, drinking this sap, 
thrusting their tongues into any interstices left by the 
Aphides. The ants do not appear to meddle either with 
the butterflies or the eggs, though ants are very destructive 
to eggs of most butterflies, and I have just recently seen 
two butterflies (a Hesperid and a Neptis) seized by the 
tongue as they probed a flower, and dragged off by this 
same species of ant. Nor do they seem to interfere with 
the larvse. Probably they are too much occupied in 
drinking the sap to trouble about eggs, etc. 

The egg is circular and flat, of a pale green, ringed cir- 
cumferentially, the edges of the rings milled like a coin. 
It hatches in four days, the issuing larva being nearly 
cylindrical at first, not assuming its slug-shape till a later 
stage. It is light yellow, with a distinct purplish dorsal 
line, and a few light-coloured hairs chiefly at head and 
tail, the head dark. Later on it becomes limaciform, yellow 
or greenish-yellow and banded longitudinally with purple- 
bi'own, the segments well-defined, the first segment swollen 
and produced, so that the head can be withdrawn entirely 
into it, as it usually is when the larva is resting. 

The larvae feed on the Aphides, sometimes pressing them 
against the plant with head and forelegs, sometimes hold- 
ing them in the forelegs quite away from the plant. A 
few bites disposes of an Aphis, and the larva then licks 
and cleans its legs, just as a Mantis does. Some Aphides 
must have a better flavour than others, as the larvse pick 
and choose, moving their heads up and down over the 
backs of the insects, evidently smelling them. As a rule 

The Life History of Gerydus chinensis. 3 

the creatures seem to make little attempt to escape till 
they are actually bitten, when struggling is useless. 
When not engaged in feeding, the larvae rest amongst the 
Aphides or crawl leisurely about between or over them, 
and the Aphides do likewise, the larvae being sometimes 
covered with them. The eggs of the butterfly, too, are 
often hidden under a mass of Aphides. 

When nearly full-grown the larvae lose most of their 
sparse hairs and their colours fade, and the bands and four 
blotches on the seventh and eighth segments become less 
distinct. When about to pupate they walk about at quite 
a fair rate of speed, and having chosen a spot, spin a few 
threads a little distance from head and tail. My larvae 
pupated on a piece of bark, one putting a band round its 
middle and pupating horizontally, the other vertically and 
without a band, though both had the threads (not con- 
nected to the pupae) at head and tail. The tail of the 
pupa is cut off squarely, forming a disc, thus securing a 
good hold, probably sufficient without the band round the 
middle. It seems to be affixed with some secretion, not 
actual threads. There is a small process each side of the 
third segment from the tail. The pupal state lasts about 
ten days. Both larvae and pupae strike one as being small 
compared with the size of the butterfly. I have only 
found the larvae feed on two species of Aphis, but they 
doubtless eat other kinds. One was slate-coloured with 
white efflorescence, the other greenish with four dark-green 
patches, some of them being fringed with white, probably 
moulted skin. 

If the butterflies were only numerous enough they 
would certainly prove a blessing to the gardener, for many 
trees here, especially the lichee (a fruit tree) suffer very 
much from "bugs " of all sorts which, even when they do 
not entirely eat away the leaves, seem to blight them or 
cause them to shrivel up. The larval state lasts about 
fifteen days, and I reckoned on the average, from first to 
last, the larva would eat some twenty Aphides per day, 
but it would require many larvae to make much impres- 
sion on the crowds of Aphides one sees ; perhaps a yard 
of bamboo stem two or three inches in diameter being 
absolutely covered with these disgusting insects. 

I am not sure, but have some reason to think that the 
larvae tend to assimilate in colour to the Aphides they 
happen to be feeding on. At first, as the eggs were laid 

4 Mr. J. C. W. Kershaw on Gerydus chinensis. 

amongst the green Aphides, I fed the larva? thereon, but a 
typhoon having washed away the food supply, I could 
only find the slate-coloured species, which, however, the 
larvas seemed to enjoy quite as much. But I noticed soon 
after that the colours faded and the purple-brown tended 
to mingle with the yellow. This is a question it will be 
interesting to decide. One of the features of this curious 
life history is the calm way in which the larva moves 
amongst the Aphides and selects his prey, and the in- 
difference with which the latter apparently accepts his 

I have since found swarms of a bright yellow Aphis 
on some Asclepias plants, on which I hope to rear some 
larvae, with the object of testing their adaptability of 
colour to their surroundings. Gerydics chinensis lays at 
intervals all through the year, but these eggs were taken 
in July and August. 

Explanation of Plate I. 

Life History of Gerydus chinensis, Felder. 
Butterfly laying egg amongst Aphides. 

Fig. 1. Egg, enlarged. 

2. Larva just hatched, enlarged. 

3. „ nearly full-grown, natural size. 

4. Pupa?, natural size. 

5. Larva eating Aphis, enlarged. 

6. Aphides, two species, enlarged. 

II. Butterfly-destroyers in Southern China. By John C. 
W. Kershaw, F.L.S., F.E.S. 

[Read November 16th, 1904.] 

Perhaps the creatures which in this district destroy 
or injure the largest number of butterfly imagines are 
lizards, particularly one species (Ccdotes versicolor, Daud.), 
which climbs up into the clumps of Lantana camera, a 
profusely flowering plant or shrub which grows here on 
most waste ground. Probably the greater part of their 
prey consists of Hesperiidze, three or four species of which 
haunt the flowers of the Lantana in immense numbers. 
Other reptile foes to butterflies are probably the tree- 
frogs, and possibly the very numerous small snakes which 
are always climbing in the tops of the bushes. 

Spiders' webs account for some mishaps to butterflies, 
but they are not invariably eaten ; at other times species 
which are reckoned most distasteful as food of other 
animals are seized and eaten at once, according, I suppose, 
as the owner of the web is hungry or otherwise. 1 have 
seen our large black-and-yellow spider {Epeira metadata 
of Donovan's " Insects of China ") eating Enplcea amymone, 
Godt., caught in his web. He had attacked and consider- 
ably injured the lower side of the abdomen and part of the 
thorax ; but when I took the butterfly from him, examining 
it laid flat in my hand, the insect suddenly flew up to the 
top of a large banyan tree, where it settled. One would 
hardly imagine even a Euplcea would have much life in it 
after being so badly mauled. The same spider I have 
seen eating Papilio dissimilis, L. ( = clytia,\j.,=p)anope,\j?), 
the black-and-yellow form. Also at different times Neptis 
earynome, L., and Euploia midamus, L., but on the whole 
it is not common to see a butterfly in a spider's web. I 
might mention that I saw this spider devouring a small 
bat, about eight inches across the wings, caught overnight 
in his web. 

There is also here a small but thickset white spider 
which usually conceals itself in white flowers, and which 


6 Mr. J. C. W. Kershaw on 

I have two or three times seen capture the little black- 
and-yellow Skipper, Telieota bamhiiste, Moore, by the head. 

The large green Mantis, Hierodula sanssureii, W. F. 
Kirby, our commonest species, apparently catches anything 
he can get hold of. I have kept Mantid;e and fed them 
with many species of butterflies, none of which they 
refused, but data obtained from creatures in captivity are 
not, I think, very reliable, as under these circumstances 
they often take food which in a natural state they would 
probably reject. But I have seen this Mantis in the open 
on a shrub, eating the two species of Ewplcea before men- 
tioned. He is a very bold insect, and, even in a wild 
state, seldom refuses any butterfly offered to him. 

One of the worst enemies of the Hespeviidte is a large 
hairy species of (Asilid ?) fly, which seizes them and drives 
its proboscis into the thorax. Either it is very fearless or 
it cannot easily disengage its weapon from its prey, for I 
have often kept stirring one up with a stick, when it 
would merely fly to another leaf close by, still holding its 
victim. These flies also kill a moderate-sized Cicada in 
great numbers. 

In the last two months (August and September) I have 
three times seen butterflies seized by the tongue by ants, 
as they probed a flower. On one occasion an ant seized 
Ne'ptis curynomc by the tip of the tongue, and the butter- 
fly immediately flew away with the ant hanging on it. 
About half-an-hour afterwards I captured the Neptis with 
the ant still clinging to its tongue. The other instances 
were both Telicota bambuste, and each was caught by the 
tip of the tongue by an ant. 

I should be inclined to think that the birds here account 
for very few imagines, comparatively speaking, whatever 
they may do in the larva and pupa line. The only birds 
I have seen attack butterflies, and generally miss them, 
are sparrows (our common sparrow is Passer montanus), 
the green Bulbul, Pycnonotus sinensis, the black Drongo, 
Buchanga atra aud the Paradise-flycatcher, Terpsiplione 
princeps. During five years I have, perhaps, seen a dozen 
attacks on butterflies by birds, and only seen them cap- 
tured two or three times. Speaking from my own limited 
experience I should say imagines here have few enemies, 
and that those few inflict very slight damage. Unfavour- 
able climatic conditions seem to be most inimical to 
them. {Gf. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1895, pp. 437-8.) 

Buttcrjiy-destvoyers in Southern China. 7 

But in the egg, larva and pupa state, butterflies here 
have a host of enemies, the eggs especially being destroyed 
by ants, which also attack and carry off young larvae and 
pupa?. Ants almost certainly account for the greater 
part of casualties amongst eggs, because of their being 
ubiquitous and in countless swarms. One small orange 
plant, which I often examined many consecutive mornings, 
was much frequented by $ $ of Papilio polytes, L., and P. 
helemts, L., also P. sarpedon, L. I have frequently seen the 
$ lay an egg and fly off, and a moment after an ant, waiting 
below the leaf, would carry the egg away. Sometimes I 
have noticed a particular leaf and stem with three or four 
eggs close together on them, and returning an hour or 
so later have found them gone, almost certainly taken by 
the ants which were invariably climbing over the plant. 

Centipedes kill pupa?, twining round them, boring a 
tiny hole, and appearing to suck out the contents. 

Some of the Hemiptera or " bugs " {Gapsidie, I think) 
probably account for the destruction of some pupa?, as I 
have seen one with its trunk driven into a chrysalis, and two 
or three times have seen a small red-and-black bug, about 
an inch long, force its proboscis through the thin shell of 
a small snail and eat or suck out the inmate. 

Amongst birds the Cuckoos especially must destroy 
very great numbers of butterfly larva? during their short 
summer stay here, Cuculus micropterus probably inflicting 
most damage. The Cuckoo, like the Mantis, will eat 
almost anything, and if a larva is particularly hairy it 
rubs it up and down on the ground or tree trunk till it 
breaks off most of the hair. It seems very fond of the 
larva? of Rhopalocampta benjamini, Guer., a bright yellow- 
and-black larva with a red head, and during May and June 
its stomach generally contains several, judging from those 
shot. Wasps, of course, carry off many larva?, but chiefly, 
I think, those of the Pieridx, which are usually fairly 
smooth-skinned. I was rearing a lot of Catopsilia pyranthc 
larva? on the roof of the house, on a Cassia plant, and 
the wasps carried off so many I was obliged to cover 
them up. The ants, too, killed many of the newly- 
hatched larva?, and as soon as pupating began, started 
carrying off the pupa?. 

Ichneumonida? I pass over, all kinds of larva? in all 
parts of the world being presumably attacked by them, 
but some of the Pieridm here seem especially subject to 

8 Mr. J. C. W. Kershaw on Butterfly-destroyers. 

their attacks. Of about a score pupae of Delias aglaia, L., 
found on a shrub, three produced butterflies, the rest 
ichneumons. Of the same number of young larva) reared, 
all fed well till about half-grown, then all but six dwindled 
away to mummies, two died when full-grown ; the rest 
pupated, but only two butterflies appeared, the other 
pupse shrivelling up. They were supplied with fresh food 
every day, and till half-grown appeared very healthy. 
There seem to be special checks on the increase of some 
species of Pieridte. 

No doubt the injuries done to the wings of butterflies 
are often the result of attacks by various enemies, but I 
think the greater part are caused by the insects themselves 
flying through thick cover, where one may often distinctly 
hear and see the wings of a Papilio strike leaves and 
twigs ; or by getting into and escaping from the numerous 
spiders' webs, and threads stretched from tree to tree ; or 
by simple stress of weather. Several times I have seen 
what I took, at first sight, to be a new species of Papilio 
which when taken proved to be either P. polytes or P. 
dissimilis with the hind-wings covered with the red or 
yellow pollen of flowers, generally the large flowering tree 
Bombax ceiba. These specimens invariably had the wings 
torn, and as the pollen is sticky it probably was partly the 
cause of various rents and ragged margins. 

One often sees a Papilio, generally either P. agamemnon, 
L., or P. sarpedon, which haunts a certain locality or " beat " 
for days together, flying at a good height and seldom 
settling ; these " solitaries " chase away other butterflies and 
even dragon-flies, and I have seen Euplceinx and Neptis 
chase dragon-flies, which swarm here. Of all insect foes I 
should have thought that dragon-liies, from their very 
swift flight and powerful jaws, would have been most 
dangerous to butterflies, but I have never seen one attack 
a butterfly, though they sometimes kill and eat each other. 

My few notes would, in short, point to butterflies which 
have escaped the sundry and manifold dangers of the egg, 
larva and pupa stages having collectively, comparatively 
little to fear in the perfect state. 

( o ) 

III. On Erebia palarica,* n. sp., and Erebia stygne; 
chiefly in regard to its association with E. evias, 
in Spain. By Dr. Thomas A. Chapman, M.D. 

[Read December 7th, 1904.] 

Plates II, III, IV, V, VI. 

In 1902 I reported that E. stygne, Ochs., had not been 
recorded as occurring in Spain. In this I am not quite sure 
that I was not correct, but at any rate, if not recorded, the 
Entomologists of Madrid were certainly aware that the 
species occurred in the Sierra Guadarrama, as they have 
specimens in their collections, and have it noted in their 
MS. lists. I am not aware that even now any Spanish 
localities are known beyond this one, except these recorded 
in our Proceedings by Mrs. Nicholl and myself. 

In 1902 and 1903 I met with forms of E. stygne in Spain, 
that led me to make sundry observations on that species 
to the Society, in connection with specimens exhibited. 
Mrs. Nicholl also met with the species in 1902, and also 
Prof. Poulton, and I was able to make some remarks on 
their specimens which were exhibited at our meetings. 
Amongst the general remarks I hazarded, I expressed the 
opinion that Erebia stygne in Spain was well worthy of 
further observation, and study. My observations during 
1904 have, I think, fully confirmed the soundness of this 
opinion, but though adding something to our knowledge, 
they leave the necessity for further research in regard to 
the species and those allied to it, at least as cogent as 

It may perhaps be well, before relating last season's 

* Palarica, from habitat, Pajares. Pajares is said to mean a place 
with much fodder and litter, as if Palea/res = cum multas paleas; a 
bad (and I am not sure that this is a bad) excuse for getting rid of 
the j, is better than none, as the. Spanish j = Scotcli ch, is shibboleth 
to the South Briton ; Spanish j is often = Latin 1, e.g. mejor — melior. 
I should have liked to have given the name nicholli, in honour of 
Mrs. Nicholl, who first took the species two years ago, but this would 
lead to confusion with Erebia glacial it, var. nicholli, Oberth. 


10 Dr. T. A. Chapman on 

experience, to recapitulate our previous knowledge of E. 
stygne as a Spanish species. 

I found in 1902 a very large and brightly-coloured race 
of stygne at Bejar, which I named bcjarcnsis* and ex- 
hibited to the Society on Nov. 5th. At the same meeting f 
Mrs. Nichoil exhibited a large and small form of stygne 
from the Picos de Europa. Of the large form which is no 
doubt identical with palarica, there were only two poor 
specimens, and all the evidence went to show they were a 
form of stygne, but coming from the same locality as a 
small form, it added an important item of interest to the 

In the following year, I took at Canales de la Sierra a 
fairly large form of stygne, associated mimetically with a 
small form of E. evicts, nearly, if not absolutely identical 
with Zapater's evias, var. hispanica, so I gave the same 
varietal name to the form of stygne. These facts are 
reported in the Proc. Ent. Soc. 1903, pp. xlv et seq. 

Still later the President enabled me to show the Society 
(Proc. 1904, p. xlvi) two Erebias from the Guadarrama, 
which confirmed the existence of stygne there, and also 
showed that it was there accompanied by a specially 
modified form of E. evias. 

It further happens that E. evias accompanied the small 
stygne taken by Mrs. Nicholl at the Picos, though this had 
not been recorded when I examined the specimens with a 
view to the present report. 

All the forms of stygne so far known from Spain there- 
fore seemed to be no doubt varieties of that species, some 
of them modified to agree with E. evias. There was 
nothing in any of the forms that did not appear to be well 
within the limits of variation. 

Mrs. Nicholl has an interesting note on the stygne of the 
Picos in Ent. Record, vol. xvi, p. 48. I may quote some 
items of this, as I cannot find any details of Mrs. Nicholl's 
observations on the Picos Erebias in the Society's Trans- 

July 10th. " Encamped at a height of nearly 5000 ft. on 
the southern face of the chain, and found the mountain 
pastures just above this level, swarming with E. stygne. 
Both sexes were out and in good order, though some of 
the males were slightly worn. I caught a good many 
and kept a few ; they were quite typical specimens, per- 
* Proc. Ent. Soc. 1902, p. xxxvi. f 1. c, p. xxxv. 

Erebia palarica and Erebia stygne. 11 

haps a trifle larger than those from Dauphine and the 

On the 19th, "stygne was nearly over." Mrs. Nicholl 
tells me that she also took evias (" mostly worn, rather 
large type, and high up, none low down ").* I have 
already noted two specimens of evias are mixed with the 
stygne (no doubt some of the few noted above) from the 
Picos in the drawers at South Kensington. I incline to 
think they were not so mixed by Mrs. Nicholl, but, whoever 
did so, afforded a proof that the high-level July evias from 
the Picos does, in some of its specimens at least, closely 
resemble the stygne of the same time and place. The 
note in the " Record " proceeds : " On July 22nd, at a 
height of 3000 to 3500 ft. I saw several large Erebias, quite 
fresh out. I caught six or seven specimens, all males, and 
considered them to be E. sethiops and therefore only kept 
a couple, . . . they turned out to be very large specimens of 
E. stygne!' These two specimens are E. palarica. Both 
specimens are, however, poor, the, one in the British 
Museum, the best, is very far from fresh, so that the 
difference of date between E. palarica and E. stygne is less 
than Mrs. Nicholl's note implies. They are no doubt on 
the wing at the same time at the Picos, as I found them 
this year at Pajares. I must take my share of responsi- 
bility for declaring these specimens of palarica to have 
been stygne. They were very much the same size as my 
E. stygne, var. bejare-nsis,^ with which I was then busy. So 
that their large size did not suggest specific difference, 
whilst the genitalia of the specimen I examined, though 
not quite typical stygne, were within the limits of variation 
found in these appendages in other species of the genus. 
With the small amount of material available the conclusion 
seemed clear that it must be regarded as a var. of stygne, 
possibly near var. bejarensis, both being very large, but 
certainly requiring further investigation. 

We now come to my observations of the present year 
(1904). From July 8th to July 22nd, Mr. Champion and 
I stayed at Puerto de Pajares, which is the pass across the 
Cantabrian Mountains followed by both the road and the 
railway from Leon to Gijon, at an elevation of about 
4500 ft., and at several places in the neighbourhood we 

* See Notes on evias later. 

f (The specimen in B. Mus. is 56 mm. ; small for palarica, 
a maximum for bejarensis.) 

12 Dr. T. A. Chapman on 

found a large and a small form of stygne, which, there can 
be little doubt, with probably some trifling local variations, 
are the same two forms as those taken by Mrs. Nicholl at 
the Picos de Euro pa. In one respect our observations, 
though confirming Mrs. Nicholl's, show that the apparent 
conclusion to which they pointed is incorrect. Mrs. Nicholl 
found one form at a high, and the other at a low level, and 
the deduction was, that it was the habit of the two forms 
to be separated by being adapted to living at different 
elevations, even if the lower one were not a second brood 
possible at the warmer station. 

Well, we found one form at a low, and the other at a 
high level, but then again we found precisely the contrary 
case, in fact we found both forms at all levels from about 
4000 ft. to over 6000 ft. The small form maintaius 
its characters both at a high and low level, as does also 
the large one. 

We found, however, that each species had definite local- 
ities, within which the other did not occur, and in the 
case of two such localities for the small species, and also of 
two for the large, the localities seemed to be very definitely 
circumscribed. The species were found in other places in 
which also the habitats may have been as definitely 
marked out, but it did not happen that our examination of 
them was sufficiently minute to justify an opinion. In- 
deed, of those I regarded as well defined, this is of course 
only true in regard to certain directions, but these directions 
were sufficiently numerous, being in fact the directions 
from which we turned back when collecting them, because 
no more were to be seen, to justify the broad statement. 

I must go into a little more detail as to the reasons that 
led me to consider the large form palarica, to be a distinct 
species from the small one, which I regard as a local form 
of stygne very close to my var. hispanica. 

The first and obvious reason is the difference in size. 
Size one regards usually as of little value as a specific 
character, and if it were in this case to stand alone, I 
should, as I did in the case of var. bejarcnsis, attach no 
importance to it. The size is, nevertheless', in this case a 
very marked and unmistakable character. I have measured 
all the specimens I brought home, and the result of 
measuring 55 £ 11 £ of stygne from Pajares, and 115 $ 
and 37 $ of palarica is, that the most dwarf palarica is 
1 mm. larger than the most giant stygne (hispanica), and 

Erebia palarica and Erchia stygnc. 18 

that the mean expanse of the two species differs by no less 
than 11 mm., nearly half-an-inch. The smallest £ ranging 
in size very close to stygne, var. hispanica, has a facies quite 
characteristic of palarica, so that no one could confuse them 

Palarica is indeed the largest of all the Erebias, averag- 
ing 59'0 mm. in exrjanse, and ranging from 55 mm. to 
64 mm. 

The largest Erebia according to Ruhl is parmmio, to 
which he gives an expanse of 50 mm. to 55 mm. E. cydopius 
is as large, and embla very nearly so. I find, however, 
that evias goes to 54. mm., but this is a maximum. 
Palarica has 59 mm. as an average. 

In size, stygnc, at Pajares, and palarica do not overlap ; 
the largest of the one is smaller than the smallest of the 

The next point, is that each was, wherever Ave closely 
observed it, strictly confined to its own habitat, into which 
the other did not trespass ; this was very remarkable at two 
points where the areas occupied by each approached to 
within a few dozen yards of each other. At one of these 
places opportunity served for me to notice how sharply 
defined was the margin of the territory of each species, and 
how a specimen driven over the border, came back after a 
very short detour. Nor did I ever find one butterfly where 
I found the other though it might not be very far off. 

Still it is difficult to suppose, considering how common 
they were in places, each in its own area, and how close 
these areas often were, that specimens did not sometimes 
visit the habitats of the other species, though I did not 
meet with such a case. And if they did and they were 
really all one species some crossing was to be expected, and 
intermediate forms ought to have occurred. Yet I must 
have seen many hundreds of specimens altogether of both 
species. In most places there was some difficulty in taking 
specimens, and sometimes only two or three were taken 
out of a score seen, and of these taken, though many 
wretched specimens were retained, a large number in poor 
condition were discarded. Those brought home must 
therefore be but a portion of the number of individuals from 
which I draw conclusions. Yet there never was the 
slightest difficulty in saying at once, of which species any 
particular specimen was. There was no trace of interme- 
diate or transitional forms or of hybrids. Considering how 

14 Dr. T. A. Chapman on 

easy, even inevitable, crossing must have been, had they 
been merely forms of one species, I see no means of avoid- 
ing the conclusion that the two forms are asyngamic. 
Such an attitude towards each other, seemed to be regarded 
as the truest test of specific distinctiveness of two forms, 
when the subject of " what is a species " was debated at 
our meeting last Spring. The difficulty is to put it to 
experiment. In the case of Ercbia palarica nature has 
provided the experiment, and the answer is distinct. 
Usually she separates the subjects of experiments so 
widely by time, place, and season, that the answer we have 
to form is a purely personal one, viz. / think if the experi- 
ment were made the answer would be so and so. It was 
in this way that I concluded, and still hold that all the 
Spanish forms of stygne previously known to me are of 
one species. 

When we examine the insects themselves for confirma- 
tion of this conclusion, we first have size, usually a poor 
specific character, but here so marked and constant as to 
have some weight. Then as to markings, the rusty blotches 
in both species are divided into sections by the more or 
less dark lines of the nervures. and each section in the 
interneural spaces of the fore- wing has a definite form that 
differs completely in the two species, and is constant in 
every one of the large number I have examined. In stygne 
the interneural blotch on its basal margin is stretched out 
centrally into a more or less full convex margin, as if the 
nervures carried the dark ground-colour into the blotch, 
and so forced it to swell out into the intervals. In 
palarica, each interneural blotch falls away from the base 
in its mid-neural line, forming a more or less deep notch. 
This is most marked in the blotch between nerves 3 and 4, 
where the ocellus is weak or absent. This blotch is also 
shorter than the others as if it failed with the ocellus, 
whilst in stygne, though the ocellus may be wanting, this 
blotch stretches inwards at least as strongly as the others. 
The result is an hour-glass shape of the rusty mark on the 
fore-wings, contrasting with the characteristic outline in 
stygne. In the ^ the rusty blotch is continued up to the 
costa, with a deflection base wards, by a whitish-grey shade, 
of which any trace is wanting in stygne. The blotches on 
the hind-wings have a similar character. The blotch of 
each ocellus is much the same in both species when it is 
reduced, but when it is pronounced and large, it differs 

Ercbia palarica and Erebia stygne. 15 

markedly in the two species. In stygne it extends basally 
in a rounded or even pointed projection in the middle of 
the interneural space, leaving the nervures, pronounced as 
sharp angular interruptions. In palarica the blotches 
extend inwards rather along the nervures than centrally, 
and the ocelli never bear the aspect of being at the 
outer end of the blotch as they so often have in stygne. 
Palarica never follows stygne in this character of the hind- 
wing, but a few stygne have a little of the tendency of 

I have one specimen, and one only of E. stygne $ , that 
so far traverses some of these distinctive points, that it may 
really be a hybrid. It is small like stygne, but has the 
inner margin of the blotches of the hind-wings like palarica. 
The blotches of the fore-wiugs are not distinctive, but the 
large double apical ocellus is placed in the blotch very 
much as in palarica. In stygne these ocelli are usually 
nearer the outer than inner margin of the blotch, in 
palarica they are quite median. 

To resume the distinctive characters of palarica and 
stygne, the under-side shows some slight differences. In 
both, the under-side of the hind-wing in the $ is often 
smooth, black and polished, with little or no marking, this 
is in fact the rule in stygne, and it is often difficult to make 
out the central darker band, and when seen it appears to 
have rather a smooth margin. This form is rare in 
palarica and generally the central band is quite conspicuous, 
and in a few instances has some white markings just out- 
side its outer border. This border is always carried 
outwards in the interneural spaces, and the general facies 
is much more that of evicts than of stygne. The markings 
are usually very distinct, with stygne one cannot find a 
specimen marked enough to make a satisfactory comparison. 
The $ palarica under-side differs from that of stygne, var. 
hispanica, in being less brown, more grey, and in being 
more distinctly marked, the basal margin of the central 
band being obscure or wanting in most stygne. There is, 
however, much variation in both species. If the difference 
be noted as a slight resemblance in the facies of the under- 
side of the hind-wings to evias, wanting in stygne, then 
we find that var. pmalarsz of stygne goes nearly as far in 
this direction as palarica, and var. bejarensis goes much 

A distinctive character is the structure of the clasps of 

16 Dr. T. A. Chapman on 

the male appendages. If there were no other reason to 
separate palarica from stygne than the outline of the 
clasps, I should certainly say they were not distinct. Still 
there is a difference by which palarica differs from all 
forms of stygne I have examined, and in which bcjarensis 
is distinctly stygne and not palarica. The difference is 
slight and difficult to seize, but in some specimens all 
mounted in the same way, and at the same time,* of 
palarica, and of Pajares stygne, the difference is constant. 
In specimens otherwise mounted it would probably express 
itself differently. In these preparations, the head of the 
clasp in stygne expands gradually from the neck, and is 
therefore long and not very broad ; the back of the clasp 
is in one continuous curve, and there is a distinct notch or 
step at the back of the head. In palarica the neck, is 
narrower and continues narrow, and the back of the clasp 
being, for some distance above the neck to the end, 
straight and having no notch at the end, the head instead 
of having nearly parallel sides, and so of quadrilateral form 
as in stygne, has the front line at a considerable angle to 
the back, and the head looks somewhat triangular. The 
terminal serrations are less visible in palarica, being forced 
under one edge, instead of being marginal. This shows 
that the differences are due in some degree to a different 
amount of twisting in mounting, caused by a difference 
in form, not necessarily, however, that presented in the 

The form of stygne with the nearest approach of clasp 
form to that of palarica is var. pyrcnaica, but it is 
distinctly stygne and not palarica. 

In palarica the side processes of the tegumen are 
constantly though slightly longer than in stygne. Not- 
withstanding the relative sizes of the insects, the clasps of 
stygne and of palarica are of almost identical size, that 
of stygne, var. bcjarensis, being longer. 

This is decidedly another character making bcjarensis 
a variety of stygne, and palarica distinct. Contrary to 
what perhaps one would expect, when geographical forms 
differ in size, the size of the clasps differs also ; this is very 
marked in tethiops where the large continental form has a 
clasp large in proportion compared with the British form. 

* By dividing the chitinous ring in the central line between the 
clasps, and opening it out on the slide, so that the two clasps are at 
each end of the preparation. 

Erebia palarica and Erebia stygne t 17 

So if palarica were a variety of stygne, one would expect 
to find the clasp large proportionally, instead of, as it is, 
just the same size. The ^ appendages also differ a little, 
especially a hemispherical hollow is rugose in palarica, 
much smoother in stygne, but I know so little of these 
appendages, not even the names of the several parts, that 
I can give no opinion as to the value of the difference, nor 
have I examined examples enough to know whether they 
are constant. 

Palarica being thus differentiated from stygne, one for 
the moment forgets the many points of resemblance, 
especially the close resemblance of the appendages, and 
the general scheme of colour and markings. In both these 
respects even, it is. however, more distinct from stygne 
than euryale is from ligea, or nerine is from melas (not 
lefebvrei, which is a very different thing). Are all the 
other Spanish forms of stygne, stygne, or are any of them 
palarica ? When in the field I thought that palarica was 
possibly an extreme form of bejarensis trusting merely to 
memory, the two points of large size, and dissociation from 
evias in which they agreed carried too much weight. A 
mere glance at the specimens when together is enough to 
show that bejarensis and all the others are stygne, bejar- 
ensis is certainly extreme, but pciialane, though differing 
in some directions, is fairly intermediate between bejarensis 
and hispanica. 

I am not sure that 1 have not too much laboured the 
distinctions between •palarica and stygne, as it would not 
surprise me to find that a majority of Rhopalocerists, 
looking at the specimens in my boxes, where the constancy 
of the two forms in good series is so manifest, and theii 
facies so different, would off-hand say they are unquestion- 
ably distinct. 

The small stygne of the Puerto de Pajares is intermediate 
between what I take to be typical stygne and the var. 
liispaniea. I do not think it enough removed from either 
to require a varietal name, though it is a fine, large, bright 
form, and is rather liispaniea if a name be necessary. 

The keynote of E. stygne, var. liispaniea, was its ap- 
proximation in size and markings to a form of evias that 
met it half-way in this respect, and that flew along with it 
I believe Mrs. Nicholl's specimens in the B. M. show that 
stygne and evias are similarly associated at the Picos de 
Europa, they ought therefore to be similarly associated at 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1905 — PART I. (MAY) 2 

18 Br. T. A. Chapman on 

Pajares. Probably they are. I took one $ specimen of evicts 
at Pajares ; it was a form that might very well be associated 
with stygne, but as a matter of fact I took it some 200 
yards from the nearest stygne ground, at about 5000 ft., 
and I took but the one. Why ? it was not in fine 
condition but not so bad as to show that the species was 

I also took one' $ specimen of evias at a long distance 
from the $ specimen. It was associated with small stygne 
at the highest point at which I found them, a small colony 
at 6000 ft. on very steep impracticable rocks, so that I only 
took two specimens. Evias may have been in greater 
proportion to the stygne here as I found one evias to two 
stygne, but the whole colony was a very small one, as, 
though I could not traverse the rocky slope, 1 easily got 
round it except at one side where it ended in a precipice. 
This ground was about 50 ft. above the upper margin of 
one of the highest localities for palarica. 

Why was evias so rare ? Was this a bad season for 
high-level evias 1 I will explain immediately what I mean 
by high-level evias. It was not for want of going over 
plenty of ground that I found only these two. 

On going rather later (July 24th) to the Guadarrama, 
we hunted well the slopes of the Penalara, whence our 
President brought one specimen each (taken in 1902) of 
stygne and evias, taken together, and so alike as to leave 
no doubt they were mimetically associated on the Penalara 
as we found them on the Sierra de la Damanda at Canales. 
On the Penalara we found E. stygne, var. penalara}, in 
considerable numbers, unfortunately in a very poor con- 
dition, except on some very rough ground near the top, 
where they were less common and almost impossible 
to take. As I brought home some 30 specimens I must 
have handled 50 or 60 specimens. Amongst them was not 
even one evias. I can only suppose evias was for some 
reason very scarce. We were not too late to have seen 
some old worn specimens, and I specially took many worn 
individuals in hopes they might afford an evias; they were 
all, however, stygne. 

In what I have just said about evias, var. penalarm, some 
one may perhaps think I am casting some doubt on the 
President's specimen, that he got it somehow mixed up. 
If I thought so, I should say so, and no one who knows the 
President would think such a thing likely. But the 

Erebia palarica and Erebia stygne. 19 

specimen itself is abundant reply to all such doubts, it is 
just such an evias as one would expect to find on Penalara 
with stygne and is not precisely like any other race of 
evias. Why did I get none ? Why did I get only two at 
Pajares ? I incline to believe that evias was scarce this 
season, but I don't know. This brings us to another point 
which concerns evias, which I cannot do more than open 
up, my own observations being too few to settle anything. 

It is this, we have found at three or four places in Spain, 
a small form of evias associated with stygne, at a fairly 
high level, and in each place the two species have a special 
similar facies. This form occurs about mid-July. But at 
the end of May there occurs apparently over a laige part of 
Spain, a low-level evias. I have never taken this form, 
being always too late for it on my visits to Spain. But I 
saw a number this year in collections at Madrid. Like the 
high-level form, it very probably varies a good deal at 
different stations, but those I saw at Madrid were large and 
brightly coloured, like large Swiss specimens, such as I 
have taken at Locarno, with the rusty marks bright and 
ruddy, and not yellowish, as in var. hispanica, and probably 
four or five mm. more in expanse than that var. and five 
or six more than var. pefialarse. Sr. Zapater records 
both forms from the Teruel district, and Mrs. Nicholl has 
reported low-level evias from various localities, and there 
are other records. What is the relation of these high- and 
low-level forms of evias to each other ? The low are large, 
bright, early, and self-dependent; the higher, smaller, 
yellower, later, and associated with stygne. Are they 
syngamic ? With only our present light on the matter, I 
incline to answer " yes," but with hesitation ; we have no 
experiment naturally provided as in the case of E. stygne 
and palarica. 

I can only repeat that E. stygne and E. evias in Spain 
still present many interesting questions for investigation. 

High- and low-level evias are to a great extent evias 
hispanica and evias evias, but I do not think we have 
evidence to justify such an identification. In fact, Mrs. 
Nicholl takes evias evias at high levels, and evias hispanica 
in Albarracin is not decidedly a high-level form. 

Appended is a table of the wing expanse of the varieties 
of stygne and evias I have met with, and of palarica — in 
some instances founded on too few specimens to be trust- 
worthy, still the best I can obtain for comparison. 

20 Dr. T. A. Chapman on 

I must note that most of my measurements were made 
from the insects as set, and are probably two or three mm. 
too small. I notice that Ruhi's measurements quoted seem 
small, and I suspect were made in the same way (from tip 
to tip) in insects with the wings much advanced and 
therefore in some cases quite five mm. too small. 

I add also a note of the varieties of the three species 
known to me from Spain. 

I was successful in getting both E. stygne and palarica 
to lay eggs freely by sleeving them over grass. 

Unfortunately, being on the move prevented my making 
such notes of the eggs and young larvae as I should have 
liked. I sent a number of eggs to Mr. H. Powell, of 
Hyeres, whose knowledge of Satyrid larvae is more extensive 
than that of any other of my entomological friends. I 
append his notes and my own. The difference between 
the eggs struck me at first as being considerable, the one 
have the minute dots that form the coloured patches in few 
and large groups, the other in smaller but more numerous 
ones : this conclusion was reached on the first eggs laid by 
each species, and were those of one female of each. Later 
when I got eggs laid by several others, I found that these 
differences were not specific but individual. Each female 
laid eggs all alike in these markings, and differing more or 
less from those laid by others, but each species seemed to 
have practically an identical range of variation in this 

Mr. Powell agrees with me in two points. First, the 
eggs of the larger species are rather the smaller, and, 
secondly, there would be no difficulty in separating the newly 
hatched larvae of the two species if mixed. Curiously, 
however, Mr. Powell says that the larva of polaricd is 
darker than that of stygne (though he says that within the 
egg it is lighter), whilst I note the pale lateral stripes as 
being rather paler. I agree with him, however, in the 
stripes being better marked. 

I agree with him also in another point that is probably 
of considerable importance. I supplied both larvae with a 
grass (Festuea ovina, or something like it) from stygne 
ground, and stygne did well on it, and when (at La 
Granja) I had to find a substitute (I fancy another var. of 
the same grass), they ate that also, and I succeeded in 
bringing them home, and believe I have some alive now 
(Dec. 1904). The palarica, however, did badly on the 

Erebia palarica and Erebia stygne. 21 

same grass, and at La Granja, gradually starved themselves, 
and died. I got none home alive This clearly indicates a 
different taste in food-plant, as Mr. Powell also points out, 
though he was handicapped by a Riviera summer, practi- 
cally making grass unobtainable. 

Small stygne eggs laid July 14th and 15th, are pearly 
white when newly laid, but soon become slightly brownish. 
This is due to a general change of colour, but chiefly to a 
development of brown patches, each consisting of an 
agglomeration of dark dots. These vary very much in their 
disposition. In one or two cases the dots are nearly 
uniformly distributed (not in patches). The patches may 
be four or five in the length or width of the egg, with 
small spaces between, or they may be much smaller, so that 
there are eight or ten to the length of the egg. On some 
the dots are distinctly in regular rows in each patch. 

They vary a little in size and shape, about 1*3 mm. high, 
and 08 wide, a little narrower at the top, but maintaining 
width to close to each end. There are 22 ribs, varying 
from 20 (one counted) to 24 or perhaps 25. The ribs are 
high but not sharp, and may be a little waved. They 
never branch or anastomose, but end at top by merging in 
an area that looks beaded (high power not available). 
The secondary ribs are poorly marked but very distinct 
when a suitable light falls on them. 

Large stygne {palarica) eggs laid July 16th and 17th, 
same as small. They are perhaps those of one £ only, but 
they are very uniform in size of red-brown patches, viz., 
about 5 or 6 across egg and ribs seem most usually 24, 
but one is found with 21. 

In the individual variations of the eggs it is difficult to 
be sure of size, but that of palarica seems to be fraction- 
ally less than of stygne — 1*2 instead of 1*3 mm. Each $ 
seems to lay eggs of a similar facies, with the later 
smaller and even stunted and deformed. Later layings by 
other $$ of palarica showed the range of variation in the 
egg markings to be practically the same in both species. 

The eggs of both hatched between July 31st and 
August 2nd. The young larvae are very nearly identical. 
The large palarica seem the paler in having the dorsal 
band slightly narrower and the lateral line is lighter in 
colour. It might be called white in the larger (jpedmiea), 
yellow in the small {stygne), but this would exaggerate 
the difference, 

22 Dr. T. A. Chapman on 

The following description was taken some time after 
returning home ; it may have some value as a description 
of first stage of stygne, but palarica having all died, it is 
useless for comparison with that species, still less, of course, 
will the later stages have the value hoped for when I 
thought I might rear both species. 

Erebia stygne (small form), Aug. 24th. Larva full-grown in first 
stage, length 4*8 mm., head looks very small, about - 5 mm. wide, 
forward segments being quite - 9. It tapers very steadily from 2nd 
or 3rd abdominal to tail, 9th abdominal segment being about 05 mm. 
across, 10th smaller. 

Ground-colour whitish terra-cotta, a narrow dorsal red-brown band 
(or line) broadest at 5th or 6th abdominal. Then a broad pale band, 
which includes both I. and II., which are widely apart, one at front, 
other at hind-margin of segment, and II. quite twice as far from 
middle line as I. Next, a narrow red line, then a pale one, nearly 
white, i. e., decidedly lighter than general ground-colour. Then a 
broader dark band, paler than the others owing to a good deal of 
marbling of pale ground-colour in it, in this is III. Then a very 
narrow whitish band and a very narrow brown (or reddish-brown) 
line in which is spiracle. Then a broad yellowish-white band in 
which are IV. and V. The anterior much the lower and the line of 
spiracle just between them. Then a narrow reddish band, a slightly 
broader pale one, and a narrow weakly-coloured dark one. Below 
this is the proleg with two hairs at margin, and on 1st and 2nd 
abdominal one hair in place of proleg, and another more ventral 
(this may be more in situation of proleg), a minute one still more 
ventral. No hair or tubercle is found on the three lines below the 
band carrying IV. and V. Legs and prolegs pale fleshy, four hairs 
and three dots like hairless tubercles on claspers. Head round, with 
fine wrinkling, making it rough. The anterior ocellus very large 
and prominent ; the second smaller, but very similar and very close 
to it, the others flat and inconspicuous. The two first have pigment 
in the epicranium, as well as the mass beneath. The head also 
carries a number of hairs of the same colourless texture with rough 
surface, curved and clubbed, as those of the ordinary tubercles. 
The anal plate carries four hairs on conical tubercles along its 
posterior margin, and one in either side higher up. On the pro- 
thorax is a small plate on either side with four hairs, two in front 
and two further back. Further down in line with plate, and well 
above, and in front of spiracle, is a double tubercle of which the 
front hair is short and curved like the others, but the second though 
transparent and rough (not spieulated) like the others is straight, 

Ercbia palarica and Ercbia stygne. 23 

and four or five times their length. Below is a tubercle with one 
very short clubbed hair. This is as much below spiracle as the 
double one is above it. Thoracic 2nd and 3rd have I. and II. single 
and in the same transverse line as is III. which is however double, 
it is exactly in line with III. abdominal. Below and quite to front 
of segment, is a single tubercle. This is below line of spiracle but 
above IV. and V. Lower is a single tubercle at base of leg (on pro- 
thorax two). Prolegs have six hooks in single line, claspers eight. 
The terminal bristle of the antenna rather long, three times the rest 
of the antenna, or nearly so. The bristles are rather longer than 
elsewhere, round the mouth region. The hairs of tubercles are very 
small, curved backwards and slightly clubbed, transparent, and with 
a roughened surface, in length, perhaps O06 mm. 

The following are Mr. Powell's notes. 

"Erebia stygne. 
" Ova received from Dr. Chapman, July 21st, 1904. 

" The eggs are fixed to blades of grass. 

" Shape. Oval, with a flattened base concave in the centre. The 
top is only slightly flattened. 

" Appearance. Pearly with a pinkish tinge, blotched with reddish- 
grey. Vertical ribbing quite distinct under hand-lens. Height, 
1*2 mm. Greatest width, -9 to 1 mm. 

" Under Microscope x 50. There are 21 (sometimes 22) vertical ribs 
running from the edge of the base to the top, where they become 
rather lumpy and broken, dying out on the nearly smooth area 
around the micropyle. They are blunt-edged, with gently sloping 
sides. The cross ribs are numerous, and of course very much 
smaller and lower than the others. They constitute the long sides of 
cells, the tops of the vertical ribs forming the short sides. On the 
top of the egg the cells are large and irregular in shape, triangular, 
lozenge-shaped, etc. They diminish very much in size as they near 
the centre, in which is the invisible micropyle. There is no depres- 
sion at the top, but in a few specimens the centre is occupied by a 
low, roughened pimple formed by a bunching-up of the lumpy ends 
of the ribs. The blotches observed under the hand-lens are seen to 
be composed of pinkish or chocolate-coloured specks arranged in 
loose groups. 

"These groups are beneath the eggshell. That they 
are directly connected with the living contents of the egg 

24 Dr. T. A. Chapman on 

there is no doubt, for they can be seen to move back- 
wards and forwards together, always keeping the same 
relative positions. The movement is a fairly brisk one, 
reminding one of a shrug of the shoulders. It can be 
induced by breathing upon the egg, or by giving a 
tap to the support on which it rests, but it occurs from 
time to time even when the egg is unmolested. Many 
other (perhaps all) Erebim ova develop these pinkish 
blotches after a few days. I have seen something similar 
in Coznonympha. The base of the egg is covered with 
large shallow cells of irregular shape. Before hatching the 
colour darkens to dull fleshy grey, there being darker and 
lighter patches. The groups of specks disappear when 
this change takes place, and the shape and markings of 
the larva are seen through the shell. The head occupies 
all the upper part of the egg, while the body is curled 
round horizontally with the extremity turned downwards. 
The numerous pits on the head show through as brown 
dots. The two groups of beads (ocelli ? one on each side) 
are very clear, so is the mouth and the arch above it. 
The markings of the body (lines and tubercles) are quite 
distinct. The larvae commenced to hatch out on July 
23rd, and all were out by the evening of July 24th. 
They eat away the top of the egg in a circle, emerge 
through the hole made, and eat up the rest of the egg or 
part of it. 

" The newly-hatched larva is 28* mm. long when still, but can reach 
3 mm. when walking. Width of the head - 7 mm. It is a large 
head, and is higher and broader than the body, which tapers to begin 
with, down to the forks. The colour is that of most newly-hatched 
Satyrids, a sort of pale straw. The shape and markings of the 
head are typically Satyrid. It is rounded, rather flattened in front ; 
much resembles a lemon rind in pitting and polish. The pits are 
large. Depression between the lobes very shallow. The side 
' beads ' (ocelli 1) are large, dark brown, and shiny. The usual 
small, brown seta patches are very distinct. Setae short, transparent, 
curved forward. Those just over the mouth are longest. 

" The 1st division of the 1st thoracic segment has 16 small beady- 
brown tubercles arranged transversely but not in an exact line. The 
2nd and 3rd thoracic segments have both a dorsal dark-brown 
tubercle-bead outside the dorsal stripe. In a line with it on the 
sub-dorsal stripe they have another bead. The abdominal segments 
have the first bead on, the 1st sub-division, and in a line with those 

Erebia palcvrica and Ercbia stygne, 25 

on the thoracic segments. They have the second bead at the other 
end of the segment sad just above the sub-dorsal stripe. Another 
line of large tubercle-beads (one in the centre of each segment and 
nearly in a vertical line with the spiracles) runs down the larva 
between the spiracular and supra-spiracular stripes. These last 
beads are doubled on the 2nd and 3rd thoracic segments. They 
generally approach the supra-spiracular stripe, entering its lower 
edge on the 6th abdominal segment and remaining in the stripe 
afterwards. Above the lateral border are two small beads, the first 
in the front of the segment, the other farther back and higher. All 
beads have short transparent hairs. The feet and claspers have each 
two or three beads bearing longer hairs than those on the body, with 
the exception of those growing from the tubercles on the 8th 
abdominal and anal segments. 

" There are three conical tubercles on each fork (last segment) point- 
ing backwards and giving rise to single, rather long, transparent 
hairs. One of these tubercles terminates the fork ; the two others 
are lateral. The ground-colour of the body is a pale straw-grey. 
The stripes are pinkish-brown. Dorsal line weak on the thoracic 
segments, well-marked on abdominals. Sub-dorsal line narrower 
but better marked on the thoracic segments. Supra-spiracular and 
spiracular both well marked, the former thickening as it runs down 
the body, and continued along the edge of the forks. The space 
between the lateral edge and the spiracular line is very light. 
Beneath the edge, and therefore within the limit of the ventral 
surface, is a very narrow pinkish-brown line. The stripes are 
broken by the segmental and sub-segmental incisions. The dark 
colour does not penetrate the crevices. This is most marked in the 
case of the sub-dorsal and supra-spiracular stripes. Ventral surface, 
claspers and feet of the usual pale straw-colour. Forks : short, 
thick, and lying close. Claspers on last segment large, with several 
hair-bearing tubercles. The spiracles are round, dark-brown beads, 
no larger than the tubercles above them except on the 1st thoracic 
and 8th abdominal segments, but they are rather lighter in colour. 

" The larvae ate the grass I was able to give them, but it 
was too tough and dry to nourish them properly, so they 
soon died. No good grass was obtainable owing to the 
drought. In course of time I was able to improve the 
grass by watering, but it was then too late. 

"Erebia palarica. 
"Ova received from Dr. Chapman, July 21st, 1904, 
" The eggs are fixed to blades of grass. 

26 Dr. T. A. Chapman on 

"As the egg is much like stygne's I will not go through all the 
details again, but will note the points of difference. 

"Size. All those observed were distinctly smaller. Height, 
1"0 mm. to 1 - 1 mm. Greatest width, 085 mm. 

" Colour. Whiter. 

"Number of vertical ribs, 22 to 24, none with less than 22. 

" The arrangement of cells at the top of the egg is on the whole more 
regular, and the top looks smoother, but this is not always the case. 
None of the eggs have anything like a eentral pimple, however, as 
seen in a few stygne. I do not consider this is a good distinction, 
for I have noticed that in some Satyrids the top of the egg varies in 
the same species. S. cordula, for instance, has sometimes a decided 
cone around the micropyle owing to the bunching of the lumpy 
extremities of the ribs ; in other specimens the top is fairly level. 

" The specks beneath the shell are less numerous, and rather 
smaller. The groins are better defined, not so straggling ; they 
are browner, not so pink. The same movement is observable. 

"Before hatching, the eggs underwent similar changes to those 
noted in stygne but without becoming quite so dark. Hatching 
commenced on July 23rd, and all the young larvae were out by the 
afternoon of the next day. 

"Larva is smaller than stygne. Length, when first hatched, 
2-6 mm., when walking, about 2'8 mm. Width of the head, about 
0-6 mm. 

" The larva is darker in appearance than stygne and 
that is on account of the stripes which are more strongly 
marked, especially the supra- spiracular stripe. The 
ground-colour is the same in both. If the larvae are 
mixed together it is quite easy to separate them without 
any possibility of a mistake. 

" I gave these larvae Brachypodium pinnatum, but was 
unable to get any with fresh shoots. I also tried them 
with a Festuca which I had in a pot, but it had only a 
very few green blades. I tried them with a third grass, 
but nothing suited them, and they quickly dried up, with- 
out having eaten anything at all, as far as I could see. 
They perished several days before the stygne larvae. 
Stygne ate Brachypodium and another grass, and if they 
could have got some fresh shoots I have no doubt they 
would have lived." 

It may be proper to give a short diagnosis of : 

Erehia palarica. 

Colour and markings like E. stygne, except in the inner margins 

Erebia palariea and Erelria stygne. 27 

of the elements of the red blotches, being notched and receding, 
instead of convex and advancing, in the under-side of £ hind-wing 
being often more distinctly marked, and in the red blotch in the 
$ upper wing being continued to costa as a whitish or greyish 
shade. Appendages, head of clasper more triangular and more 
definitely marked off by a narrower neck. Expanse 53-64 mm. 
Habitat, Cantabrian range at Puerto de Pajares, and Picos de 
Europa, and probably elsewhere. 

I will place type specimens in the National Collection. 

Erebia stygne, var. penalarm, is diagnosed in Proc. Ent. 
Soc, 1904, p. xlvi, from one specimen only. The series 
taken this year shows that the race is one of the most 
variable of stygne. Some are not very different from 
those taken at Pajares. Others are like that described, 
and not a few vary even more, so as to seem to be quite 
on the way to a form like bejarensis. The £ $ show more 
markedly than the males the remarkable inward extension 
of the red blotches, which is carried so far in bejarensis. 
In expanse it is smaller than the hispaniea form from 
Canales, but larger than that from Pajares. 

The two evias taken at Pajares are small, and are of 
different types, but are within the limits of variation of 
E. evias, var. hispaniea, but a good way from its average 
type. The high-level £ is so very like the £ of stygne 
taken at the same time and place, that I did not recognize 
the specimen as evias, even when I had got it home and 
set it, and only discovered it on critically examining the 
specimens afterwards. 

Mrs. Nicholl has kindly lent me three specimens, which 
I may note as a specimen of E. stygne of fairly ordinary 
type, 48 mm. in expanse, one of several taken on Mont 
Seny, 6000 feet, near Barcelona, date not given. Mont 
Seny is almost a spur of the Pyrenees ; this specimen, 
witli several taken by Mr. Burr, one over the frontier at 
Salient, May 29th, 1904, proves, what we had no record of 
before, but which nevertheless every one supposed to be 
the case, that E. stygne occurs on the south as on the 
north slope of the Pyrenees, and no doubt more or less 
throughout the range, and probably abundant enough. 
The other two specimens are in response to my request 
to see the most extreme form of evias from the Albarracin 
district. One of these, expanse 50 mm., is a male taken early 
in July on the summit of Sierra Camarena (Javalambre, 

28 Dr. T. A. Chapman on 

6000 feet). This specimen is identical with not a few of 
those from Canales. The other is a very dwarf £ from 
Tragacete, June 29th. This is probably a genuine aberration 
as regards size, being only 40 mm. in expanse as compared 
with smallest from Canales, 44 mm., or both measured as 
set 38 mm. and 41 mm. Otherwise, as regards form, 
colour, markings, etc., it agrees exactly with various Canales 
specimens. These from their locality are true var. hispanica, 
Zapater, and go to show that hispanica is a high-level form 
of cvias, in the Teruel district as elsewhere. 

What we know of the geographical distribution of 
these butterflies is too fragmentary to take us very far, but 
it is sufficient to afford a few interesting considerations. 
Assuming the Erebias to have reached Spain via the 
Pyrenees, whilst it is just possible that zapatcri may have 
reached the localities where it has developed its peculiar 
character by way of the coast hills, for the most part we 
find the Pyrenees so absolutely cut off from the rest of 
Spain, so far as mountain forms are concerned, by the 
wide and low valley of the Ebro, that the Erebias must 
first have travelled westward into the Cantabrian range 
before they could circle round the head waters of that 
river. It was probably at a very early date that palarica 
broke away from stygne, probably as early as the parting 
of zapatcri from neoridas. 

It is, however, with stygne and cvias that we are more 
concerned. At the Picos de Europa, 180 miles west of 
Pyrenees, the two species are still but little differentiated 
from their mid-European types, nor is it clear that cvias 
has a high- and a low-level form distinguishable from each 

Mrs. Nicholl at Aliva on the high slopes of Peria vieja, 
5000 feet, met on "July 12th with one poor cvias, many 
stygne. July 14th, one nice $ climbing Pefia vieja. July 
17th, on the Col de las Nieves (at least 6500 feet) a few 
evias. July 18th, above Aliva, about 6000 feet, cvias 
much battered, could scarcely get any good ones." She 
writes that she has in her collection only four specimens 
of evias from the Picos, " of which three are £ $, large and 
much spotted ; I caught many that I did not keep as they 
were over, except a few very high up. They are very differ- 
ent to the small form from Aragon. The type of stygne was 
very common on all the Picos, up to the middle of July, 
on the southern and eastern sides of the range ; I saw few 

Erebia palarica and Erebia stygne. 29 

or none afterwards on the west and north faces of the 
same mountains, and I saw remarkably few butterflies on 
the west and north of the Picos." 

There are, as I have already noted, two Picos evicts in 
the B. M. collection ; unfortunately they have only general- 
ized labels, but one seems to be like the low-level forms, 
the other approaches the high-level one. 

Going sixty miles further west to Pajares, we find stygne 
less abundant, its habitat even restricted, but common 
enough where it occurred. The three localities I most 
closely examined were, first, the high-level one already 
noted (over 6000 feet), I met with no other so high ; with 
these a definitely high-level form of evicts. Second, at the 
Puerto and extending for a mile along the north (Asturias) 
side of the col, but not apparently reaching very far 
either up or down from the 4500 feet level. The aspect 
would be N. and N.W. The third locality was nearly two 
miles below the col on the south side (Leon) at about 
4250 feet, a comparatively small patch of a few hundred 
acres, with a westerly aspect. 

We took specimens at a few other localities, but not in 
circumstances to enable us to say what might be the 
extent of the habitat, but generally these places had an 
easterly aspect and were at about 4500 or 5000 feet. One 
evias of doubtful high-level type not closely associated 
with these. These stygne from Pajares make a certain 
approach to the hispanica form, so that it is convenient to 
call them so, but many individuals are little if at all 
removed from the ordinary type. 

It would be interesting to know what forms occur 
further west in the corner of Spain to the north of 
Portugal and in Portugal itself, but for the present this is 
a blank. The next point is at Canales to the south of the 
Ebro. Here stygne and evias are both modified by way 
of approach to each other, and fly together in about equal 
numbers. Evias probably has a low-level form here. The 
high-level one with stygne is of the form hispanica, but 
only a few reach typical hispanica, others still retain 
something of ordinary evicts. The stygne is less vari- 
able than at Pajares, is two mm. larger and averages 
larger than the associated evicts. Forty miles east of 
this, at Moncayo, the same form of evias is found, but we 
saw no stygne ; possibly it does not occur there, as stygne 
seems to fail eastwardly, evicts towards the west. 

30 Dr. T. A. Chapman on 

Passing now to the Guadarrama, S.W. from Canales some- 
thing more than 100 miles, and at an elevation of 6000- 
8700 feet, we find a still more specialized form of stygne, 
very variable, from forms nearly typical to the peculiar 
penalara; and to forms as bright as bejarensis. These are 
associated with an equally specialized high-level evicts of 
rather small size, and very different from the low-level 
form of the same region. 

A hundred miles to the west of this is Bejar, at about 
5000 feet. Stygne occurs in a very large highly-coloured 
form, but there is no record of evicts with it. Neverthe- 
less the association of the two species in the Penalara 
and the approach made by many specimens of stygne 
there to the var. bejarensis, seems to lend a little further 
plausibility to my suggestion that stygne, var. bejarensis, 
owes its largeness and brightness to association with 
evicts, though that species appears to have failed to go 
(at least in a high-level form) so far to the south and 

A hundred miles east of Madrid in the Albarracin and 
neighbouring Sierras occurs evicts apparently in ordinary 
large red form and in the special small yellow form, 
hispanica. I have no information to show whether these 
are in any sense a high- and low-level form. It seems 
certain that there is no stygne here. And a high-level 
evicts apparently implies stygne. Nevertheless, I will 
venture the suggestion that evicts hispanica in the Teruel 
district has, as it were, got there vicl stygne, even though 
that species could not follow, just the converse of what I 
suggest about stygne bejarensis to the west. The resem- 
blance of the two forms of stygne, and the fairly con- 
tinuous range of Sierra, from Penalara to Bejar, would 
suggest that Bejar was reached via Guadarrama; whilst the 
Teruel district was reached from the Canales area, via the 
head-waters of the Duero and the Jalon, would be the 
conclusion for similar considerations in the case of evias. 
I saw no stygne in the Albarracin Sierra, and incline to 
believe it is really absent, the Sierra not being lofty 
enough, as it hardly comes below 7000 feet on the Guad- 
arrama in same latitude ; so far east in this latitude it is 
also possibly too dry. 

JErebia palarica . . Picos de Europa. 1902. Nicholl. 
„ „ . . Puerto de Pajaree. 1904. T. A. C. 

Erebia palarica and Erebia stygne. 81 

Erebia stygne stygne . In Pyrenees (Spanish side). Burr. 1904. 

„ or "> 
7 • . } Picos de Europa. Nicholl. 

,, x Puerto de Pajares. T. A. C. 

„ o Canales de ]a Sierra. T. A. C. 

pencdarae + + Guadarrama. Spanish Collection. 
Poulton. 1902. T.A. C. 1904. 

Erebia evias evicts . . Picos, Guadarrama, Teruel and probably 

many other places in Spain. 

„ hispanica x Approaching Puerto de Pajares. T.A. C. 

„ ,, o . . Canales de la Sierra. 

,, ,, oo . . Teruel. 

„ peiialtinv + + Guadarrama. Poulton. 1902. 

stygne bejarensis oo Bejar. T. A. C. 

x associated. 

+ + 

oo apparently unassociated with any form of the other species. 

I add a Table of the expanses of the various forms of 
these species so far as my material allows. 


Dr. T. A. Chapman 





■ Stygne. 








Pen A LARA. 




3 8 


8 9 

8 9 

8 9 

8 9 

8 9 

8 9 

J 9 

8 9 

















2 1 


5 2 



1 1 


2 1 


• 1 



4 1 

3 2 



1 e 

7 3 



2 1 

8 7 

5 3 


1 9 


13 3 



12 4 
• o 


1 2 

9 1 


6® 2 


15 1 

2 4 



5 1 

7 1 

1 2 

1 1 


5 3 

4 2 

2 1 






3 1 













4 2 

33 9 

59 17 

IS 16 1 — 

4 — 

2 — 

1 1 

55 11 


2-0 46-0 4 

9-0 49-4 48-3 48'2 4 

7'2 47-847-0 — 4 

6-2 — 4 

8-5 — 

46 45 46*24 47-0 

* In these columns measurements are taken without allowance for setting, true expanses are therefore nearly 2 

Mean expanse, or a solitary specimen. 

Ercbia palarica and Erebia stygnc. 


* * 

Palarica. Stygnc. 



According to 







6* 9 

6 9 


6 9 










-t 1 


G J 








Small Swiss stygne 

in B.M. 

• cr/"\ peHalara 

type 47. 

9 stygne pefialarm 

type 44. 



Largest Pyrenean (French) 

stygnc in B.M. 



3 2 

1 • 



• o 




1 3 


1 • 




2 2 

4 2 

2 t 

9 3 

26 1 8 


28 9 
• • 


26 6 

12 3 

7 6 


llfi :',S 1 1 16 9 

6 1 

r >7-2 57-25 49 47'6 49-7 52" 

520 49 

enter than set down. e.g. Several pi 

t Tw 
OC. I. <>N 

rately mi asured are foi 
i largesl Swiss ill i: \l. 

1). L905. PART 

nd to i"' 158 mil 64 nun. ii. expanse. 
I. (-MAY! 3 


Explanation of Plates. 

Explanation of Plates II, III, IV, V, VI. 

Plate II. 

Fig. 1. Erebia palwrica, £ upper side. 


, „ „ under „ 

? upper „ 

, „ under „ 

, stygne from Puerto de Pajares, £ upper side. 
„ „ „ „ „ under „ 

„ n » ? upper „ 

) >> >> ?> >) v under ,, 

, eirias, var. hispanica, from Canales, ^ . 

, „ „ „ „ Pajares, 9 , only specimen 

of high-level form taken. 

Plate III. 

Fig. 1. Erebia stygne, £ Swiss, upper side. 

2. „ evicts, S Digne „ „ 

3. ,, stygne, var. hispanica, £ , Canales, upper side. 

*■ 55 JJ 55 55 + 5J 55 55 

5. ,, evicts, var. hispanica, £ ,, „ „ 

"■ JJ 51 55 55 V -5 )) 1J 

7. „ stygne, var. pehalarx, £ upper side. 

"• 55 55 JJ 55 ¥ 5) 55 

9. „ „ „ „ 9 under „ 

10. „ „ var. bejarensis, $ ivpper „ 

11 9 

ix- 55 55 55 55 + 55 55 

12. „ 9 under „ 

Explanation of Plates. 35 

Plate IV. 

As a Plate this is open to criticism, but it shows what it is desired 
to do. Figs. 1 and 2 are E. stygne, and 3 and 4 E. evias, taken 
by Mrs. Nicholl at the Pi cos de Europa in 1902. The two species 
show some little approach to each other, but one at least of the 
evias is clearly the ordinary form, and these and other specimens 
leave it doubtful whether E. evias has here made any recognizable 
progress into the division into a large, bright, low-level, early 
form (evias) and a small, pale, high-level, late form (hispanica). 
Figs. 5 and 6 are Professor Poulton's two specimens, one evias, 
one stygne, from Pehalara. The evias (var. penalarx) is clearly a 
high-level form, but specially varied to agree with the stygne (var. 
penalar&) rather than quite like var. hispanica. 

Plate V. 

Sketch map of the northern half of Spain, showing habitats of Erebia 
palarica and of E. stygne and evias and their varieties. The lines 
connecting the stations for evias and stygne mark the progressive 
variation of E. stygne to successively vars. hispanica (Canales), 
penalarse (Pehalara) and bejarensis (Bejar), and of evias to vars. 
hispanica (Canales and Albarracin) and penalarse (Pehalara). 
Low-level (type) evias is more widespread (as the others probably 
are also) than is indicated on the map. 

Plate VI.. 

Fig. 1. Eggs of Erebia palarica, x 10. 

2. „ „ stygne (Puerto de Pajares) x 10, both from 
photographs by A. E. Tonge, Esq. 

3. Clasp of E. palarica x 24. 

4. ,, E. stygne x 24. 

( 37 ) 

IV. Another Entomological .Excursion to Spain. By GEORGE 
Charles Champion, F.Z.S., and Dr. Thomas 
Algernon Chapman, M.D., F.Z.S. ; with descrip- 
tions of two new species of Hemipteta, by Prof. 
O. M. Reuter. 

[Read February 1st, 1905.] 

Plate VII. 

The Puerto de Pajares is by no means unknown to 
naturalists, and even entomologists have visited the 
district, but so far as we know no lepidopterists have 
examined it. Herr Lucas von Heyden gives a rather full 
note on it in the account of his journey in Spain in 1805, 
in company with other entomologists (all coleopterists), 
which was published in 1870 by the Berlin Entomological 
Society. He especially dwells on the amenities of his 
quarters at Arbas, which was his pied-d-terre for the region, 
which reads very humorously. He found adequate quarters 
in the muleteers' cabin opposite the priest's residence, 
where men and beasts shared the lodging, and, the door 
being open, sudden charges of cats, fowls, and pigs were 
matters of course throughout the night. Arbas, Albas, 
Arvas, Abbas, seem to be varied spellings, of which Arbas 
is probably most correct and Arvas would give in English 
nearly the correct pronunciation. This place is about a 
mile to the south of the Puerto by the roadside, and 
consists of an old church or chapel with a priest's residence, 
a variety of cowsheds, of which one long row has living- 
rooms over and looks like a row in a colliery district. The 
Puerto de Pajares is at an elevation of about 4500 ft. and 
we selected it for our excursion, hoping to get lodgings at 
Arbas or at Busdongo (the town and railway station to the 
south of the Pass is at about 4200 ft.), or perchance at 
Pajares (the station to the north side of the Pass, the 
town being, however, below the station and rather below 
4000 ft.). 

On arrival at Busdongo, we heard we might perhaps be 
put up at the " tienda " of Senor Francisco Alonzo, at the 
Puerto itself, and it turned out that this establishment 
possessed three bedrooms for travellers, and though small 
and over the stables and piggeries, they served our purpose, 


38 Mr. G. C. Champion's and Dr. T. A. Chapman's 

■with less call on our philosophy than Herr von Heyden 
must have suffered. We remained here from July 3th — 

Coming up from the south at Leon, the railway follows 
the valley, and has to make hardly any twists or spirals, 
to reach the Perruca tunnel, by which it pierces the col. 
But on the north face it emerges on a steep slope, and 
has to make many curves and zigzags to fall some 2500 ft. 
in half-a-dozen miles, running in fact over twenty actual 
miles of line. At the Puerto the road south follows the 
bottom of the valley at a regular and easy gradient. On the 
north side the floor of this valley is some 2000 ft. below 
and looks as if one could throw a stone into it. The 
mountains on the north side have very steep slopes, with 
bold outlines and rocky and precipitous summits, and 
there are many picturesque rocky outcrops. Although 
there are some bold rocks here and there in the southern 
valleys, generally speaking the hills are rounded and 
grassy, but often with very steep flanks. They have very 
little wood on the south side. On the north there is much 
beech wood, mixed with birch in the higher ground, little 
larger than coppice towards the Puerto, but with actual 
timber lower down. The region seems to be destitute of 
pine forests. 

The general aspect of the country, as to physical 
features and vegetation, was more like portions of the 
Scotch Highlands than anything in the central portion of 
Spain that we visited. The country is, in fact, Atlantic 
and not Mediterranean, and has a rainfall that is not 
lacking at any season of the year, more than occasionally 
happens even in Scotland. Going into detail, however, 
the flora of course presented many plants unknown in the 
north, though heather, gorse, various pasture and bog 
grasses and other plants, such as Seneeio, etc., were actually 
or nearly identical. 

During most of our stay, we were much interested for 
practical as well as other reasons in a curious daily cycle 
that obtained. The early morning would be brilliantly 
fine, but by 8 or 9 o'clock, though it continued so to the 
south, the northern valleys would be filled by a sea of fog 
to within 500 or 1000 feet of the level of the Pass, with 
mountains and ridges standing out of it like islands, a 
light south wind blowing over the col ; gradually the fog 
would rise like a flowing tide, and at length would reach 

Entomological Excursion to Spain. 39 

the level of the col, when it would pour over and down 
the valley with a north current. This would take place 
about 1 or 2 o'clock, earlier or later on different days. 
The fog would still rise with a steady north wind, 
gradually covering everything ; in an hour or so the fog 
would be very wetting, and a little later would be actual 
rain, and this would usually continue till late in the night. 
The change of wind from south to north when the fog 
reached the level of the Pass was quite sudden and 

On the north side, an easy walk took us down to quite 
low ground, affording such insects as M. galathea, E. 
hypcranthus, L. argiades, and other low-level species, but 
we did not find anything of note. It was not therefore 
an attractive excursion, and, easy as it was to go down, 
the return was a very different matter. 

In any other direction, one could not descend more than 
two or three hundred feet and then only to Busdongo, and 
usually we went up the valleys, on to the cols and hill tops 
above them, that ran down towards the main valley, of 
which there were several joining near Arbas, which was, 
in fact, very centrally situated for the best of these. 

Apart from Erebia *tygnc, E. evicts, and E. palarica 
noted elsewhere, we met with E. cj^hron, E. euryale, and 
E. tyndarus ; of the latter some specimens were of fairly 
normal (Swiss) form, but a fair proportion had more than 
the usual twin eye-spots, and one or two were larger and 
made a fair approach to var. ottomana. Of twenty-six 
specimens brought home, thirteen have more than the 
twin eye-spot, sometimes the one beneath these, sometimes 
the next lower, sometimes on one side only. Two specimens 
have both these spots and one of these measures 44 mm. 
in expanse. In six specimens these extra eye-spots are 
white-pupilled. The normal double spot has large white 
pupils in all specimens. 

The E. euryale are 45 mm. in expanse (42 mm. smallest, 
48 mm. largest). In two (out of twenty-two all $ $) there 
is a trace of white pupils to the eye-spots, two have four 
eye-spots in fore-wings and one has only two, the rest have 
the usual twin spots, one or two have the orange-red much 
as in var. circcllaris. 

The E. epiphron are rather close to var. cassiopc, but are 
large for that variety. 

Amongst the moths observed was Gleogene peletieraria 

40 Mr. G. C. Champion's and Dr. T. A. Chapman's 

the white female of which was rare, but the nearly black 
males were frequent enough at various points near the 
Puerto amongst gorse and heath. This species has 
previously been recorded apparently only from the Pyrenees 
and on the French side. 

Platyptilia isodactyla was common in the bogs near the 
Puerto, and some larva? were reared from the egg to nearly 
full-grown, but died of starvation at La Granja. 

Pamassius apollo was seen in many places, but was 
common on the ddbris from the railway tunnel at about 
4200 feet. It was rather over (July 11th). 

The abundance of a Psyche larva on certain slopes and 
pastures at about 6500 to 7000 feet was phenomenal, the 
cases were very like those of Pachytelia villosella, but are 
believed to be Amicta febretta ; a number were brought 
home, but none have been reared, the larvae moult into 
a colourless instar, preliminary to (hibernation and ?) 
pupation. One became a pupa. The package containing 
these larvae was lost on the way home and turned up three 
weeks later ; it is comforting to attribute our want of 
success with them to this circumstance, but it is not 
perhaps certain. Perhaps they meant hibernating, and we 
may have some still alive doing so. It was a remarkable 
sight to see forty or fifty of these large cases within 
a square yard or so, either on the grass or on shrubs of 
Cytisus purgans ; the larvae did not seem very particular 
as to what they ate. 

Mecyna polygonalis was one of the commonest moths 
seen, and varied from having the upper wings very dark, 
almost black, to pale yellowish, and some specimens 
were beautifully marked. 

The following is a list of some of the species of 
Lepidoptera observed at Puerto de Pajares, and it will 
suffice to show the absence of specially Spanish forms. 

Melanargia galathea Vanessa polyehloros 

Erebia palarica Argynnis selene 

,, stygne ,, aglaia 

„ evicts „ lathonia 

,, euryale Colias edusa 

„ tyndarus „ hyale 

„ epiphron Pieris rupee 
Pararge msera ,, napi 

Cceuonympha arcanius „ brassiest 

„ paniphilus ,, daplidice 

Apltantopus hyperanthus Leptidia sinapis 

Epinephele tithonus Pamassius apollo 

Entomological Excursion to Spain. 41 

Polyommatus gordius Oyaniris argiolus 

„ phltzas Hespcria malvse 

„ virgaurese,v&v. ,, diverts 

miegii Carcha/rodvA cdcese 

„ dorilis Adopeea act&on 

Lampides telicmws 

,, boetica Procris geryon 

Lycssnu astrarche Nemeop/iilu p?cwi£ag(t»iis 

,, hylas Lasiocampa quercus 

„ corydon Plusia iota 

„ avion Heliothis peltigera 

„ argiades Catocala conversa 

„ icams Hepialus velleda 

At La Granja (San Ildefonso, July 23rd — Aug. 3rd) 
we were too late for most things, but the impression left 
was that it was a most prolific station for many interesting 
species, and varieties, some of which are not very common 
but would be regarded as rarer but for their abundance in 
this fairly well-known locality. Argynnis adippe, var. 
chlorodippc and cleodippe, and A. papihia, var. anargyra, 
were both abundant but nearly over. Meldnargia lachesis, 
var. catalcuca, perhaps a dozen seen. Polyom rn edits virgaurcte, 
var. miegii, rather a brilliant form. Lseosopis roboris, common 
in the Palace grounds. Ccmonynvpha iphioides, at 5000 — 
6500 feet. 

Satyrus actma abundant at Navacerrada and on a slope 
of Peilalara at nearly 7000 feet. At this station one very 
large specimen (rather worn while the others were fresh) 
was taken, that suggested (in size) cordula much more 
than actxa. 

Orgyia aurolimbata, larvae, pupae, and imagines were 
common at the Puerto de Reventon (7000 feet). 

Erehias and Hetcrogynis have been elsewhere referred to. 

Cledeohia angustalis and Bhodaria sanguinalis were in 
many places perfect pests making it difficult to detect 
amongst them any other species. 

On obtaining egg!i of P.virgaurete, var. miegii, we found 
that its food-plant, Ramcx acetosa, was over for the season 
and growing material was obtained with difficulty. The 
butterflies, however, avoided the green plant and laid their 
eggs on the most mature and actually dead stems. This 
habit accords with the fact that though the larva develops 
in the egg in the autumn, the latter does not then hatch, 
but remains over till the spring. 

The following are some of the butterflies seen at La 
Granja : — 

42 Mr. G. C. Champion's and Dr. T. A. Chapman's 

Argynnis aglaia Ccenonympha arcauhis 
„ lathonia ,, iphioides 

,, paphia, var. anargyra Theda ilicis 
„ adippe, vars. chloro- „ qnercus 

dippe and cleodippe La'osopis roboris 

„ niobe Fohjommatus hippotlioe, 
,, daphne „ gordius 

Melcmargia lachesis „ iihloeas 

„ var. cataleuca „ mrgav/rex, var. 

,, uvpygia miegii 

Erebia stygne, var. pehalarse Lampkhs btetica 
Epinephele tithonus „ telicanus 

ISatyrus semele Lycxna iccrns 
„ aetata „ astrarche 

„ statilinus ,, argyrognomon 

Ceeuonympha pamph tins Awjiades comma 

Amongst the Colcoptera observed at the Puerto de 
Pajares, Lytta vesicatoria (which is usually of a cupreous tint 
in these southern localities) was perhaps the most in 
evidence, this insect swarming in places on the flowers of the 
Genista, as did two or three species of Zonabris. On this 
plant, too, or on broom, there were also to be found, Gorym- 
bites htvmatodes, var., Athous rcynoScV?, various Tel&phori, 
Rliagonycha, and Uasyles, Gryptocephalus lusitanicus ( vary- 
ing to almost entirely black, and sometimes seen on heath 
also), G. vittatus, GynandropMJialma concolor and G. reyi, 
Anthophagus muticus and sp. ? (in numbers, insects not 
seen on the Bejar or the Guadarrama, or on Moncayo), 
Antkohium spp., Phyllobius tuberculifer, Stropkosomus spp., 
etc. About the patches of snow, under stones, etc., were, 
JBembidium pyrcnmtm (which seems to be scarcely more 
than a form of the Alpine B. glaciale), in abundance, 
Baris nivalis, Dcltomerus nebrioides (very rarely), Zabrus 
neglcdus ?, Steroptts lacordairei, Cymindis mclanocepkala, 
Stenus guynemeri, etc. On a mountain ridge, or Puerto, 
at about 6500 feet elevation, amongst short turf, under dry 
dung, etc., many interesting insects occurred, as JTovia- 
ptertcs pundulatus (taken by us previously on the Bejar), 
Pedilopkorus metallicus, in abundance, but mostly dead, 
Hdopkorus porculus, Hypcra biglobosa (singly), Otiorrkynckus 
asturiensis, a Timarcka, Gkrysomcla rufofemorata and G. 
cantabrica, etc. Under stones in various places on the 
mountains, were Carabus macroccp>kalus (very rarely), 
Harpalus cardioderus, Nebria sobrina, various Calatki, 
Synuchus nivalis, Amara equestris, Notiopkilus aquations, 
etc. ; and on the paths, or amongst the heath, Gicindela 

Entomological Excursion to Spain. 43 

sylvatica, two species of Borcadion (one of them worn 
and nearly over), Platycerus spinifcr (one specimen, 
probably knocked off the Genista), and others. In 
dung, various Apliodii were to be found, as A. obscurus, 

A. scrutator, A. bonvouloiri, and others, also Ammoscius 
frigidus, Geotrupes pyrenieus, Emus hirtus, and Btaphylinus 
pubescens. Boggy places on the heath produced Elaphrus 
uliginosus, Anchomenus sexpunctcdus, Garabus arvensis ?, etc. 
On the Pass, two species of Rliizotrogus, B. felicitamts and 

B. fuscus, were occasionally seen in abundance on the wing 
in the forenoon, disappearing after midday. A descent 
into the valley on the northern side resulted in the capture 
of Pcrileptus arcolatus, on the banks of the river, Aromia 
moschata, var. thoracica, Lcptura fontcnayi, Strangalia 
attenuata, etc. As usual, in all these Spanish mountains, 
a Henicopus (H. heydeni) abounded, the males clinging 
tightly to the grass stems and sometimes accompanied by 
individuals of the opposite sex. 

List of Coleoptera found at the Puerto de Pajares.* 

Cicindela sylvatica, L., not rare, and once seen captured 
by a large Asilid ; C. campestris, L. Garabus macrocephalus, 
Dej., three specimens, on the mountains ; G. deyrollei, Gory 
(? = arvensis, L.), in the marshy ground near the road; 
G. lineatus, Dej. ?, fragments of a single specimen found on 
the mountains. Notiophilus aquaticus, L., and N. palustris, 
Duft. * Elaphrus uliginosus, F., one specimen, in the 
marshy ground near the road : we have not seen a record 
of this species from Spain. Nebria sobrina, Schauf., rarely. 
Bembidium lampros, Herbst; B. pyremvum, Dej., in 
abundance, at the edge of the snow on the mountains ; B. 
stomoides, Dej. ; B. nitidulum, Marsh. ; B. sp. n. Perileptus 
areolatus, Creutz., on the banks of the river below Pajares. 
* Beltomerus nebrioidcs, Vuillefr., two specimens, on the 
mountains, near running water, issuing from the lowest 
patches of snow. * Platynus sexpunctatus, L., not rare in the 
marsh by the road. SynucJms nivalis, Panz., Pterostichus 
nigrita, F. ; P. cristatus, Duf., var. cantabricus, Schauf. 
Haptoderus cantabricus, Schauf. Ortlwmus barbarus, Dej. 
Boicilus cupreus, L. Steropus lacordairei, Putz. Amara 
equestris, Duft. * Zabrus ncglectus, Schaum, var. ?, not rare, 

* The species marked with an asterisk are not included in 
v. Heyden's Asturian list.— Deutsche ent. Zeitschr. xxiv, pp. 281- 
304 (1880). 

44 Mr. G. C. Champion's and Dr. T. A. Chapman's 

under stones on the mountains; Z. asturiensis, Heyd., one 
specimen. * Harpalus cardiodertts, Putz. ; //. honcstus, 
Duft. ; H. rubripes, Duft. ; H. psittaceus, Fourcr., etc., under 
stones, on the mountains. * Chhvnius velutinus, Duft. 
Licinns planicollis, Fauv. Cymindis melanocephala, Dej. 

Limnebius nitidus, Marsh. ? * -*- Hclophorus porculus, 
Bedel, at roots of grass, high up on the mountains ; II. 
glacialis, Villa, a species occurring on many of the 
mountains in Spain. 

Alcochara fuscipcs, F. * Staphylinus pubesccns, De G. 

* Emus hirtus, L. * Leistotrophus murinus, L. * Actobius 
prolixus, Er. Philonthus spkndens, F., in dung ; * P. 
fulvipcs, F., var. varipes, Rey, in a marshy place. * Stenits 
guyncmcri, Duv., one specimen, near running water, as 
usual; S. carbonarius, Gyll. Oxytelus laqueatus, Marsh. 

* Anthophagus muticus, Kies., and A. n. sp. ? (near pyren/vios, 
Bris.), both in numbers, on Genista, etc., females ooly of 
the second species obtained. Omalium fioralc, Payk. ; 0. 
ctesum, Grav. Lesteva longmlytrata, Goeze. Philorhinum 
nigriventrc, Rosenh. Anthobium torquaticm, Marsh., and 
A. adustum, Kies., in plenty on Genista. 

Silpha nigrita, Cr. Pedllophorus metallicus, Chevr., in 
numbers (but mostly dead) on a grassy mountain ridge, 
under dry dung, stones, etc. Byrrhus pilula, L., and B. 
depilis, Graells: this latter seems'to be nothing more than 
an abraded form of B. pilula. Ilistcr unicolor, L. ; //. 
carbonarius, 111. Saprinus wneus, F. 

* Platyccrus spinifer, Schauf., one specimen : apparently 
very rate in the Cantabrian Mountains, as it is not 
mentioned by v. Heyden. Onthophagus fracticoroiis, 
Preyssl., 0. lemur, F., 0. furcatus, F., Aphodius fossor, L., 
A. scrutator, Herbst, A.foeiens, F., A. hsemorrhoidalis, L., 
A. rnfescens, F., A. obscurus, F. (in profusion), A. rujipes, 
L., A. depressus, Kug., A. bonvouloiri, Harold, more or less 
common in dung on the mountains. Ammoecius frigidus, 
Bris., in abundance, with the preceding. Geotrupes 
pyrenmus, Charp. ; G. typlimus, L. Rhizotrogiis felkitanus, 
Reitt., and B.fuscus, Scop., both in profusion on the wing- 
in the hot sun in the forenoon, apparently males only 
obtained ; B. solstitialis, L. * Hymcnoplia chevrolati, Mills. 

* Anisoplia btetica, Er. 

Betarmon vittatus, Cand., six specimens on Genista. 

f This insect also occurs at Albarracin. It has been recorded by 
Bedel from Scotland I 

Entomological Excursion to Spain. 45 

Mclanotus tmebrosus,"Eir. Alhous rcynosie, Bris.?, A. ccrvicolor, 
Heyd., and various other species of the genus. Limonius 
nigripes, Gyll. Corymhites latus, F., 0. pyrenmus, Charp. ?, 
and * C. paulinoi, Desbr., rarely. C. haematodes, F., var. ?, 
about a dozen specimens, all females, varying greatly in 
size. Hydrocyphon dcjicxicollis, Mull., two specimens, by 
the stream in the valley. 

* Zampyris noctiluca, L., females only obtained. Tele- 
pJmrus abdominalis, F., T. rufus, L., T. biwttatus, Mars., 
Rhagonycha cantabrica, Heyd., 11. genista, Kies., R. 
hesperica, Baudi, and others, mostly on Genista. Antholinus 
amictus, Er., on Genista. Henicopus heydeni, Kies., in 
plenty, on grass-stems: there seem to be two forms of the 
female of this species wherever it occurs — one with black, 
the other with grey hair. Dasytcs spp. ?, Danacasa spp. ? 

Heliopaics lusitanicus, Herbst. ? * Gteniopus sulphureits, 
L. Isomira hispanica, Kies. ?, /. murina, L., var., both on 
Genista. Mordella aculeata, L. Anlhicus anthcrinus, L. 

* Meloe brevicollis, Panz. Zonabris sobrina, Graells, and 

* Lytta Desicatoria, L., in profusion, on Genista. (Edemera 
nobilis, Scop., * 0. podagrarise, L. 

Otiorrhynchus asturiensis, Chevr., not rare on the 
mountains; O.pyrenseus, Gyll., one specimen. * Homapterus 
punctulatus, Bris., not rare, on a mountain ridge, under 
dry dung, etc.; we had previously met with this insect on 
the Sierra de Bejar.f Phyllobius tuberculifcr, Chevr., on 
Genista. Strophosonms spp. Barynotus pyrenasus, Bris., 
one worn specimen. Sitoncs regentsteinensis, Herbst. 
Hyper a biglobosa, Kirsch, one specimen. Cleonus nigrosu- 
turatuSy Goeze. Anisorrhynchns hespericus, Desbr. * Baris 
nivalis, Bris., one specimen. Ceuthorrhynchus ericse, Gyll. 
Cionus blattarise, F. Apion ulicis, Forst. Rhynchites betulm, L. 

Leptura fonienayi, Muls., Strangalia attenuata, L., and 
Aromia moschata, L., var. thoracica, Fisch., on the road to 
Puente de los Fierros. Dorcadion castilianum, Chevr. ?, 
and D. sp. ? (mostly rubbed and over), occasionally on 
the mountain paths. 

Lcma lichenis, Voet. Labidostomis lusitanica, Germ. 

* Gynandrophthcdma concolor, F., common, and * G. reyi, 
Bris., rarely, on Genista. Gryptoccphalus lusitanicus, Suffr., 
many specimens, on Genista, etc., all belonging to dark 
varieties, some of them wholly black, with the exception 
of two minute spots on the head, the lateral margins of the 

f Recorded by us from ?>ejar under the name of //. affinis, Chevr. 

46 Mr. G. C. Champion's and Dr. T. A. Chapman's 

prothorax and the scutellum ; *C. vittatus, F. ; G. sericeus, 
L. ; G. tibialis, Bris. ; G. mystacatus, Suffr. ; G. mormi, 
L., and vars. Gastroidea janthina, Suffr., with its larva, 
on Pumex, along the roadside, at the summit of the Pass. 
Timarcha asturiensis, Kr. Chrysomela liannoptera, L., C. 
rufofemorata, Heyd., C. cantabrica, Heyd., on the moun- 
tains ; G. menthastri, Suffr. * Orina cacalisa, Schr., two 
specimens. * Phytodecta variabilis, Oliv., P. olivacea, Forst. 
Phyllodecta vitelline, L. Zuperus nigrofasciatus, Goeze, 
common on Genista. Luperus sp. * Malacosoma lusitani- 
cwm, L. Haltica sp. ?, common on heath. 

List of Hemiptera-Heteroptera found at Puerto de 
Garpoeoris purpuripennis, De G. Theraplia hyoseyami, 
L. Lygteus equestris, L., L. panduriis, Scop. Geocm^is 
atcr, F., under stones, on the mountains. Orthostira 
macrophthalma, Fieb., with the preceding. Nysius 
senecionis, Schall. Stygnocoris fuligineus, Fourcr. Em- 
blethus angiistus, Mont. Aphanus pini, L. Heterogastcr 
artemisicV, Schill. Harpactor iracundus, Poda. Nobis 
rugosus, L. Galocoris sexguttatus , F. Pachytomclla cursi- 
tans, Reut., n. sp., in profusion, amongst short grass on the 
mountains. Gapsus scutdlaris, F. Strongylocoris leucocs- 
phalus, L., var. steganoides, Sahib. Heterocordylus tibialis, 

In the immediate vicinity of La Granja there were but 
few beetles to be found at the end of July, and even on the 
mountains the characteristic Dorcadions were almost over. 
We obtained, however, an interesting Gryptoccphahis, G. 
5-punetatus, and Gncorrhinus ptjriformis, on young oaks, 
on the " flat " east of the Palace Gardens. At the sources 
of the small streams, in the upper part of the pine forest, 
under chips and stones, we found the very local Leistus 
constrictus, Garabus ghilianii, G. guadarramus, and G. helluo, 
Steroptus ghilianii, Haptodcrus ncmoralis, and others. 
Higher up, above the pine forest, at or near the sources 
of the streams issuing from the patches of melting snow, 
we again met with the Leistus, and here accompanied by 
Nebria vuillefroyi (mostly immature), Zabrus seidlitzi, 
OtiorrhyneJms tnincatellus, Pembidium ibericum, P. laterale, 
etc. Around the Laguna de los Pajaros, on the south side 
of the Penalara, on which there were various patches of 
snow, a variety of interesting species were obtained, 

Entomological Excursion to Spain. 47 

including a Pcdilopliorus (apparently new), Bcmbidium 
carpetanum (at the edge of the melting snow, in abundance), 
Dichotrackelus graellsi, Trechus pandcllei ?, Gathormioccrus 
chevrolati, etc., and in the lagoon itself E solus angustatus, 
Larcynia carinata, Deronectes griseostriatus, and others. 
Myriads of winged ants were sometimes found floating on 
the surface of this lagoon, probably carried there by the 
wind. On the short turf hereabouts, from which a large 
number of vultures (looking like a flock of sheep, as seen 
from the ridge above) were disturbed on one of our visits, 
a Timarcha abounded, and the two local Dorcctdions (so 
abundant in early summer) were still represented by a few 
worn examples. Near the Puerto de Reventon the brilliant 
Gcotrwpes coruscans was seen in numbers, flying in the hot 
sunshine, and at the Puerto de Navacerrada Gyrtonus 
montaniLS,Misola)npusseabricollis, etc., occurred under stones. 
The pine stumps and logs produced three species of Liodes 
(as in Scotlaud), Lxmostltcncs pinicola, Spondylis bupres- 
toicles, Sphindus dubius, a Bothrideres, a Plegaderus, Paro- 
malus fiavicornis, Enicmus rugosus, Lygistoptcrns sanguineus, 
etc. About a waterfall, on the way to the Reventon, 
Gcodromicus nigrlta was taken, in company with various 
species of Hydroporus, Helophorus, Bcmbidium, etc. GhLwiius 
dives was occasionally seen, and a Thylacitcs occurred not 
uncommonly, as usual under stones exposed to the full glare 
of the sun. On flowers but few insects were to be found 
beyond Gerocoma schreberi, one or two Zonabris, and Leptura 
stragulata. Though too late for most of the beetles, we 
were, however, at the right time for the Capsidse, various 
interesting species of Phytocoris being plentiful on oak, etc., 
though very difficult to catch when beaten into an umbrella. 
Part of our success here was due to the kind assistance of our 
old friend Senor Ignacio Bolivar, whom we were fortunate 
enough to meet on one of our excursions to the Sierra. 

List of Coleopteea found at La Granja (including the 

Carabus ghilianii, Laf., G. guadarramus, Laf., and 
G. hclluo, Dej., under stones, especially about the 
sources of the small streams, at the upper limits of the 
pine forest, the first-mentioned species the most common. 
Zeistus constrict us, Schauf, a few specimens, at the sources 
of the small streams, and also about the lowest patches of 
snow ; it is exceedingly active, and difficult to secure in 

48 Mr. G. C. Champion's and Dr. T. A. Chapman's 

perfect condition ; on one occasion about a dozen examples 
were found under the bark of a pine stump, on the banks 
of a small stream, but few of them, however, were captured 
without injury. JVebria vuillcfroyi, Chaud., not rare, but 
mostly immature at this season, under stones and moss, in 
the streams issuing from near the melting snow. Tachypus 
cyanicornis, Pand. Bembidium pyrenaewm, Dej. (var. carpeta- 
nuni, Sharp), abundant, at the edges of the snow patches 
on the Peiialara; B. decorum, I) uft. ; B. ibericum, Pioch. ; 
B. laterale, Dej. ; B. hypocrita, Dej. ; B. toletanum, Peri'. 
Tachys parvulns, Dej. Trechus pandellei, Putz. ?, plentiful, 
at the edges of the snow on the Penalara. Platyderus 
montancllus, Graells. Ilaptoderus nemoralis, Graells, plenti- 
fully, with the Lcistus. Z&mostkenes pinicola, Graells. 
Stcropnis ghilianii, Putz., not rare, under stones. Zabrus 
seidlitzi,Sch.8L\\m , common on the mountains. Ghlsenius dives, 
Dej., on the mountain slopes, running about in grassy places. 

Deronectes griscustriatus, De G., Hydroporus jimnpes, 
Oliv., etc., Agabus heydeni, Wehncke, A. guttatus, Payk., 
A. conspersus, Marsh., Hclophorus glacialis, Villa, Hydrmia 
sp., Esolus angustatus, Mull., Lareynia carinata, Perez, 
Limnius sp., etc., in the Laguna de los Pajaros, on the 
Peiialara, or in the streams lower down. 

Echidnoglossa glabrata, Kies., one specimen, on the 
mountains. Athda luctuosa, Rey, and others of the genus, 
at the edges of the snow, on the Penalara. Baptolinus 
altemans, Grav., in the pine stumps. Geodromicus nigrita, 
Mull., at the edge of a waterfall near La Granja. 

Liodes humcralis, Kug., L. castanca, Herbst, and L. 
glabra, Kug., Agathidium piccum, Ei\, JSnicmns rugosus, 
Herbst, Bothridercs inter stitialis, Heyd., Plcgaderus saucius, 
Er., Paromalus fiavicornis, Herbst, under bark of pine 
stumps. Phalacrus maximus, Fairm. Olibrus bisignahes, 
Men., 0. bimaculatus, Kiist., O.pygmteus, Sturm, on flowers, 
near La Granja. Pedilophorus n. sp. (belonging to the sub- 
genus Triehobyrrliulus, Ganglb.), two specimens, near the 
snow, Penalara. 

Copris lunaris, L., Aplwdius fastens, F., A. scrutator, 
Herbst, A. bonvouloiri, Harold, A. obscurus, F., Ammaicius 
frigidus, Bris., Onihopliagus schreberi, L., Oniticellusjlavipes, 
F., Gymnoplcurus Jiagellatus,^ '., Gcotrupes coruscans, Chevr., 
etc., in dung on the mountains, the Geotrupes frequently 
taken on the wing in the hot sun. BUizotrogus pygialis, 
Muls. Serica mutata, Gyll. 

Entomological Excursion to Spain. 49 

Coraibus seneicollis, Vill. Anthaxia millefolii, F. Melan- 
otics dichrotis, Er. 

Bygistoptcrus sanguineus, L., on the pine stumps. Tri- 
chodes ammios, ¥., T. apiarius, L. Sphindus dubius, Gyll., 
in powdery fungus on pine stumps. 

Micrositus ulyssiponensis, Germ., under stones. Misolam- 
pusscabricollis, Graells, under stones, Puerto deNavacerrada. 
Lagria rubida, Graells (parvula, Perr.). Morclcllistcna 
neuioaldeggiana, Panz. Zonabrts hieracii, Graells, Z. 4- 
punctata, L., Z. variabilis, Pall., Z. dejeani, Gyll., Z.geminata, 
F., etc., and Ccrocoma schreberi, F., more or less abundant 
on flowers. CEdemera podagrarise, L. 

Otiorrhynchus truncatellus, Graells, not uncommon on 
the Guadarrama, occurring even on the summit of the 
Penalara. Stropliosomus crinaccus, Chevr. ; ti. ebenista, 
Seidl., a common insect on the Guadarrama, and often 
found in numbers under stones. Cathormiocerus chevrolali, 
Seidl., and Dichotrachelus gracllsi, Perris, near the snow, 
Laguna de los Pajaros. Cneorrhinus pyriformis, Boh., not 
rare, on oak bushes near the town : two forms of the female 
were met with (as in the species found on Genista at 
Piedrahita in 1902), one green, the other grey, like the 
male, the latter being less elongate than the corresponding 
sex of the Piedrahita insect ; the scales of the green females 
from La Granja are opaque, while in those from Piedrahita 
they are metallic* Thylacites sp., common, under stones, 
in bare hot places. Brachydcrcs lusitanicus, F., B.incamts, 
L. Pachytychius scabricollis, Rosenh. Polydrosus setifrons, 
Duv. Brachytemnits porcatus, Germ., in the pine stumps. 
Ceutlwrrhynclius biscutellatus, Chevr. Balaninus yellitus, 
Boh. Orchestes atellanm, Don., 0. ilicis, F., 0. quercus, L. 
Rhamphus flavicornis, Herbst. Apion atomarium, Kirby, 
A. cracc/e, L., A. pomonai, F., A. vorax, Herbst, etc. 
Attelahis curculiunoidcs, L. Hylastcs pallkdus, Gyll. 

Spondylis buprestoides, L., a common species in the pine 
forest. Vesper as breuicollis, Graells, two males beaten from 
oak. Criocephcdus sp., in the pine forest. Leptura 
stragulata, Germ., L. rubra, L., L. livida, F. Bore 
gracllsi, Graells, D. liispanicum, Mills., Laguna de los 
Pajaros, Penalara, not rare, but worn, both species being 
almost over in July. 

Titubmi biguttata, Oliv. Lachnsea r . Duf, B. 

sexpunctata, Scop. Cryptoeephalus b-puactatus, Harr., 
* Cf. Trans. Ent. Soc. Loud. 1903, pp. 176, 177. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1905.— PART I. (MAY) 4 

oU Mr. G. C. Champion's and £)r. T. A. Chapman's 

sparingly, on young oak bushes on the " flat " outside La 
Granja : we have not seen a record of this conspicuous 
species from Spain, and it is not represented in the Madrid 
Museum ; C. sexmaculatus, Oliv., C. globicollis, Suffr., G. 
monei, L. Gyrtonus montanas, Graeils, Puerto de Nava- 
cerrada, nearly over in July. Timarcha sp., in abundance, 
Laguna de los Pajaros. Ghrysomcla hsemoptera, L.; G. ru- 
fos&nea, Suffr. Hispa atra, L. Cassida margaritaeea, Schall. 
Halyzia 12-gutfcda, L., H. 18-guttata, L. Adonia 
mutabilis, Scriba. Goccinella 14i-pustulata, L. Exochomus 
i^ustidalus, L., E. auritics, Scriba. 

List of Hemiptera-Heteroptera found at La Granja. 

Eurygaster maura, L. Graphosoma lineatum, L. Sehirus 
dubius, Scop., S. maculipes, M. and R. JElia rostrata, 
Poh. Ncottiglossa hporina, H.-S. Staria lunata, Hahn. 
Eurydema festivum, L., E. oleraceum, L. Trojiicoris rufi/pcs, 
L. Garpocoris purpuripennis, De G. Verlusia quadrata, F. 
Centrocoris spinigcr, F. Gonocerus juniper i, H.-S. Thcrapha 
hyoscyami, L. Corizus crassieomis, L. , G. parumpunctatus, 
Schill., G. tigrinus, Schill. Lygs&us equestris, L., L.picindurus, 
Scop., L. superbus, Poll. Nysiiis thymi, Wolff. Gymus glandi- 
color, Hahn, C. melanocephahcs, Fieb. Hetcrogaster arte- 
misite, Schill. Meter oplax fasciata, H.-S. Mieroplax inter- 
rupta, Fieb. Aphanus pini, L. Taphropcltus chamjrioni, 
Reut., n. sp. Beosus maritimus, Scop. Emblcthis angashis, 
Mont. Monanthia cchii, Wolff. Sercnthia l/eta, Fall. 
Phymata crassipes, F. Aradus jtavicornis, Dalm., one 
specimen, in the Laguna de los Pajaros. Goranus sub- 
apterus, De G. Nabis ferns, L. Saldct cocksi, Curt. Gryp- 
tostemma alienum, H.-S. Piezostethus terricola, Reut., under 
a stone on the mountains. Miris hvvigatus, L., M. cal- 
carahis, Fall. Mcgalocerma erratica, L. Lopus gothicus, L. 
Phytocoris meridionedis, H.-S., abundant, and P. rittiger, 
Reut., P. varipes, Boh., P. femoralis, Fieb., P. abeillei, Puton, 
and P. albofasciatus, Fieb., more rarely, on oak, etc., but 
very difficult to secure. Megalocoslum infusum, H.-S. Adcl- 
phocoris lineolatus, Goeze. Posciloscytus unifasciatus, F. 
Brachycoleus triangularis, Goeze. Cyphodema inslabile, Luc. 
Gamptobrocliis lutcscens, Schill. Gapsus ruber, L. Pilo- 
phorus cinnamopterus, Kb., and P. perplexus, Scott, on oak. 
Oncotylus bolivari, Rent. Sthcnarus ocidaris, M. and R. 
Dicyphus geniculatus, Fieb. Gorixa meesiet, Fieb. 

Entomological Excursion to Spain. 51 

From La Granja we went on to Madrid, spending a day 
or two there to visit the Museum, etc. Leaving Madrid on 
Aug. 5th, we proceeded northward to Navalperal (41G5 ft.), 
in the Province of Avila, and at the western extremity of 
the Guadarrama. Here we were joined by the Spanish 
entomologist, Manuel Escalera, who accompanied us to 
the "Pinar" of Las Navas, etc. The partially-dried-up 
streams at this place furnished a large number of water- 
beetles, Deroncctcs carinatus being particularly abundant, 
and on the sandy banks we found Acylophorus glabricollis, 
various Bembidia, etc. In the pine forest we obtained 
divers Longicornia and other beetles, from the earthen- 
ware cups placed on the pine trunks to catch the exuding 
resin, such as NothorrMna muricata, Ergates faber, Tcm- 
nochila ccerulea, etc. Our time, however, at Navalperal 
was limited, and we finished our collecting here by 
catching several males of Vesperus Irevicollis, just before 
commencing our long homeward journey. It may be 
worth noting, perhaps, that at Irun, on July 7th, we 
observed Hylotrurpes bajulus in numbers on the telegraph 
posts, in which the females were depositing their eggs. 

List of Coleoptera found, at Navalperal. 

Bembidium elongatum, Dej., B. octomaculatum, Goeze. 
Bidcssvs geminus, F., B. minutissimus, Germ. Hydroporus 
halensis, ¥., var. fuscitarsis, Aube, in profusion, H. flacipcs, 
Oliv., H. varius, Aube, //. lepidus, Oliv., H. marginatus, 
Duft., H. lituratus, Brulle, H. discretus, Fairm., etc. 
Deronectes carinatus, Aube, in abundance. Agahus brun- 
neus, F., A. didymus, Oliv., A. chalconotus, Panz. Ihjbius 
fuliginosus, F. Dytiscits pisanus, Lap. ($), D. marginalia, 
L. (£ and £), D. pnnctidatus, F. Gyrinus urinator, 111. 
JTi/drophilus flavipes, Stev. Limnoxenus oblongus, Herbst. 
Hydrobius fuscipes, L. Hclochares sp. Paracymus xneus, 
Germ. Hydrochus sp. HydriBnatcstacea,C\ivt.,H.riparia, 
Kug.,FT. nigrita, Germ. Pelocharcs versicolor, Walk. Acy- 
lophorus glabricollis, Lac. Philonthus suavis, Bris., P. tci/t- 
bratilis, Grav., P. quisquiliarius, Gyll. Phalacrus maximus, 
Fairm., not rare on flowers. Mcligcthcs exilis, Sturm, with 
the preceding. Temnochila ccerulea, Oliv., Anthaxia 4- 
punctata, L., Melanotics dichrous, Er., Rhizotrogus neglcctus, 
Perez, Nothorrhina mtiricata, Dalm., Ergates faber, L., and 
Criocephalus sp., Hylargas ligiiipcrda, L., Tomicus sexden- 

52 Prof. 0. M. Renter's Descriptions of two 

tatus, Boern., in or about the earthenware cups fastened on 
the pines to catch the exuding resin ; many of the speci- 
mens had been thus trapped, and were so coated with resin 
that they had to be immersed in benzine or turpentine 
before they were of any use. Lygistoptcrus sanguineus, L. 
Clems formicarius, L. Cerocoma schreberi, F. Zonabris 
geminata, F., Z. variabilis, Pall. Brachydercs suturalis, 
Graells, on pines. Cleonus marmottani, Bris. Lixns iridis, 
Oliv., in the stems of a large Umbellifer ; L. ascanii, L. 
Pissodes notatus, F. Bhynchites cseruleocephalus, Schall., on 
Gistus. Vesperus brevicollis, Graells, males attracted to an 
acetylene lamp placed by Seiior Escalera outside a house 
in the village for the purpose of catching moths. 

List of Hemiptera-Heteroptera found at Navalperal. 

Ancyrosoma albolineatum, F. jElia acuminata, L. Eury- 
dema festivum, L. Phyllomorpha laciniata, Vill. Centro- 
coris spiniger, F. Syromastes marginatus, L. Camptopus 
lateralis, Ger. Neides tipularius, L. Lygmtis saxatilis, 
Scop. Nobis ferns, L., JV. rugosics, L. Gerris gibbifer, 
Schml. Corixa sahlbergi, Fieb., C. transversa, Fieb., C. 
semistriata, Fieb. 

Descriptions of two neio species of Hemiptera-Heteroptera 
from Spain. By Prof. 0. M. Reuter. 

Taphropeltus champiioni, n. sp. 

Fuscoferrugineus, § apicalibus marginum lateralium pronoti an- 
guste pallidis, ^ horum basali nigro-fusco ; clava tertiaque basali 
parte, corii testaceis, illo apice sat late nigro-fusco, corio cetero nigro- 
fusco, macula marginali fere in tertia apicali parte posita albido- 
fiavente, membrana infuscata, venis obscurioribus, macula oblonga 
exteriore suturam membranse terniinante ; antennis modice gracili- 
bus, obscure ferrugineis, articulo secundo ajjice tertioque nigro-fuscis, 
quarto flavo-teataceo, basi nigro-fusco ; pedibus cum coxis flavo- 
testaceis vel ilavo-ferrugineis, femoribus anticis ( $ ) modice incras- 
satis, spinulis duobus instructis et inter eas et apicem subtiliter 
denticulatis, spinula posteriore supra medium posita, tibiis anticis 
sat fortiter arcuatis. 

Long. <j> 2f mm. 

Hab. Sierra de Gtjadarrama, La Granja. 

new species of Hemiptera-Heteroptera from Spain. 53 

T. contracto, H.-Sch., minor, colore corporis, antennarum et 
pedum, pronoto magis sequali, lobo antico ejus parum convexo, 
sulco transversali minus distincto, spinula posteriore femorum 
anticorum basi magis appropinquata mox distincta. Caput omnium 
creberrime et subtilissime punctatum. Antenncc articulo secundo 
latitudini verticis oculique unici a?que longo, ultimis apice ejus 
paullo crassioribus, tertio secundo circiter I breviore, quarto secundo 
fere asque longo. Rostrum pallide flavens, coxas intermedias attin- 
gens. Pronotum sulco transversali pone medium sito, parte apicali 
parum convexo, creberrime subtiliter punctata, parte basali concolore, 
minus crebre et paullo fortius punctata. Scutellum ut pars basalis 
pronoti punctatum. Clavus triseriatim punctatum. Corium apicem 
versus obsoletius punctatum. 

Two specimens. 

Pachytomclla cursitans, n. sp. 

Nigra, nitens, pronoto postice hemielytrlsque omnium subtilissime 
cinereo-pubescentibus ; antennis pedibusque utriusque sexus totis 
nigris ; vertice baud vel obsoletissime marginato et utrinque ad 
oculum obtuse depresso, fronte fortiter convexa, clypeo basi a fronte 
impressione bene discreto ; antennis articulo secundo latitudine 
verticis interoculari parum longiore ( g ) vel hac circiter \ breviore, 
gracili ( ? ) ; bemielytris crebre sat fortiter coriaceo-punctulatis ; 
mare feminaque (plerumque) bracbypteris ; capite forrnae brachy- 
pterse basi pronoti 8?.que lato; dorso abdominis feminas leviter 

Long. $ 1A', ? If mm. 

Hob. Cantabrian Mountains, Puerto de Pajares. 

P. dorise, Ferr. et Rent., affinis et similis, corpore superne niger- 
rimo haud cbalybeo-nitente, quamvis valde nitido, glabro, solum 
pronoto postice beinielytrisque omnium brevissime et subtilissime 
cinereo-pubescentibus, his fortius coriaceo-punctatis, antennis 
brevioribus pedibusque utriusque sexus totis nigris divergens. 
Corpus fornise bracbyptene breviter ovale ( £ ) vel late ovatum ( $ ). 
Caput forma? brachypterse a supero visum pronoto longitudine 
ajquale vel subrequale, ab antico visum latitudini verticis oculique 
unici fere seque longiun, vei-tice oculo fere 2^ (£) — triplo ($) 
latiore, clypeo retrorsum vergente, genis altis, gula baud distin- 
guenda. Oculi retrorsum vergentes, angulis anticis pronoti incum- 
bentes. Antenna? ad (^) vel paullo infra (5) apicem oculorum 
interne insertse, articulo primo apicem ctypei band attingente, 
secundo versus apicem sensim incrassato, feminaa quam maris 

54 Two New Species of Hemvptera-Heterdptera. 

graciliore, duobus ultimis pimiil sumtis seenndo paullo longioribns, 
quarto tertio breviore. Pronotum formce brachypterse basi lougittt- 
dine duplo (£) vel magis quam duplo (5) latins, apice quam basi 
parum angustius, disco horizontali, antice foveolis quatuor in arcnm 
positis, postice subtiliter strignloso, margine basali late sinnato. 
Hemielytra formse brachypterse apiceni segmenti qnarti (£) vel 
basin segmenti tertii (?) dorsalis attingentia, tota coriacea, com- 
missnra scntello distincte longiora (^) vel hnic a?que longa ( $ ), 
margine apicali valde obliquata ( £ ) vel snbrecte truncata ( $ ), angulo 
exteriore subrecto ( 9 ) vel acutiusculo, rotundato (^ ). 

Many specimens. 

Explanation of Plate. 

Plate VII. 

The Monastery of Santas Arbas, about a mile south of the Pass 
of Pajnres, and near the continence of several valleys on the southern 

( 55 ) 

V. The Egg and Early Larval Stages of a Coreid Bug, 
probably Dalader acuticosta, Amyot et Serv. ; with a 
note on its Hymenoptcrous Parasite. By Nelson 
Annandale, B.A., Deputy Superintendent of the 
Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

[Read November 16th, 1904.] 

Plate VIII. 

So little is known regarding the life history of the 
Heteroptera that I have ventured to bring forward certain 
observations on this subject which are confessedly most 
incomplete. Possibly my figures and descriptions may be 
of value to some naturalist more fortunate in rearing the 
insect to be considered than I have been. 

On August 14th last, at Alipur in the suburbs of 
Calcutta, I found, attached by a spider's web to a tree-trunk, 
a dead leaf on which were 14 eggs. They were arranged 
separately, roughly in parallel rows but in no very definite 
manner. Their length was about 2 - 75 mm. ; their height 
19 mm. ; their colour a rich golden-brown, shining and 
lustrous. As the embryo developed they became darker. 
Examination with a lens showed that the surface was 
patterned with a minute reticulation, and that a cordiform 
or sub-oval area was marked off at the broader end. This 
proved to be an operculum. Another area, of greater 
extent than the last, but having identical limits above was 
indicated. It was evidently due to internal structures 
partially revealed by the translucency of the egg-shell. 
In this region there were several extremely minute punc- 
tures, which were only seen under a fairly high power of 
the microscope. They were arranged in an arc round the 
upper limits of the operculum and were undoubtedly 
micropyles : they are too small to appear in the figure. 
The eggs were fastened to the leaf by a drop of a gummy 
substance less brittle and more elastic than that of the 
egg-shell. It was situated near the centre of the llattened 


dG Mr. N. Armandale on the 

During the night between August 18th and 19th, each 
egg produced a young Heteropteron. The operculum was 
pushed out bodily and did not remain attached at any 
point to the remainder of the egg-shell. What I take to 
be the embryonic exuviae were left hanging from the upper 
part of the aperture thus formed in a heart-shaped mass, 
the free apex of which was produced into a delicate 
filament. The mass was also attached to the base of the 
egg-shell by a stouter filament, which originated above 
as a ridge on the inner surface of the mass. On the 
external lace was a very conspicuous black spot, the nature 
of which I have been unable to determine. 

In what manner the operculum was pushed out I cannot 
say, as I did not see the hatching. It appeared to be very 
firmly attached to the remainder of the shell although its 
limits were clearly defined to the eye. There was nothing 
of the nature of a hardened projection on the head of the 
larva when hatched. 

The young bugs in their first instar measured 4*5 mm. 
in length. There was no visible difference in size between 
the different individuals of the brood. The head was 
squarish, but slightly rounded behind ; the eyes were fairly 
large, but not prominent; I could detect no ocelli. At 
first sight the antennae appeared to be five-jointed, but a 
closer examination showed that the first apparent joint 
was really a projection from the head : they were inserted 
into the upper part of the head. The rostrum originated 
close to the anterior margin of the head and was freely 
movable ; only three joints could be detected in it with 
certainty. The tarsi appeared to have only two joints. 
The form and proportions of the different parts of the body 
are well shown in fig. 4. The colour was leaf-green, 
marked with purplish-brown, which changed to olive-green 
on the extremities of the limbs and antennae. The dorsal 
"stink-glands" were rendered conspicuous by their promi- 
nence and dark colour. 

The larvae were sluggish, but they fed readily on the 
juices of various leaves, standing with their rostra vertically 
inserted into the vascular parts of the leaves, generally 
into the midrib. Their abdomens rapidly became almost 

During the night between August 21st and 22nd, the 
first ecdysis took place. A remarkable change both in 
structure and demeanour was at once apparent. The larva? 

Egg and Early Larval Stages of a Gorcid Bug. 57 

were now about 7 mm. in length, but some individuals 
were distinctly larger than others. The abdomen had 
become narrower in proportion to its length ; the separa- 
tion between it and the thorax was now less marked ; a 
raised Y-shaped area had appeared on the dorsal surface of 
the head; a third joint to the tarsus was feebly indicated 
(less feebly on the third pair of legs than on the first and 
second), and the darker markings on the body had become 
more extensive. The most notable change, however, was 
in the antennae. The first and second joints had lengthened 
very considerably ; the penultimate joint had become 
broad and flat, with a longitudinal ridge on its dorsal 
surface ; the distal, increasing little in actual dimensions, 
was now pear-shaped. The expansion of the penultimate 
joint was rendered more conspicuous by the pale colour of 
the distal adding a purplish suffusion on its own distal 

In the first instar, then, the antennae were of a general- 
ized type ; in the second they had become highly specialized. 

After the ecdysis the demeanour of the larvas became 
much less sluggish. They ran about continually, agitating 
their antennas, which were not held in the same attitude 
as in the first instar (compare figs. 4 and 5). They refused, 
however, to feed on the juices of leaves, and consequently 
died, in the course of a few days, of starvation. 

I have already noted that the individuals differed from 
one another in size. With the exception of one, which 
died immediately after getting rid of its old skin, the larger 
individuals succumbed after the smaller. The difference 
I attribute not directly to innate physical characters but 
to the fact that on hatching all the young larvas did not 
show the same aptitude in finding the leaves provided for 
their food. Some wandered about for several hours with- 
out settling down to suck, while others commenced to do 
so at once. All, however, apparently underwent ecdysis 
at the same time. I may mention that when the skin was 
cast the expanded joint of the antennas was drawn out 
through the narrow aperture at the base of the organ, just 
as the claws of crabs are drawn out or the expansions on 
the femora of some Mantodea (e.g. Hymenopus oicornis). 

As regards the systematic position of these Heteroptera, 
I have no hesitation in assigning them to be Coreidae, and 
very little to the genus Dcdader, which is remarkable for 
having antennas with an expanded, ridged penultimate 

58 Mr. N. Annandaie on the Stages of a Corcid Bug. 

joint and a pale-coloured, pear-shaped distal one. If this 
attribution is correct the species is almost certainly Daladcr 
acuticosta, Amyot et Serv., as this is the only representative 
of the genus known from Lower Bengal, where it is not 


On August 20th I found seven more eggs of the same 
species attached directly to the bark of the same tree at 
Alipur. A few days later I dissected six of them. Each 
was occupied by a small, black Hymenopteron, already 
fully formed but enveloped in a delicate membrane. It 
lay on its belly in the egg, with its head bent down beneath 
the level of its thorax. The anterior edge of the thorax 
was directed towards the operculum but was not in contact 
with it. A sub-triangular, whitish mass covered the dorsal 
surface of the abdomen, but was not in organic connection 
with it. Possibly this was all that remained of the proper 
occupant of the egg-shell which the Hymenopteron had 
devoured. A similar parasite was hatched from the seventh 
egg but unfortunately escaped. 

In the collection of the Indian Museum I have recently 
come across a third clutch of eggs, attached to the leaf of a 
sugar cane. With them are the Hymenoptera bred from 
them, evidently belonging to the same species. By a very 
natural error the egg-shells are entered in the Museum 
register as being the cocoons of the parasite. 

I do not know of any other case in which a Hymeno- 
pteron has been recorded as parasitic on the eggs of a 
Heteropteron, though other members of the same family 
are known to infest the egg-cases of cockroaches. The 
eggs of the species under consideration are probably very 
minute indeed and may be introduced through one of the 
micropyles. No other aperture could be detected in 
parasitized eggs. It is evident that the shells are firm 
when the infested eggs are laid, as their base does not 
preserve a cast of the surface to which they adhere. 

The specimens of the parasite examined are in a poor 
state of preservation. They belong to the family Chaleididte 
in its wider application : further it would be ridiculous for 
one^who is not a specialist in the group to go. 

Extpl \a nation of Plate. 59 

Explanation of Plate VIII. 

Fig. 1. Parasitized Egg of Heteropteron (? Dalader acuticosta), 
from above. 

«• ?> »> »> »> » 

from one side. 
.3. Egg from which Heteropteron has hatched. 

4. Larva in 1st instar. 

5. „ „ 2nd „ 

Figs. 1 to 3 x 8 ; fig. 4 x 4 ; fig. 5 x 3. 

In fig. 5 the artist has tipped the head of the insect np slightly so 
that the proximal extremity of the mouth parts appears. 

( 61 ) 

VI. Notes on the Butterflies observed in a tour through India 
and Ceylon, 1903-4. By G. B. Longstaff, M.D., 

[Read December 7th, 1904.] 


What follows is an account of the entomological ex- 
periences of a "jglobe-trotter," that is, of a traveller whose 
main object was to take an all too rapid glance at the 
scenery, the peoples, and the architecture of the places 
visited, and whose route was planned with that object. 
That I was able to give so much time to collecting was 
due to the fact that, whereas my daughter and her com- 
panion felt the heat so much that they usually kept within 
doors from about 10 a.m. to 3 p.m., I, for my part, protected 
by a " sola tope " of the " pigsticker " type, and a spinal 
pad to my coat, suffered no serious inconvenience from the 
sun's rays so long as I took active exercise. 

I sailed from England in September 1903 without the 
slightest intention of collecting, and started accordingly 
with no entomological outfit save half-a-dozen pill-boxes. 
Not only was I without net and killing-bottle, I was with- 
out books, and worse still, was in woeful ignorance of the 
Rhopalocera of the Oriental Region. 

The day after landing we took train for Simla, and a 
little south of Jhansi I was struck by the large numbers of 
bright yellow butterflies along the railway banks — in all 
probability Terias hecabe, L. October 5th found us at Kalka, 
at the foot of " The Hills." Fortunately the new railway 
was not yet open, so we had to be driven up the 58 miles 
to Simla in a "tonga," or post-cart, by a wild-looking 
hillman who handled the ponies magnificently. To one 
fresh from Europe the sights on the road were truly mar- 
vellous : long trains of wagons drawn by humped oxen 
or by buffaloes ; natives in divers strange costumes, or 
lack of costume ; flocks of goats and herds of cattle ; strings 
of pack-mules, and, to crown all, long lines of solemn 
camels, always hideous, yet always picturesque. However, 
amid all these strange sights there was one other which 


62 Dr. G. B. Longstaff's Notes on the Butterflies 

interested me if possible even more, I mean the multitude, 
the variety, and above all the beauty of the butterflies. 
The first sight of such a thing as the big Hypolimnas 
holina, L., black flashing with violet-blue, excited an emotion 
better imagined than described. At all events, the 
creatures took me fairly by storm : collect I must ! 

The resources of the bazar at Simla oidy produced a 
child's butterfly-net, a mere toy, scarce twelve inches in 
diameter and of a pale yellow colour ! Armed with this 
and a tin cigarette-box filled with triangular envelopes I 
took the field. To this scanty equipment was shortly 
added a cyanide bottle. It was two months before the 
toy-net was superseded by an umbrella-net from Watkins 
and Doncaster. This last is a very convenient weapon for 
use in towns, or when travelling or sight-seeing. It is 
inconspicuous when rolled up, but can be quickly brought 
into action ; it is however inadequate for serious work. In 
Calcutta I purchased a large Y-net with jointed canes, 
and had it fitted to the end of a landing-net stick that was 
made in two pieces that were six feet long when joined. 
A fair-sized net is required for large and swift butterflies, 
while for the many that habitually fly high and settle far 
from the ground, six feet is none too long a stick, though 
in narrow woodland paths it will be found unwieldy. 
Another time I should travel with a jointed stick of three 
segments, each three feet long. I may here add that 
mosquito netting is far more serviceable than leno, owing 
to its superior power of resistance to thorns of all sorts. 

Mr. Otto Moller, of Darjiling, told me that he found 
it best to pinch all butterflies, even the smallest, but I 
found that Blues and Skippers were best " bottled." No 
doubt it would have been better to pin many moths, but 
my things were all enveloped in the way usual for butter- 
flies, and the dates, localities, and any remarks that sug- 
gested themselves were inscribed upon the papers. [These 
data are still attached to the specimens.] Since getting 
back to England the insects have been serially numbered, 
and the data copied into a note-book. On another 
journey I should number the insects at the time, and 
while putting the more important data on the papers as 
before, copy these, amplified where necessary, into a book. 
This would, I am quite sure, save much time and result 
in a more complete record. 

The insects were sent to England from time to time 

Observed in a lour through India and Ceylon. 63 

by parcel post in small cigar-boxes, each enclosing a ball 
of naphthalene. In no case do they appear to have sus- 
tained any injury on the way. They have been beautifully 
set at Oxford by Mr. A. H. Hamin, and all that are worth 
preserving will be placed in the Hope Collection, while 
the explanatory note-book will be deposited in the library 
of the Department. 

The total number of specimens sent home was as 
follows : — 

All countries. 

Butterflies . . 1867 . 

Moths . 20G . 

Coleoptera . . 21 . 

Hymenoptera . 27 . 

Neuroptera . 15 . 

Diptera . 5 . 

Hemiptera . 10 . 

Orthoptera . . 13 . 

India and Ceylon only. 



In round numbers, I was five months in India and three 
weeks in Ceylon — say, six months together ; during this 
time I took nearly 1700 specimens, of which 1500 were 
butterflies belooging to 204 species. 

To these may be added the results of a fortnight in 
China, a month in Japan, and a fortnight in Canada, viz. 
500 more specimens, and 6-A additional species of butter- 
flies, which are only incidentally alluded to at the end of 
this paper. 

Naturally in a rapid tour of this kind there is small 
probability of turning up anything new, but it is hoped 
that some of the observations made (even on the com- 
monest species) may throw a glimmer of light on some 
of those questions of Bionomics which are now attracting 

Simla, lat. 31° N., alt. 7200 ft. 

In reference to the seasonal variation of many species 
it may be remarked that at Bombay on October 2 ad and 
3rd there was heavy rain, the tail-end of the monsoon. 
It was held to be a very late season, the rain had lingered 
and the cold weather was delayed. 

My collecting at Simla was confined to a riding expedi- 
tion along the old Hindustan-Tibet road. This is an 

64 Dr. G. B. Longstaff's Notes on the Butterflies 

excellent riding-path along the watershed of the Sutlej 
and Jumna, cut at one time on the hot and dusty southern 
side of the mighty ridge, where the terraced slopes are 
covered with crops of maize, or ruddy millet ; anon crossing 
to the northern side which is mostly clothed with fine 
forest of spruce, deodar, holm-oak and rhododendron — thus 
winding in and out, but for the 50 miles that we traversed 
always maintaining an altitude of from 7000 to 9000 ft. 
We went by way of Fagu, Theog, Matiana and Narkanda to 
Baghi, returning by the same route, except that from 
Baghi to Narkanda we walked over Mt. Huttu, 11,000 ft.* 
The expedition occupied eight days, but for simplicity 
of description I shall not distinguish between outward 
and return journeys. 

The general aspect was decidedly autumnal ; the nights 
were chilly and most flowers had gone to seed. There 
was more cloud than usual, and there were occasional 
slight thunder- showers. Most of the butterflies seen 
appeared to have been out some time, and were much 
battered. Two circumstances tended to restrict the bag — 
one, the fact that collecting was for the most part confined 
to a narrow mountain road, bounded by a precipice on the 
lower, and a cliff upon the higher side ; the other, a limit- 
ation of wide application, that a tropical sun is not 
conducive to rapid pursuit. 

Simla, alt. 7200 ft., to Fagu, alt. 8200 ft. 

October 10th and 17th. 

Gonepteryx rhamni, L., var. nipalensis, Dbl., was abundant 
throughout the journey, and so was Aulocera swaha, Koll., 
though in very poor condition ; both occurred in Simla 
itself. The last named is a Satyrid having on the upper- 
side a resemblance to our White Admiral, flying also with 
much of the grace of that favourite butterfly. It loves 
open spaces in woods, returning to the same spot when 
disturbed. When it settles on the ground, a rock, a 
flower, or a tree trunk, it often goes over on one 
side as much as 45° or even 50°. I saw one of these 
butterflies make three successive efforts, getting further 
over each time ! On two distinct occasions I watched a 
butterfly settle twice, turning the first time over to the 

* In Indian names " a " is pronounced as " a" in father, " u " as 
" oo " in boot, " a " or " u " as " u " in but. 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. Go 

right, the second time to the left. I think there is no 
doubt that this " list" makes the insect less conspicuous. 

Pararge schalcra, Koll., is another common roadside 
butterfly in the Simla district ; it closely resembles our 
P. rnegmra, L., but is larger. Chrysophanus phlseas, L., var. 
timeus, Cr.,was also common ; Col las jie/dii, Men., is suffi- 
ciently like our G. edusa to readily pass for that species ; 
Polyommatus bteticus, L., is also suggestive of our South 
Downs, where it has been seen ; the same may be said of 
Argynnis lathonia, L. Again, Pyrameis indica, Herbst., is 
very like our P. atalanta, L., though not so handsome and 
scarcely as graceful in its movements. So far there was 
plenty to bring to mind the fact that one was still within 
the Palsearctic Region. There were however a few insects 
to suggest the close proximity of the great Oriental Region, 
for if Atella phalanta, Diu., is very like a Fritillary (at least 
on the upper-side), and Ilcrda sena, Koll., closely resembles 
a Hairstreak, on the other hand, the under-side of Belenois 
mesentina, Cr., is decidedly more brilliant than our Whites, 
while there is no denying that Precis orithyia, L., is quite 
Oriental in its aspect. This insect had struck me with 
admiration at Solon on the way up to Simla, and is called 
by the school-boys of India's summer capital, " The Ladies' 
Fancy." With the habits of a Vanessa or Pyrameis, there 
is something about the shape of the wings, the prominent 
ocelli, the brilliant blue of the hind-wings, and the leaf-like 
colouring of the under-side which gives it a very " tropical " 
appearance. However, oue soon learned to look upon it as 
one of the most familiar butterflies of Northern India. At 
Fagu it was common, but like most butterflies which have a 
proclivity for settling on the ground, not too easy to catch. 

At Fagu another butterfly of European aspect was 
common, Vanessa Jcashmirensis, Koll.; this is no credit to its 
name, but looks like an urtictc, L., that had been born and 
bred in the " Black country." But the Chalcosiine day- 
flying moth, Agalope hyalina, Koll., elegant in shape and 
quiet in colour, white, shaded with grey towards the tips, 
ochreous at the base, was quite a stranger. 

Feign, 8200 ft., to Theog, 740U ft. 

October 11th and 10th. 

Before our start in the morning I found abundance of 
Chrysophanus pavana, Koll., in dry weedy corners of 
TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1905. — TART I. (MAY) 5 

66 Dr. G. B. LongstafFs Notes on the Butterflies 

cultivated ground ; tins is sufficiently distinct from C. 
phlmas, but has no especial oriental glamour. 

From the ground by the roadside I picked up a large 
newly-emerged Boinbyx with the awe-striking name of 
Trdbala vishnu, Lefevre ; it was unfortunately a good deal 
damaged in the killing, through having no oxalic acid 
available. Two Blues, Cyaniris vardhana, Moore, and Zizera 
mafia, Koll., var. diluta, Feld., together with the Hairstreak, 
Ilerda sena, completed the bag for this stage. 

Theog, 7400 ft., to Matidna, 7700 ft. 
October 11th and 16th. 

At Theog, our first halting-place, Gonepteryx rhamni, var. 
nvpalensis, was especially common, and here I took my 
first Athyma opalina, Koll., a Vanessid resembling on both 
upjser and lower surfaces Limenitis sibylla, L., an insect to 
which it is closely allied in structure and habits. 

On the road, besides Ilerda sena, Chrysophanus pavana, 
Precis orithyia, and Aryynnis lathonia, var. isszea, Moore, 
several things turned up. Of Pyrantels cardui, L., a fresh 
brood appeared to have emerged on the 15th or 16th October, 
and was common at the flowers of a straw-coloured thistle. 
I saw a few more Athyma opalina, and secured one. In 
their elegant floating flight one seems to see through the 
white markings of the butterflies of this genus. The 
Simla school-boys call them "Sailors," but to me the name 
"Ghosts" would seem more appropriate. They settle on 
the leaves of trees or shrubs, rarely affecting flowers. Here 
I got my first Precis lentonias, L., an insect with the habits 
(and structure) of a Vanessid, but with much the appearance 
of Pararge mgeria, L. A specimen of Terias libythea, F., 
taken on the return journey, bears the note " easy to 
catch," which is true, but at the time I do not think that 
I distinguished it from the much commoner T. hecahe, 
which it closely resembles. 

At Matiana I found Chrysophanus phlmas, var. timeus ; 
Vanessa kashmirensis ; Precis orithyia ; and two specimens 
of Huphina nerissa, F., both males. This last is a somewhat 
glorified P. napi, L.; one of them appeared to have a 
slight scent which I could not describe, but certainly it 
was not that of the male napi. 

Perhaps the most abundant butterfly at Matiana, and 
indeed throughout the woods of the district, was Cyaniris 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. 67 

singalensis, Moore, very like our argiolus ; it was in poor 
condition, flying about the tops of tall shrubs, but not 
seeming to affect either ivy or holly, although both were 

Pararge schakra was especially abundant at Matiana 
and on the road thence to Narkanda. It differs from our P. 
megxra, L., in being larger and having more striking ocelli, 
though these are variable, one of my specimens, a female, 
having the ocellus near the tip of the fore-wing far larger 
than the rest. In its habits this insect sometimes reminds 
one of P. megmra, sometimes oiSatyrus scmele, L. It abounds 
along roads and in bare places, alighting almost always on the 
earth or on rocks, with its wings expanded (as with meg/era), 
but when it settles down to rest the wings are raised, the 
fore-wings drawn back within the hind-wings, all that 
remains visible being the colour of dust. In no case did I 
see it turn on one side as S. semele does, but three times I 
observed it settle with its back to the sun, so as to reduce 
its shadow to a mere line; unfortunately I made this 
observation towards the end of my acquaintance with the 
butterfly, so was unable to make sure whether this was a 
mere chance or a definite habit. At any rate, I did not 
observe any instances to the contrary. I suspected in 
. P. schakra the existence of a very slight- sweet scent, that 
appeared to be unlike that of any other species. 

At Matiana I beat out of alders a number of geometers, 
three Philereme variegata, Warr., and one Cidaria niphonica, 
Butl.; they had a jerky flight, which saved many of them 
from capture. A Deltoid, Hypena tristalis, Leder., came to 
light at night. 

Matiana, 7700 ft., to Narkanda, 8800 ft. 

October 12th and loth. 

Many of the same insects were met with as on the 
previous stage, but the following may be noted : Terias 
hecabe, my first specimen of the commonest species of a 
very characteristic Indian genus; Ganoris canidia, Sparrm., 
a White like P. rapm, L., but with bigger black spots ; and 
Belcnois mesentina, flying fast and going straight ahead in a 
purposeful manner. Here I may remark that the swift 
flight of the Whites generally has much impressed me ; 
it is evidently closely related to the fact that they are 

68 Dr. G. B. Longstaffs Notes on the Butterflies 

quite the most conspicuous of all butterflies, especially at a 
distance. Argynnis lathonia, var. isstea, was again well to 
the front ; another Athyma opalina was securely " papered," 
and a specimen of Precis lemonias was taken in which the 
anal angle of both hind-wings had been bitten off nearly 
symmetrically. Amongst many of the argiohis-like 
Cyaniris singalensis, Moore, one C. vardhana, Moore, 
was taken ; also Chrysophanus pavana. Three geometers, 
Philereme varicgata, Warr., Docirava mquilineata, Walk., 
and the widely-distributed Polyphagia truneata, Hufn. 
{immanata, Haw.), complete the list. 

At Narkanda Argynnis lathonia, var. issxa, was in 
great numbers in the woods, so was the Chalcosiine moth 
Agalope hyalina; this flies fast and always in the same 
direction, in this case up-hill and against the wind, more 
especially up certain gorges in the mountain side. It was 
hard to catch, and on the wing looked much larger than it 
is, but on settling vanished suddenly, burying itself in the 

Colias fieldii was common, but was not remarkable for 
swift flight. Terias hecabe was also to be seen. 

Narkanda, 8800 ft., to Bdghi, 8900 ft. 

October 13th. 

The road through the magnificent forest, whence gaps 
in the towering spruces give inspiring glimpses of " The 
Snows " lying far away across the deep valley of the Sutlej, 
was at this season too dark and chilly to be the haunt 
of butterflies. At Baghi were Atella phalanta, Neptis 
astola, Moore, worn specimens of Auloccra swaha, and 
Agalope hyalina, 

Bdghi, 8900 ft., over Mt. Huttu, 11,000 ft., to Narkanda, 
8800 ft. 

October 14th. 

Baghi, our furthest point, is but 26 miles W. N. W. of 
Simla, though by the winding mountain road it is fifty. 
The steep footpath up Mt. Huttu, when it has attained an 
elevation of a little more than 10,000 ft., emerges from the 
forest on to a flowery clearing that bore evidence of former 
cultivation. Here I saw Colias fieldii, Atella phalanta, 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. 69 

and Argynnis lathonia, and hero I took two specimens of 
Pamassius hardivickii, Gray, one worn, the other in beauti- 
ful conditiou ; it is a lovely creature, but the under-side has 
a curious resemblance to oiled paper. Delicate looking 
though it be, it is strangely tenacious of life. The con- 
currence of a" Clouded Yellow," a "Queen of Spain," and an 
"Apollo " was very suggestive of the Alps. All too soon the 
path plunged again into the now somewhat scrubby forest 
to come out finally, at near 11,000 ft., on to the grassy, 
flower-bedecked plateau in which the mountain culminates. 
The Lha To, or rude altar of the degraded form of 
Buddhism that is prevalent in " The Hills," crowning the 
highest peak, reminded one of the High Places of Baal. 
The troops of butterflies seemed almost to rejoice in the 
glorious panorama of "The Snows" spread far around. 
The brilliant Argynnis lathonia was common, and the 
dingy Vanessa kashmirensis quite abundant — probably 
the more distant of yon white peaks to the left arises from 
its name-place, Kashmir. Colias fieldii was also in large 
numbers, a female exhibiting a symmetrical injury to the 
hind-wings very suggestive of a peck by a bird. Precis 
orithyia was there too, but Aulocera swaha was conspicuous 
by its absence. Of a humming-bird moth, much smaller 
than ours, Rhopalopsyche nyctcris, Koll., I netted three 
specimens, one at the flowers of a delphinium. Herbula 
ccspitalis, Schiff., reminded me of home. The Blues were 
represented by Cyaniris singalcnsis, Moore. A male Terias 
hecabe was of the wet-season form. I noted that this 
species is very easy to catch, and is brilliant on the wing ; 
also that when settled on a shrub or flower it is usually 
extremely conspicuous, but not so when it chooses as its 
resting-place a certain low plant with oval leaves fading to 
a yellow tint ; then the rounded form of the wings greatly 
aids its concealment. An old friend, Euxoa corticea, Schiff., 
was taken flying in the sunshine. I had several exciting 
chases after a big yellow Swallow-tail, and eventually 
secured one — my first Papilio ! It proved to be our 
machaon, L., var. asiatica, Men. Here, as in Japan, it scorns 
fens and dykes, glorying in mountain tops. 

On the way down to Narkanda several Pyrameis indica 
disputed the path with our party. 

The great resemblance to European forms presented by 
the bulk of the butterflies seen in this expedition cannot 
fail to strike the reader. 

70 Dr. G. B. Longstaffs Notes on the Butterflies 

Solon, circa 5000 ft., to Kdlka, 2184 ft. 
October 20th, 1903. 

Starting from Simla by starlight, soon after 5 a.m., we 
got to Solon by breakfast-time, and I there caught at 9 
a.m. my first butterflies, two alsus-YC&o, Blues, Zizera 
harsandra, Moore, and Z. malm, Koll. Also two flies, a 
Musca of the domestica, L., group, and an Anthomyid. 

On the drive from Solon to Kalka, by making the most 
of stoppages to change horses, and by occasionally jumping 
out of the carriage, I managed to secure quite a lot of 
things. Among the commonest was the beautiful Precis 
osnonc, L., and with it P. orithyia and P. lemonias. QiAtclla 
phalanta, Belenois mesentina, £, and Ilerda sena, I took 
single examples. Terias Iteta, Boisd., was rather common. 
There were also Catopsilia pyranthe, L., the gnoma-f ovm, 
Terias hecabe, and Huphina nerissa. About two miles above 
Kalka, say at about 2700 ft., I got a single Precis iphita, Cr. 
At about the same place the great catch of the morning was 
made, for I took my first Hypolimnas bolina, three males 
and a female, believing them at the time to be two species. 
Why does not this glorious insect retain its far more 
poetical and more appropriate name, Diadema jacintha ? 
Surely a black butterfly 2>\ inches in expanse with four 
large glancing-blue spots, one on either wing, deserves to 
be called after a gem. Anyway, I shall never forget the 
impression produced by my first sight of its truly oriental 
splendour; it was like Kingsley's "At last!" 

On my way down I also saw Pyrameis indica, and missed 
two Papilios, probably P. machaon. 

At Kalka I got an hour and a half's collecting late in 
the afternoon ; it was partly on waste ground about the 
station, but mainly in a field bearing a crop of some kind 
of pulse with thin pods 4-5 inches long. 

A black and brown Cantharid beetle, Mylahris sidiv, Fab., 
was flying about flowers in the sunshine in large numbers. 
The genus Precis was represented by orithyia and mnone ; 
the genus Terias by hecabe, Iseta, and quite a number of 
libythca. The inevitable Atclla plialanta, never very 
common, and Belenois mesentina were to the front again. 
Ganoris canidia was fairly common; I noted that a male had 
a " snuffy scent." Single specimens of Ixias marianne, Cr., 
and Hvphina nerissa, both males, were taken. Of Goto- 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. 71 

psilia pyranthe I took two females, one of which had 
suffered a symmetrical injury to both hind- wings. Three or 
four Hypolimnas bolina, both sexes, were disturbed in their 
first sleep, and being drowsy fell an easy prey. The Blues 
were represented by several species — -Zizera maha, Koll.; 
Z. otis, Fab,, var. indica, Murray ; Catochrysops cnejus, Fab. ; 
and Nacaduba noreia, Feld. Two Pyrales, Hymenia 
recurvalis, F., and Bradina admixtalis, Walk., and a worn 
Acidalid were picked up. A Sphinx, Nephele hespera, Fab., 
was taken during the afternoon at the flowers of a Bryonia, 
A little later on, an Arctiid moth, Artaxa lunata, Walk., 
came to the lamp of the railway carriage, to which a Sphinx, 
probably another N. hespera, also paid a momentary visit. 

Peshdwar, lat. 34° N„ alt. 1165 ft. 
October 22nd— 25th, 1903. 

This city is finely situated in the extreme north-west 
of the great plain of the Panjab, or Five Rivers ; the 
mountains of the Sufid Koh and the foot-hills of the 
Hindu Kiish bounding the view to the west and north 

In the hotel garden I took a few things ; Terias hecabe 
was common, two of them lacked " the dog's head mark." 
Belenois mesentina was represented by a solitary male. 
One of three males of Ganoris canidia yielded a decided 
scent, hard to describe but certainly not that of G. napi. 
That dingy Skipper Pamara mathias, Fab., was abundant 
at the flowers of Duranta. I missed several specimens of 
a yellow Papilio, probably erithonius, Cr., and I believe 
one allied to podalirius, L. Of the Blues I took one 
Polyommatus bteticus, and three Zizcra karsandra, Moore. 

Two moths came to light, Oligochroa alcbarella, Rag., 
and Earias tristrigosa, Butl. 

Near the waterworks at Bara, amidst a wilderness of 
stones, I netted a female Belenois mesentina, three Blues, 
Tarucus theophrastns, Fab. (2 £, 1 $), and my first Teracolus, 
a female etrida, Boisd. Dr. Dixey tells me that he had no 
idea that this species ranged so far north. A strange- 
looking grasshopper, Truttalis nasuta, L., seemed well 
adapted to its stony desert surroundings. 

From •Peshawar my most interesting expedition, from 
every point of view, was to Ali Musjid in the Khaibar 
Pass. This tiny white building, said to be the first. 

72 Dr. G. B. Longstaff's Notes on the Butterflies 

Musjid erected in India by the invading hordes of Muham- 
madan conquerors, stands about 2400 ft. above sea level. 
Close to flows a little stream full of fish and frogs, which 
produces an oasis among the hot dry rocks, where large 
beds of a species of mint attracted a number of butterflies, 
which I pursued under the strict and curious supervision 
of those good-natured barbarians, the Afridis of the 
Khaibar Rifles, who twice a week safeguard the caravans 
as far as Lundi Kotal. 

Limnas chrysippus, L., was fairly common. I took two 
males and two females, one of the latter with pale ground- 
colour of an umbreous tint and much shading along the 
costa. Pyramcis cardui was the commonest butterfly, mostly 
in fine condition. I took one Ganoris brassier, L., of the 
form nipalensis, Gray, a female, and saw several G. canidia, 
Avhich had all possibly strayed from a patch of cultivated 
ground hard by. The Clouded Yellows were represented 
by several Colias hyale, form erate, Esp. The beautiful Precis 
orithyia was quite abundant ; P. almana, L., also occurred, 
but was not common. I saw several Terias hecabe. The 
Satyrids were the most interesting of all. A specimen of 
Yphthima balanica, March, was my first acquaintance in 
that elegant and delicately-made genus. Satyrus parisatis, 
Koll., a handsome insect suggestive of Vanessa antiopa, 
L., was rather common, but unfortunately much worn. 
Very conspicuous on the wing it did not appear to be 
attracted by the mint, but usually settled on the ground, 
and was then very difficult to see. I also secured two 
specimens of a very distinct pale Satyrid, much the colour 
of G.pamphilus, L., but much larger and with dentate hind- 
wings, Epinephele davendra, Moore ; they were both ^. I 
took two Polyommaius bseticus, but saw no Skippers. 

Three of that widely-distributed beauty, Beiopeia pul- 
ckella, L., were seen flying in the sun, and with them a 
brilliant little Burnet, Zygmna kashmirensis, Koll. 

Among the outsiders were a locust, Pozcilocera pieta; a 
beetle, Clinteria conjinis, Hope ; two bees, Bombus simil- 
limus, Smith, $ and ^; and a wasp, Vespa auraria, Smith ($). 

MalaJcand, lat. 34° 30' N., alt. circa 3000 ft. 

October 28th and 29th, 1903. 

By the kind hospitality of the Political Officer, Capt. 
R. W. E. Knollys, I was enabled to get two days' collect- 

Observed in a tour through India and, Ceylon. 7.3 

ing at this remote frontier post. Perched on a saddle, 
where the old Buddhist road crosses the foot-hills, looking 
forward over the Swat valley, back over the dusty plain 
of the Panjab, this isolated fortress affords a picture of 
rocky desolation. The Pass is closed every night by 
chcvaux dc /rise, and the garrison is always prepared for 
attack. When I went collecting it was deemed prudent 
that I should be accompanied by a gigantic chv/prassi, a 
Pathan of the tribe of the Jusufsai, or Sons of Joseph. 
Moreover, when scrambling over the hillsides, in addition 
to the usual Indian thorns in all their varieties, wire 
entanglements have to be negotiated ! 

The rocky hills seemed too dry and burnt up to harbour 
many butterflies, but on the parched slopes of the fortified 
crag, nicknamed Gibraltar, the pretty little Melitsea trivia, 
Schiff., was almost abundant; on a glaucous shrub at the 
foot of the same hill were numbers of a glaucous green and 
yellow locust, Pceciloccra picta, which though conspicuous 
enough on the wing was decidedly cryptic. Other Orni- 
thoptera were Quiroguesia blanehardianus, Sauss., and 
Truxalis nasuta, L. I also took three wasps, two Vespa 
velutina, Lep. (var. " dcs Indes" Sauss.) $ , and a £ Polistcs 
hcbrxns, F. 

In addition to the above a long and hot walk only 
yielded one Ganoris canidia, $ ; tw r o Terias hecabe, a $ of 
the variety without the "dog's head," and a large but 
otherwise normal £ i two Blues, a Zizera karsandra, 
Moore, and a Z. maha, Koll., var. diluta, Feld. ; one 
Precis orithyia ; a dingy Skipper, Gegencs nostrodanms, Fab., 
and a micro, Tiniegeria, sp. Some puddles of water at 
the baggage-mules' drinking-place proved very attractive, 
yielding Argynnis niphc, a $, Tarucus theoplt.rastus, F., 
a £, and the conspicuous Ilipparchia parisatis. 

The next day (Oct. 29th) I lighted upon an oasis in the 
desert in the shape of the staff-sergeant's garden, where 
irrigation had produced a brilliant mass of flowers, some 
vegetables, and a small field of lucerne. Here butterflies 
abounded : Terias hecabe, without the " dog's head mark," 
was in plenty among the lucerne as well as at the marigolds ; 
the lucerne also yielded both Colias ficldii and C. crate, 
the eastern form of hyale. Among the Danaids Limnas 
chrysiijpiis was common, and D. genutia, Cr., abundant at 
the marigold flowers, at which also one Tirumala limniaee, 
Cr., was taken. Athyma perius, Linn., was rather com- 

74 Dr. G. B. Longstaffs Notes on the Butterflies 

mon, but preferred the wet mud left in the irrigation 
channels to any flowers. Argynnis niphe was also com- 
mon, but had more refined taste, and was usually taken 
on the marigold beds ; its female was observed during life 
to resemble L. genutia. Precis almana was common ; P. 
orithyia very abundant at the same flowers, together with 
a few P. cenone, one of them very fine and large. As 
usual in India Atella phalanta and Bclenois mesentina put 
in an appearance, the first at marigold, the second (a ^) 
among the lucerne. The Hairstrealc Ilerda sena occurred 
alike at marigold and high up on the mountain-side. The 
flowers of Gaillardia proved more attractive to the smaller 
fry than the coarser marigolds ; the brown Skipper, Parnara 
mathias, Fab., was in abundance, so were the dingy Blues, 
Zizera Jcarsandra, Moore, and Z. maha, Koll., but the 
latter and its variety diluta, Feld., preferred mud to any 

Other small things were Polyommatus oasticus, and the 
Skipper Gcgencs nostrodamus, Fab., which was common at 
the flowers of Gaillardia and marigold. I saw this species 
at Malakand only, and unfortunately secured but two 
specimens. Two or three Melittva trivia also turned up 
at these favourite flowers. Not far from the garden I took 
two more Hipparchia parisatis ; this does not appear to be 
much attracted by flowers, but settles on the ground and 
is then often very hard to see. I observed it lean over 
from 20° to 30°, and even saw it walking about with a 
"list" of 20°. 

Lahore, lat. 31° 35' N., alt. circa 700 ft. 

October 31st — November 4th. 

At the capital of the Panjab, a city of the plains, my 
chief collecting ground was the extensive Lawrence 
Garden, which though full of flowers is, in parts, so wild 
that, not to mention a mongoose, I even came across a 
jackal at midday. The class of butterflies found here 
differed widely from those met with at Simla and further 
north, the predominant forms being Oriental. Here I 
first captured Papilio erithonius, Cr., the " tailless swallow- 
tail," which I had perhaps seen at Peshawar ; this butter- 
fly has a wide range in India and might almost be termed 
abundant, it especially frequents the flowers of Zinnia, 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. 75 

Lantana, and Bougainvillea. When feeding it settles for 
a few moments only, fluttering with its wings the while ; 
then it is not hard to catch, but when rushing from place 
to place it is far otherwise. In colouring it is very like 
P. maohaon, but far less handsome ; the yellow ground- 
colour is often quite pale and bright when the insect is 
fresh, but it usually turns much darker and duller; I sus- 
pect that cyanide hastens this process. At Lahore also I 
first came across another very common Indian butterfly, 
Papilio pammon, L. ; its graceful form and flight and rich 
velvety-black coat at first excited me so much that I 
had great difficulty in catching it ! Naturally enough I 
followed Linnaeus in taking the sexes for different species : 
he called the male pammon, and the very different female, 
Wallace's second form, polytes. At Lahore it especially 
affected the flowers of Bougainvillea and a shrub with 
blossoms like in colour and scent to, but much larger than, 
those of white jasmine. Like P. crithonius it flew rapidly 
from flower to flower and fluttered while feeding. The 
female taken here was of Wallace's second form (polytes) ; 
among the males was a dingy variety with scarcely any 
orange on the under-side of the hind-wings. 

Limnas chryiippus was abundant, more especially at the 
flowers of Asolepias (the food-plant) ; amongst them was a 
dwarf female. Tirumala limniace was scarcely common. 

Of Catopsilia pomona, F., I only netted one female, but 
believe I saw others ; it visits flowers high up on trees. 
C. pyranthe was abundant ; it flies fast and high and is 
hard to catch; it was fond of settling on the flowers of 
duranta on the tops of high hedges, forming a pretty 
contrast with the lilac-blue racemes. 

Terias hecabe, both sexes, was fairly common ; it flew 
slowly and near the ground. The black and white 
Teracolus puellaris, Butl., was also fairly common ; perhaps 
it owes its name to the child-like simplicity of its dress. It 
flies near the ground, but so jerkily as to be somewhat 
hard to catch. It has the habit of flying into bushes, by 
preference those well provided with thorns, and not coming 
out again. Of T. protractus, Butl, I could only get two 
specimens; its salmon-pink colour with broad black margins 
dusted with blue-grey make it one of the most beautiful 
little butterflies that I came across; its dress is all in 
exquisite taste, the under-side being a quiet greenish- 
yellow that must greatly protect it when at rest. 

76 Dr. G. B. Longstaff's Notes on the Butterflies 

White butterflies were not much in evidence ; I took a 
somewhat worn female of Appias libythca, Fab., also two 
Belenois mesentina, both females. This last is another 
common Indian butterfly; its upper surface reminds one of 
P. daplidice, L., but beneath the hind-wings and tips of the 
fore-wings are bright orange with brownish veins. Experi- 
ence at Lahore confirmed me in the opinion that " Whites " 
of all sorts are most difficult to catch ; they are shy, and 
fly rapidly with a jerky vertical movement. "Whites" 
are by far the most conspicuous butterflies, especially 
when at a distance, and doubtless they need their swift 
wings. The Catopsilias are nearly as conspicuous as the 
true Whites, and they fly even more swiftly. 

Among the Nymphalids the widespread Atella phedanta 
was represented by a few specimens at marigold flowers. 
Precis oritliyia (an insect that suffers much loss of beauty 
from grease) was not common, the same is true of P. almana ; 
a few of each were taken at flowers. At zinnia flowers I 
got my first Hypolimnas misippus, L., a male ; it impressed 
me as a most tropical-looking insect, though not so 
gorgeous as H. bolina ; it had both hind-wings clipped, 
possibly by a bird. 

The Blues were represented by two species — the neatly- 
marked Tarucus telicanus, Lang., common at the flowers of 
Plumbago, and the little greyish-blue Zizera maha, Koll , 
abundant at the flowers of a species of millet and some herbs 
of the labiate family; amongst them was a specimen of the 
var. dilitta, Feld. Blues swarm in India, many of the 
species are small and dingy, so that they are hard to follow 
on the wing, and their flight is even more jerky than that of 
Whites. They are often found on grassy banks as at home, 
but are especially addicted to water-drinking and are 
constantly present in irrigated fields and gardens. It 
must be confessed that the abundance of bigger game often 
led one to pass them by. Blues when killed are apt to 
fold their wings the wrong way, and it is difficult to set 
them right; but if only kept a short time in the bottle 
with a view to preventing this untoward result, they are 
apt to recover and fly away when the paper is opened after 
the day's work. 

The dull-coloured Skipper Gegencs nostrodamus, Fab., 
was common in the gardens, but I only took one female. 
Small moths, especially Pyrales, were abundant in a patch 
of long grass and herbage in a damp spot. One of these 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. 77 

was Pyrausta incoloralis, Guen., another the tiny Gold-tail, 
Porthesia marginalis, Wk., which was flying in the sun. 
There was also the very widely-distributed Marasmia 
trapezalis, Guen.; but by far the commonest was the pretty 
little black-and-white Hymenia recurvalis, Fab. (very 
suggestive of our E. eingulalis, L.). 

In the gardens of the Shah Dara, Jehangir's mausoleum, 
four miles from Lahore, I saw at dusk a number of Hawk- 
moths at the yellow tubular flowers of a small tree. My 
short-handled net only allowed me to catch two, which 
proved to be beautiful specimens of Nephelc hespera, Fab., 
and Chcerocampa celerio, L. 

In writing to Dr. Dixey from Lahore I made the 
suggestive remark : " It is evident that being late in the 
autumn many of the butterflies are old and much worn. 
Curiously enough they are more often tattered and torn 
than actually rubbed." It is difficult to rightly apportion 
the breaking of the wings between the work of thorns and 
insectivorous foes. Certainly Indian butterflies fly into 
and through bushes in a way that one does not see at 

In the Ajaib Ghar, or Wonder House of Lahore, Anglice 
Museum, well known to readers of " Kim," is a small 
collection of insects. This was useful to me, but the 
destruction wrought by Dermestes, etc., both among the 
insects and the textile fabrics of the Industrial Collection, 
is most sad to see. I trust Mr. Kipling will see to it. 

Amritzar, lat. 31° 40' N., alt. circa 750 ft. 
November 5th and 6th, 1903. 

At the sacred city of the Sikhs my collecting was 
practically confined to two gardens close to the hotel. 
Here a large dull brown butterfly, with somewhat of the 
Vanessa habit, spread itself perfectly flat upon the surface 
of the earth and more especially of the damp mud of the 
little irrigation channels, lying so close to the surface as to 
be with difficulty discerned, so exactly did it resemble the 
tint of the mud. I secured three which proved to be 
Euthalia garuda, Moore, all females. 

Papilio pammon was common ; besides males I took one 
female of Wallace's Form I, which differs but slightly from 

78 Dr. G. B. Longstaff's Notes on the Butterflies 

the male and is hence termed pamm.on <pammon. Of 
Precis almana I took one, of the ubiquitous Belenois 
mescntina likewise one, a female, but I was somewhat 
surprised to net a Golias fieldii, %, since the great plain of 
the Panjab seemed an unlikely locality for a Colias. 

Yphthima nareda, Koll., was scarcely common in the 
hotel garden, it flew close to the ground. The list closes 
with Polyommatus hxticus and a grasshopper to which Mr. 
Kirby cannot assign a name. 

Delhi, lat. 28° 30' N., alt. circa 700 ft. 

November 7th— 12th, 1903. 

When collecting in the Kudsia Gardens at Delhi it was 
impossible not to be impressed with the historic associa- 
tions of the ground. Lying between the northern walls of 
the city, the famous ridge, and the mighty Jumna, scarcely 
more than a furlong from John Nicholson's grave, stands, 
nearly hidden by trees and flowering shrubs, all that is left 
of the Summer Palace of the kings of Delhi. Its crumb- 
ling walls, where not covered by Bougainvilleas or other 
creepers, bear testimony by many a bullet-mark and round- 
shot hole how fire-swept the place was during the long hot 
days of 1857. Concrete blocks with suitable inscriptions 
mark the sites of the breaching batteries of the last stages 
of the siege — batteries placed strangely near the walls 
when measured by the range of modern guns, for yon 
breach in the Water Bastion is scarce two hundred yards 
from the most advanced battery ! 

Here in a beautiful garden, the very ideal of quiet and 
peace, where the numerous grey-striped squirrels are quite 
tame and the greenest of parrots and the crested hoopoes 
look as if war were unknown upon earth — here I watched 
many gorgeous Pcqnlio aristolochim, Fab., fluttering upon 
the flowers, or sailing over the trees ; at one moment look- 
ing like black crepe against the light, at another displaying 
a circlet of brilliant rubies beneath. Once I had three 
together in my net ! With these were a few P. erithonius 
and P. <polytes, the latter females of Form II. 

Limnas chrysipptis was also common, one, a male, was 
unusually small. Grastia core, Cr., was common in shady 
places under mango trees, but was rarely seen at flowers. 
The pretty little black and salmon-coloured Teracolus 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. 79 

calais, Or., was abundant alike in the Kudsia Gardens and 
close to the hotel, flying near the ground yet not so 
easy to catch. One of them was very small. Of T. 
pucllaris I only saw two. The " wet season " form of 
Tcrias hecabe was abundant, flying low and about bushes. 

Of the brilliant yellow and orange Ixias pyrene, L., I 
took but one ; the less gaudy Orange-tip, I. marianne, was 
rather common, but some of them were worn and none very 
easy to catch. The genus Catopsilia was represented by 
one worn male pyranthc, and I took my first Delias eucharis, 
Dru., a very worn female. The common Whites were 
Hwphina nerissa, all males, and Belenois mesentina, which 
was abundant at flowers. The slender little Nychitona 
xiphia, Fab., flitted weakly along close to the ground, 
reminding me irresistibly of Lencophasia sinapis, L., in 
spite of all structural differences. One of these ghostly 
creatures was taken flying over a tablet that marked 
the site of " Battery No. IV. Left attack ; mortars." 
One wondered whether there were any butterflies in that 
place during the terrible summer of 1857. 

Three or four Precis lemonias, L., appeared to be rather 
fond of shade, they settled upon the ground in preference 
to flowers and then were hard to see. Of the gorgeous 
Hypolimnas bolina I saw one of each sex ; it needed an 
effort to believe that they were one species. 

The Blues included Catochrysops cnejus, Fab. ; Tarucus 
theophrastus, Fab. ; Chilades varunana, Moore ; and Chilades 
lakes, Cr., this last was common. The only Skipper taken 
was Telicota angias, L. 

A little geometer, like a Macaria, was common among 
herbage, Semiothisa fidoniata, Guen., and one specimen of 
Tcphrinia disputaria, Guen., was taken in like situation. 
Semiothisa fidoniata also came to light, along with 
Oligochroa akbarella, B,ag. Can M. Ragonot have intended 
a deliberate insult to the memory of the great Emperor 
when he named this dingy and insignificant little Phycid 
after him ? 

Other moths taken in the Kudsia Gardens were the 
tiny Noctuids Metachrostis badia, Swinhoe, and Earias 
tristrigosa, Butl., which was common among bushes near 
a back-water of the Jumna. 

In the verandah of the hotel I took a fine Sphinx orien- 
talis, Butl., the eastern form of convolvuli, L. ; it had 
probably been attracted by the lights the night before. 

80 Dr. G. B. Longstaffs Notes on the Butterflies 

Ldlhot. November 10th. 

Eleven miles south of Delhi lies this glorious city of 
ruins, and there, under the shadow of the Kutb minar, 
flying over the stones and amidst the thorny vegetation 
were many Whites and Orange-tips. The butterflies 
appeared especially to delight in flying about inside the 
thorniest bushes, or even flying through and through 
them, so that torn wings were almost the rule. Prominent 
in the countless crowd of Belenois mesentina so employed 
were Ixias marianne and i". pyrene ; a female of the former 
was distinguished by the substitution of cream-colour for 
white in the ground-tint of the wings. The delicate-look- 
ing Teracolus ctrida, lover of ruins, was in abundance, 
flying close to the ground. 

I saw one black Papilio, one Limnas chrysippus and one 
Precis lemonias. 

Ndini Tdl, lat. 29° 30' N., alt. 6500 ft. 
November 16th— 23rd, 1903. 

Unlike Simla and Darjiling, which stand astride lofty 
ridges, Naini Till lies in a basin by a lake, a situation 
which, however pleasant it may be in summer, gives it in 
late autumn a dank feel. In summer it affords good 
collecting, but in November I found but few insects and 
those mostly battered and forlorn looking. The fauna, 
though more Oriental than at Simla, a degree and a half 
to the north, was much more PalEearctic than at Lahore, 
which is yet half a degree north of Simla, but of course 
upon the plain. 

A very clear picture remains with me of a bright 
sunny afternoon, with a raw chill in the air very sug- 
gestive of home. On the one hand were rhododendrons and 
Thujas growing as forest trees, and hard by cactus-like 
Euphorbias some fifteen feet in height ; on the other, poplars 
were shedding their golden leaves in bright contrast to the 
crimson of the wild Ampclopsis (I cannot call it " Virginian" 
creeper), a "Brimstone"* butterfly dashes wildly past, 
then a belated " Tortoiseshell"f or "Red Admiral":}: darts 

* Probably Gonepteryx rhamni, var. nipalensis, but possibly a 
f Vanessa kashmirensis. X Pyrameis indica. 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. 8l 

up from the path only to return again to the same stone, 
while several "Small Coppers" (Chrysophanus p>avana) 
disport themselves about the autumn Mowers on the 
bank. Quite a Palasarctic picture surely ! 

In addition to these I found at Naini Terias hecahe, the 
Hairstreak Ilcrda scua, Moore, and the Blue Zizera maha, 
Koll., also the Fossor, Pompilus analis, Fab., £ , while 
Agrotis fiammatra, Guen.. came to light. 

A climb to the top of China Peak (pronounced Cheena), 
8568 ft., produced two more Palsearctic forms, Argynnis 
lathonia, var. iss&a, and Lycama bmtica. 

Five days were spent on horseback in an expedition 
into Kumaon as far as Ranikhet and Chaubattia, some 
twenty-four miles north of Naini as the crow flies. The road, 
at first slippery with ice so as to compel us to dismount, falls 
rapidly to Khairna (Khairana, or Khyrna, for the spelling 
seems uncertain). At about 6000 ft. Ilcrda sena was again 
met with, at about 4000 ft. Neptis astola, Moore, and 
Terias hecabe. When near the bottom our eye was caught 
by the fluttering down of shells from a large pod-bearing 
tree. On looking up we saw about a dozen charming- 
looking greenish monkeys, their little black faces set off 
with most becoming white frills. It did not take them 
long to strip that tree of every pod. 

At Khairna, 3200 ft., a tiny village in a deep and 
narrow valley, I had a little time for collecting, but it was 
limited by the steady march of the great chill mountain 
shadow, which sent all butterflies quickly off* to bed. 
Precis orithyia was common, but the specimens were very 
small ; P. cenone, P. lemonias and P. iphita were also seen, 
the latter at flowers, not a usual habit of the species. 
Several Athyma perms were seen, also several Catopsilia 
pyranthe; of those taken one was the gnoma, the other 
of the pyranthe form. Of Ganoris canidia and Tarueus 
telicanus, Lang, I took one each, but Zizera maha, Koll., was 
in abundance. In addition to these were Deiopeia pulcJiclla, 
flying for short distances about low herbage according to 
its wont, and a fly which hovered at flowers just like a 
Sphinx — a Bombylius not in the National Collection. The 
widely-distributed locust, Thisoicetrus littoralis, Ramb., 
which was very common, had the curious habit after its short 
flight of settling so brusquely upon a shrub as to make its 
blanches shake, but then quickly making its way to the 
ground. I missed a Macroglossa twice at the same bush. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1905. — PART I. (MAY) 6 

82 Dr. G. B. Longstaff's Notes on the Butterflies 

Late in the afternoon I took a Papilio pammon, a female of 
Wallace's Form II. polytcs, which was flying about and 
into bushes, apparently seeking for a resting-place for the 
night, but possibly seeking where to lay its eggs. 

Close to the village of Khairna I saw upon the cliffs by 
the roadside several beautiful lizards, grey-spotted, with 
bright blue legs. 

On the long and hot way up again from Khairna to the 
ridge on which stand Ranikhet and Chaubattia, a dwarf 
Precis orithyia and a Neptis astola, Moore, were taken at 
about 3500 ft., and at about 4000 ft. Belenois mesentina, 
Pyrameis indica, and Ilerda sena. 

At Ranikhet, 6000 ft. (where, by the way, the cooking at 
the Dak Rangla w T as the best that we came across in India), 
monkeys were not uncommon in the woods, but unlike 
our legumen-loving friends of Khairna, of a revoltingly 
Ugly type ; butterflies, however, were scarce, and were 
represented by Pyrameis cardui, Vanessa kashmirensis, 
Ilerda sena, and Lyctena maha, Koll., var. diluta, Feld. 

At Chaubattia, four miles to the east of Ranikhet, and 
at a height of about 6200 ft., the officers' quarters com- 
mand a most glorious panorama of Nanda Devi, 25,749 
ft., Nanda Kot, 22,491 ft., and Trisul, 23,581 ft., mountains 
of unsurpassed grandeur of form and held most sacred 
by pious Hindus as sources of Holy Ganges. These stand 
between fifty and sixty miles away, yet shine forth as clear 
and bright as if close to. Here there were rather more 
butterflies, viz. our old friends Terias hecabe, Precis oinone 
and P. lemonias, Pyrameis cardui, and Chrysophanus 
pavana, and in addition something quite fresh, the Erycinid 
Dodona durga, Koll, of which I got three specimens ; 
though a small insect it proved tenacious of life. A little 
beetle, Oides sp., was taken flying over the road. 

On descending again from Naini to the plains one found, 
as at Simla, that butterflies got more numerous and more 
Oriental in character. At the top of the road the Hair- 
streak, Ilerda sena, was common; at 5000 ft. Yphthima 
philomda, Joh., was met with ; at the Brewery, circa 4500 
ft., butterflies were very common at a flowery turn of the 
road, and I took Pyrameis indica, several Precis ipliita, 
P. lemonias, and a male Hypolimnas bolina, while I missed 
a brown-and-white Neptis-like butterfly which may have 
been Rahinda sinuata, Moore. 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. 83 

Zucfowiv, lat. 27° N., alt. circa 500 ft. 
November 24th and 25th, 1903. 

Lucknow possesses a museum containing a fair collection 
of insects, which would have been more instructive to me 
if a majority of the species had been named. 

My scanty collecting was almost confined to public 
gardens. Near the hotel was a small institution, either a 
children's orphanage or hospital, and in the garden attached 
thereto Hypolimnas misippus, £ , was rather common, 
but shy and worn ; I took a battered one. Of H. bolina 
I took a female. Of Delias eucharis the males were 
common at Zinnia flowers. Odd specimens of Papilio 
aristolochim and Parnara mathias, Fab., also occurred. 

In the beautiful garden of the Dilkusha Palace, where 
Havelock fell sick of the illness that was to prove fatal in 
the very hour of triumph, there was a great wealth of 
flowers and consequently a great assemblage of butterflies. 
Besides such things as Papilio erithonius) Argynnis niphc 
(a $ ) ; Hypolimnas misippus, several males ; Crastia 
core, both typical and the variety vermiculata, Butl. ; and 
a Catopsilia which evaded capture, I took there my first 
Rapala melampus, Cramer. This is a small copper-coloured 
butterfly belonging to a genus which, with its robust body, 
sharp-cut wings, and curious anal lobe to the hind-wing, 
looks very different from our Hairstreaks or Coppers. It 
is neither easy to see on the small flowers which it 
frequents, nor to catch. 

Other butterflies taken in the same garden were the 
Blues Catochrysops strabo, Fab., and Tarucus telicanus, 
Lang, the latter abundant ; Mycalesis perseus, and the 
brilliant tawny Skipper Telicota augias, L. A beautiful 
little Noctua with yellow under- wings, Hyblma puera, 
Cram., was taken at flowers in full sunlight. The Blue 
Zizcra argia, var. similis, Moore, was in abundance. I also 
took a locust, Gastrimargus marmoratus, Thun., a species 
of wide distribution. 

By the roadside between Dilkusha and La Martiniere a 
few Chilades putli, Koll., a very small brown Lycsenid, 
were obtained. 

At the Alumbagh, ever to be remembered in connection 
with Colin Campbell, the dry-season form of Terias hecabe 
was flitting quietly about, and I netted Ixias marianne 
(not so vulgar-looking as its name might lead one to 

84 Dr. G. B. Longstaffs Notes on the Butterflies 

expect), also a variety of the female of I. pyrcne without 
the orange-tip. A male of the wet-season form of Hu- 
phina nerissa was also taken, while Delias eucharis was 
common, a specimen feeding on Zinnia flowers close to 
Havelock's grave. Deiopeia pidchella was flying com- 
monly in the sun amongst the grass, and with it a specimen 
of Argina cribraria, Clerck. The Coleopteva were repre- 
sented by Mylabris sidai, Fab., and the Micros by a Pyrale, 
Pyrausta jimcturalis, Wlk. 

In the Presidency garden I took only a worn Acidaliid 
and the common Cantharid beetle, Mylabris sid&, Fab., 
which was seen in some numbers Hying about the flowers 
of a species of Hibiscus. 

Benares, lat. 25° N., alt. 270 ft. 

November 28th — December 2nd, 1903. 

The sacred city of the Hindus proved more remarkable 
for the number and variety of its pilgrims than for its 
butterflies. In the hotel garden, where jackals howled 
loudly by night, a few battered specimens of Papilio 
erilhonius were seen by day, and the males of both species 
of Hypolimnas were fairly common. Of H. bolina I took 
a fine female, while of mistppus I also sent home a female 
which is marked "common." It is, however, certain that I 
did not know this insect to be a Hypolimnas at the time, 
since I only learned from the Calcutta Collection that the 
female of misippus was brown ! There is therefore little 
doubt that I took it for a variety of Limnas chrysippus which 
it mimics in such a surprising manner, and which certainly 
was common enough in the same garden. It is one of 
the inconveniences of the method of enveloping that so 
much is left to memory, and the chances of comparing 
insects are so very few. Dwarfed specimens of Precis 
orithyia were now very common ; P. cenone and P. 
lemonias were less common but almost as small. Several 
P. almana occurred. But in spite of the excessive drought 
and the consequent occurrence of dwarfs, one of my 
specimens of Terias hccabe taken at Benares was quite of 
" wet-season " type. Catopsilia pomona was represented 
by a very large male of the typical form and a smaller 
female in fine condition, exhibiting the transition to the 
catilla, Cr., or extreme dry-season form. Similarly C. 

Observed in a tour through India and. Ceylon. 83 

pyranthe was represented by a male of the typical and 
a female of the gnoma form. 

Together with the above were several smaller things : 
among the Blues Polyommatus bseticus occurred, while 
Catochrysops strabo, Fab., and the tiny Chilades putli, Koll., 
were both common. The Skipper Parnara mathias, Fab., 
was also common, and I took one Telicota augias, L. The 
little Pyrale, Hymcnia rceurvalis, was in some numbers in 
one small flower-bed. Of the long-waisted wasp, Eumcncs 
esuriens, F., I saw but one $ . 

Enlarged from sketches from the living butterfly. 


Apex of f:W. 

ff.W. In close apposition 

Longitudinal fold 
in HW. . 

Anterior tails 
Everted anal lobe 

Posterior tails 

fold in H*{ 

Apex ofF.w. 

■ HW in close apposition 

. Anterior tails 
■Posterior talis 

■ Everted anal lobe 

Diagrammatic view Diagrammatic view 

from above. from behind. 

Drawn at Benares, November 30th, 1903, by G. B. Lonoktatf. 

But among the frequenters of the small garden adjoin- 
ing the hotel those that interested me most were the 
"lobed" and "tailed" Lycsenids, of which there were no 
less than four species. Of Aphnssus ictis, Hew., I took 
but one, a male, of A. elima, Moore (which, however, De 
Niceville considered to be only a dry-season form of ictis), 
I secured two, also males. Of the third species, Pratapa 
deva, Moore, I took but one, and that had lost the anal 
angles, with their appendages, and a large part of both 
hind-wings, which had apparently been bitten off, abso- 
lutely symmetrically, by a lizard. The fourth species, 
Rapala melampus, Cramer, was common, and I secured 
seven specimens, all, however, males. 

86 Dr. G. B. Longstaff' s Notes on the Butterflies 

Concerning B. melmn'pus I wrote to Dr. Dixey at the 
time : " The Tailed Copper (or Hairstreak) first seen at 
Dilkusha, Lucknow, and found commonly here to-day, 
greatly interests me. Not only is it very beautiful, but it 
is surprisingly hard to see, especially when at rest. Then 
the structure of the hind -wing is most strange ; posterior 
to the tail (the next interspace but one) a portion of the 
wing nearly circular, with a very obvious fringe of large 
scales, is set at right angles to the plane of the wing and 
to the direction of the veins." 

According to Schatz and Rober * this " anal lobe " 
occupies the space between the sub-median and inner mar- 
ginal veins ; the second anal and third anal of Comstock ; 
lb and \c of Meyrick ; but I have not found in these authors 
any allusion to the striking fact that this lobe is quite out 
of the plane of the wing. This omission may be due to 
the fact that the process of setting usually flattens the 
lobe out so that it is hardly seen in cabinet specimens. 
It did not occur to me at the time (and the suggestion 
arrived by letter too late) that the object of this structure 
is possibly to produce the appearance of a head in a non- 
vital part, the tails representing the antennas. However, 
drawings made at the time strongly bear out the suggestion. 
The resemblance would be still more striking if these 
Lycasnids, like so many of the family, habitually rest with 
the head downwards. 

In another letter from Benares I said : " Thorns are not 
specially bad here, only that one does not know the look 
of many thorny plants until too late. But, on the other 
hand, burrs of every sort and kind abound to an incredible 
degree and tangle up the net ; much of one's time is 
spent in freeing net and breeches therefrom." 

It might have been added that at Benares I first made 
acquaintance (somewhat intimate) with "spear-grass," 
which is yet more provocative of bad language than 
either thorn or burr. 

Some three miles from Benares, on the way back from 
Sarnath, where Buddha first taught, I found Delias eucharis 
in extreme abundance in a small field of the tall marigold 
which is so much cultivated for the service of the temples. 
A truly gaudy sight it was to see crowds of these white, 
yellow, and scarlet butterflies upon the orange-coloured 

* Die. Familien und Gattungen der Tagfalter, 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. 87 

Calcutta, lat. 22° 30' N. Near sea-level. 
December 4th— 12th, 1903. 
Naturally one could not expect to turn up anything new 
at Calcutta, the capital of India, and long the home of De 
Niceville, that martyr to science who met his death in the 
deadly Terai when in pursuit of his favourite butterflies. 
However, I determined in the few days at my disposal to 
get at any rate a sample of the fauna of Lower Bengal. 

The Eden Gardens, abutting on the Maidan and close to 
Government House, bear much the same relation to 
Calcutta as Kensington Gardens to London, and from their 
proximity to the hotel afforded a convenient collecting 
ground for odd hours. 

The Duranta was nearly over and the most attractive 
feature proved to be a hedge of Lantana in full bloom. 
These dissimilar plants both belong to the Verbenacem and 
are both natives of the West Indies, although the latter 
appears to have run wild in many parts of India, On that 
hedge Limnas cJirysippus was in abundance, accompanied 
by L. genutia, which I had not seen since I was at 
Malakand, while numerous Tirumala limniaee and Crastia 
core completed the company of the Danaids. I was able 
to confirm my Benares observation that the male of L, 
chrysippus has a slight but decided odour suggestive of 
cockroaches, which is perhaps stronger when the scent 
sacs on the hind-wings are opened, though of this I am 
not sure. On the. other hand, the male of C, core has 
a faint scent that suggested to me rancid oil, or old lamps. 
So far as I could judge the scent is connected with the 
hind-wings but not with the very conspicuous genital tufts. 
At the Lantana flowers along with the Danaids were 
abundance of Silastics gremius, Fab., a somewhat dingy 
Skipper, also a few of the brilliant and conspicuous Delias 
eucharis. The upper-side of the female of this species 
faintly mimics Tirumala ; the male yielded on rubbing the 
wings a sweet flowery scent, which I was not at first able 
to describe, but later it struck me as resembling that of our 
domesticated Ganoris rapse and suggestive of sweet-briar. 
Dr. Dixey informs me that scent-scales are very numerous 
in Delias. 

In the shadier parts of the garden together with numer- 
ous Terias hecabe, one at least of markedly wet-season 
type, and many Yphthima hiibneri, Kirby, several Nychi- 
tona xiphia were found, which, as ever, reminded me of 

88 Dr. G. B. Longstaff's Notes on the Butterflies 

Leucophasia sinapis, a slender form and fragile appearance 
being in each case associated with a weak flight close to the 
ground. One of the Y. hiibneri had the whole hind margin 
of both secondaries bitten off nearly symmetrically. 

Catopsilia pyranthc and G. ponwna were both met with, 
the former the more frequently. No Papilio turned up 
although I was told that P. pammon occurs in the garden. 
Amongst young palms the males of Elymnias undidaris, 
Dru., were occasionally disturbed, and a very striking- 
thing it is. Then Nephcronia hippia, F., came along, flying 
strongly, the male looking on the wing, or more especially 
when settled on a flower with wings expanded, much 
bluer than its cabinet appearance might lead one to sup- 
pose. Three Limenitis procris, Cr., required some catching, 
preferring the leaves of tall shrubs to flowers ; but it is 
scarcely as graceful on the wing as our White Admiral. 

I took two specimens of Catoehrysops pandava, Horsf, 
var. bengalia, De Nicev. (being the dry-season form) ; the 
female is a dingy creature, but the male is of an iridescent 
blue, bordered with black. Hypolimnas misippus, $ , 
Precis cdmana and P. lemonias completed the list of twenty 
species taken in four visits to the gardens. With them 
was a bee Mis thoracica, Fab., a $. 


At the truly splendid museum (where, by the way, I saw 
a native artist at work producing some of the very best 
coloured figures of beetles and butterflies that I have ever 
seen), Mr. S. E. Peal, besides helping me in other ways, 
put me on the track of one of the late Mr. DeNiceville's 
favourite collecting-grounds, a rus in urbc, at Baliganj, a 
suburb only three miles from the hotel. I visited this 
place twice, on December 5th and 9th. It consists of a 
large deserted garden long run wild ; weedy meadows and 
jungly woods are all that is left of trim lawns and ordered 
shrubberies, while a palm avenue and several tanks covered 
with a floating flower of the convolvulus oixler, harbouring 
countless dragon-flies, complete the tale of departed great- 
ness. Altogether it is full of sad beauty. Palms and 
crotons with an undergrowth of ferns were the char- 
acteristic plants, flowers were few, yet in certain favoured 
spots butterflies were in quite bewildering swarms. The 
quiet charm of this old garden was greatly enhanced by 
the absence of curious natives and the (comparative) absence 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. 89 

of burrs, that curse of "up-country " collecting, though the 
unsuspected prickles of innocent-looking palms to some 
extent took the place of the latter. 

Some of the species seen near the centre of the city, in 
the Eden Gardens, were conspicuous by their absence, 
e. g. Limenitis procris, Precis lemonias and Hypolimnas 

The four common Danaids, Tirumala limniace, Crastia, 
core, Limnas genutia and L. chrysippus, were not so 
common as might have been expected, probably owing to 
the scarcity of the flowers they love. In the last-named 
species I was able once more to confirm the presence of a 
distinct, but not strong, odour suggestive of cockroaches. 
A few Papilio polytes, both sexes, gave to the assemblage 
that air of distinction which the genus always has. Among 
the more sombre things, most frequent under the shade 
of groves, were a number of Mycalesis indistans, Moore, 
together with one M.p)crseus, Fab., which so far as observed 
have no " list " when at rest. In the shade also were two 
or three Melanitis ismene, Cr. Close down among the 
herbage together with Yphthima hilbneri there were flying 
large numbers of Y. philomela, certainly a gregarious 

Precis almana was noted and P. atlites, Joh., here came 
under my observation for the first time, but in poor con- 
dition; it is then a rather ghostly-looking butterfly though 
a somewhat strong flier ; this last is also true of Atclla 
plialanta. A single specimen of my old Amritzar friend 
Euthalia garuda was observed, as before, to settle with its 
wings fully expanded and closely appressed to the ground. 
Elymnias undularis was in abundance ; it is especially 
addicted to the characteristically Indian butterfly habit of 
flying into or through bushes, and even of flying about 
inside bushes. It is clearly gregarious, several specimens 
flying about and in one palm-bush, its food-plant. The 
male is very striking on the wing, and when settled, even 
though the under-side is somewhat leaf-like, it is yet 
quite conspicuous. The female, on the other hand, is on 
the wing a very fair mimic of Limnas genutia, but its 
flight is weaker. 

Catopsilia pyranthe and G. pomona were both rather 
common ; Tcrias hecabe was abundant, and, as usual, 

In half-shaded spots an occasional Nychitona xiphia 
flitted slowly along close to the ground. Ergolis ariadne, 

90 Dr. G. B. Longstaff's Notes on the Butterflies 

L., was abundant, of E. merione, Cr., two specimens were 
secured. The butterflies of this genus settle with the 
wings three-fourths expanded. 

Neyheronia hippia was rather common ; though its 
female somewhat mimics Tirumala limniace, the male, 
when on the wing, looks much bluer than that insect. 

A brilliant fulvous Skipper, Telicota bambuste, Moore, 
was the only representative of the group, but there were 
several Blues, to wit Catochrysops strabo, Fab., which was 
common ; Zampides celeno, Cr., larger than usual, one being 
of the form alexis, Stoll. ; and Neopithecops zalmora, Butl., 
was common. A single example of Curetis thetys, Dru., 
fell to my net, apparently bitten by some enemy ; its 
silvery white under-side is very striking. But perhaps the 
strangest-looking butterfly of the lot was Loxura aty minus, 
Cr., of which I got two. Its wings are much plaited 
longitudinally, and when at rest its extremely long tails, 
crumpled look, and brown colour give it quite the look of 
a dead leaf. A closer examination shows that the portion 
of the hind-wing near the anal angle is bent down, or 
back, nearly to a right angle ; this bent portion is, how- 
ever, relatively smaller, more oval and less sharply bent 
than the rounder anal lobes of Bapala and Aphnxus ; 
moreover it is not furnished with the very large marginal 
scales which are so conspicuous in those genera. 

Toliganj. December 7th, 1903. 

About two miles from Baliganj, and due south of 
Calcutta (about half-a-mile beyond the Sports Club), is the 
locality referred to as Toliganj. Here too is an old 
abandoned garden, but lacking the elements of departed 
grandeur that give a poetic colouring to De Niceville's old 
hunting-ground. The prominent features are a great 
profusion of Lantana in full bloom, a bamboo grove and a 
good deal of thorny jungle. The day that I was there the 
Lantana was the chosen haunt of great numbers of the 
bigger butterflies such as Delias eucharis, Tirumala limni- 
ace, Limnas genutia, Papilio pammon, mostly worn, P. 
aristolochite, and a few P. erithonius, together with an 
occasional Nepheronia hippia, with his broad wings proudly 
expanded to view. The sight of these big fellows, expand- 
ing from three to four inches, quietly settled on the flowers, 
or fluttering after the manner of Papilio, or grandly 
sailing around gorgeous in their white, yellow and scarlet, 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. 91 

black and grey blue, mahogany-brown and black, black and 
cream colour, black and coral-red, black and yellow, or sky- 
blue and black, afforded indeed a glorious sight not soon to 
be forgotten. Alas! such a tropical glory takes much 
colour out of the most vivid mental pictures of butterfly 
life at home. 

In a shady grove not far from these flowers Limnas 
genutia was simply swarming, as many as ten or even twenty 
being in sight at once, for it is one of the most gregarious 
butterflies that I have met with. A few observations on 
this species and Tirumala limniace failed to detect any 
odour, but it was far otherwise with Delias eucharis, of 
which several specimens had a distinct sweet scent, very 
like that of G. rcupm. My strong impression is that this 
scent is confined to the male, but I cannot, unfortunately, 
speak with certainty on the point. The male of Huphina 
nerissa has a distinct scent, also like that of G. rapze, 
although the butterfly more resembles G. napi. The scent 
of these two butterflies is neither so sti*ong nor so unmis- 
takably characteristic as that of G. napi, but its existence 
is quite beyond question. 

These scents are not easy to deal with. The human 
nasal organ is but a poor affair at best, moreover scents 
are very hard to describe, and these butterfly odours are 
only suggestive of, certainly not identical with, those to 
which I have, for want of any better standard, compared 
them. Then the scents are transient and may easily be 
scattered by the wind or overpowered by neighbouring 
flowers. Again the scales, independently of any scent, are 
irritating to the mucous membrane. Lastly, any one who 
has tried to use the sense of smell for diagnostic purposes 
must know how even the most volatile perfumeis apt to linger 
on, lurking as it would appear in the cavernous recesses of 
the nose. Of course it is much easier to determine in the 
field whether or no a scent is sexual in those species in 
which the sexes are distinguishable by very obvious 
characters. Lastly, it should never be forgotten that in all 
probability the scents described are far more obvious to 
the insects themselves than to human observers. 

Only a solitary representative of the Euploia group 
appears among the Toliganj specimens, but its envelope 
bears the note : " Common, has a slight peculiar scent, 
rather disagreeable." Most probably I believed this at the 
time to be the common Calcutta species Crastia core, but 
it turns out to be Padcnwia hollari, Feld., and it is now 

92 Dr. G. B. Longstaff's Notes on the Butterflies 

impossible to say what those that I passed over or missed 

In variety the Toliganj flies were disappointing, but, 
besides the above named, they included a very fine 
female Ixias pyrene, the sole Orange-tip seen at Calcutta; 
a few Catopsilia pyranthe ; several Ergolis ariadne ; 
Mymnias undularis, not common ; plenty of that very 
distinct Blue, Neopithecops zalmora; a single specimen 
of Loxura atymnus, and plenty of Yphthima hubneri, 
Y. marshal li, Y. philomela and Nychitona xiphia. 

The list is closed by " Mclanitisismene, lover of darkness, 
as its name seems to say. It flitted about everywhere 
dressed in all the tints of fallen leaves, or, alighting among 
them, fell partly on one side and was one of them." * 
I quote the words of E. H. A., that keen observer and 
telling writer. The few specimens that I saw that day 
were very dark and of the "dry season" form. A note 
made at the time says : " This shade-loving species, which 
only flies for a very short distance and settles on the 
ground, has a 'list' to the right of 20-30°, making it very 
like a dead leaf." 

A parasitic bee, Crocisa histrio, Fab., was caught feeding 
on the wing like a Sphinx. 

On December 8th, I visited the grand Botanic Gardens 
at Howrah,but it was too late in the day for many butter- 
flies to be about. I noted, however, Lampides celcno, Cr. ; 
Myealesis indistans, Moore, a Delias and two or three Terias. 
Late in the afternoon, just before leaving the gardens, I 
noticed a few Limnas genutia fluttering about a palm-tree 
prior to settling down for the night. On looking carefully 
I noted on one of the huge leaf-stalks, some twelve or 
fourteen feet from the ground, a cluster of the butterflies 
hanging together like swarming bees. By pelting with sticks 
and stones the cluster was broken up and proved to consist 
of at least seven or eight individuals. Altogether there 
were perhaps twenty in and about that tree. This cer- 
tainly establishes for L. genutia the character of gre- 
gaiiousness. Both Mr. S. E. Peal and Mr. F. Mbller told 
me that they had never seen such a thing. 

Darjiling, 27° N., alt. 7000 ft. 
December 13th— 22nd, 1903. 
I set off to this celebrated hunting-ground with great 
* "A Naturalist on the Prowl," p. 203. 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. 93 

misgivings as to season, but still full of wild hopes. The 
ascent by the cog-wheel railway took us through a most 
interesting forest, where amongst other things we saw our 
first tree-ferns. Near Tindaria, at about 3000 feet, I saw 
several Ixias pyrene and succeeded in catching one from the 
train while it was going at full speed — about seven miles 
an hour ! This was a male of the large form cvipjie, Drury. 

Before reaching Kurseong, nearly 5000 feet, where I 
had arranged to sleep with a view to getting a little 
collecting, we got into the clouds, and at our destination it 
was very cold, with an atmosphere only too like that of 
the West of Scotland. During a gleam of sunshine I took 
a Vanessa kashmirensis, a poor dull thing compared to 
our urtiae. At night two moths, an Acidaliid, Synegiodes 
hyriaria, Walk., and Caradrina albosignata, Oberth. 
(thought by Sir G. Hampson to be probably identical 
with lineosa, Moore), came to light. 

The following morning was brighter and we started 
early to walk up to the next station, Toong, but though 
the weather was more benignant, the railway ran through 
a district devoted to tea-growing which did not promise 
well. A few Vanessa kashmirensis, a Pyramcis indica and 
a P. cardui flew along the road, the latter with both apices 
of the fore-wings and one hind-wing near the anal angle 
apparently bitten. Near Toong station, 5500 feet, in a 
sheltered and flowery spot I took single specimens of the 
Hairstreaks Ilerda epicles, Godart, a female, and Camena 
eleobis, Godart ; the latter on the upper surface like T. 
quercus, but bluer, on the under-side almost white with a 
practically black spot on the anal lobe. Here also I took 
a male Hiposcritia lalage, Dbl., and a native caught in his 
fingers a Dodona cugenes, Bates (an Erycinid), and the same 
man brought me a fine Saturnid moth, Bhodia newarra, 
Moore, 6i inches in expanse, apparently recently dead. 

As the train rounded the last corner we came in full 
view of the Kangchinjunga range, rising majestically full 
four miles above us. No words can describe the grandeur 
of the scene and we were fortunate indeed in having it 
clear throughout our stay. Yet, entomologically speaking, 
it was the saddest of disappointments, for it was as cold as 
England in November and the local entomologists — Messrs. 
Mbller and Lindgren — assured me that Kallima was 
hopelessly over, as indeed were most things. They, and 
every one we met, spoke of the astonishing multitudes of 

94 Dr. G. B. Longstaff's Notes on the Butterflies 

butterflies in the rainy season ; the harder it rained, they 
said, the more insects there were in the short interludes 
between the showers. 

On the high ground I got little ; Vanessa kashmirensis, 
Pyrantels indica and cardui, none of them common, also 
a brilliantly-coloured beetle, a species of Cassida. I saw a 
school-boy catch Colias fieldii and a tailed " blue." At 
Jalapahar, 7500 feet, I got a female Huphina nadina, 
Luc. [ — remba, Moore]. 

The only chance was to go down into the valleys, but it 
takes long to descend, and as the butterflies are for the 
most part only "at home " from 10.0 a.m. to 2.0 p.m., one 
does not get many hours' collecting ; moreover, from those 
precious hours there are deductions to be made for cloudy 
times, and for the shadows of woods, and the still deeper 
shadows of lofty mountains. 

My first expedition, lasting three days on horseback, 
was to the Tista valley, lying to the east of Darjiling. 
December 17th, we went to Pashdk, about 17 miles, 
sleeping at the Public Works Department rest-house, 
about 2300 feet above the river, and about 3000 feet 
above the sea. 

When we got down to about 4000 feet above sea-level 
insects began to get fairly numerous, although it was late 
in the day for butterflies. Vanessa kashmirensis was 
common, and with them were several Pyrameis indica. I 
secured two of the handsome White Hiposcritia lalage 
[ = argyridana, Butl.], both females. Several Neptis astola, 
Moore, were seen, mostly worn. At a shady turn of the 
road I got Lethe rohria, F., an tegcria-\\ke Satyrid butter- 
fly ; close by Arhopala areste, Hew., flashed azure in the 
sunlight, but a specimen of another beautiful Lycsenid, 
Spindasis vulcanus, F., was badly battered. Of Abisara 
flegyas, Cr., and A. fylla, Doub., I netted one each, and a 
large bee, Bombus funerarius ?, Smith, a ^, tempted me to 
catch him. 

In the wood in which the rest-house stands Mycalesis 
indistans, Moore, was in abundance ; this is a typical shade- 
lover; when kicked up from the herbage it flaps about 
three yards, like Epinephale janira, L., and then settles on 
dead leaves or on the earth. Some of them had a slight 
" list," but this did not seem to be a marked habit, possibly 
because this position is not so advantageous in shade as in 
sunlight, though the habit was first noticed in Melanitis, 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. 95 

a typical shade-loving genus. The existence of shade- 
loving butterflies would seem to be correlated to a tropical 
sun, but even in England P. segeria and E. hyper unthiis, 
L., still more L. sinapis, are what I should term " partial 

In the same wood, also in the shade, Terias Iseta and T. 
hecabe were both common, and in sunnier glades the 
common Indian Blue, Zampides celeno, Cr., was both 
abundant and gregarious. In a young cinchona plantation 
close by I found Ganoris canidia ; a Blue, Gyaniris puspa, 
Horsf. ; and a handsome very large Skipper, Cel&norrhinits 
leucocera, Koll. In the rest-house there was a dead 
Pyrale, Lepyrodes geometralis, Guen. 

The next day, December 18th, I sent my pony on ahead, 
and walked down to the river collecting on the way. In 
the cinchona plantation close to the rest-house I found 
Zemeros Jlegyas ; lower down were Euthalia appiades, Men., 
of which I saw several worn specimens ; a Hairstreak, 
Arhopala bazalus, Hew., like a glorified T. quercus ; Lethe 
verma, Koll. ; and Melanitis ismene, the last as usual a 

A path leading off through the wood brought me to a 
tea-garden, perhaps 1500 feet above sea-level, where I 
lingered all too long. Tea-gardens are not as a rule good 
places for butterflies, and the flower of the tea-plant, then 
just coming out, does not appear to have attractions for 
them, but this particular garden, just at the edge of the 
forest, and especially that corner of it where the little 
stream runs in, was certainly very prolific. 

Athyma ranga was in abundance, though worn; like- 
wise its relatives of the genus Neptis, but the three 
specimens that I sent home belonged to as many species : 
N. aceris, Cramer ; N. astola, Moore ; and iV. varmona, 
Moore ; the closely allied, but brown and black, Symbren- 
thia hyppoclus, Cr., was almost as common among the tea- 
bushes. Of the satin-winged Hiposcritia indra, Moore, I 
took two females. Of the following I got single examples 
only : — Gaduga ruelaneus, Cr., and the very similar Par- 
alitica melanoides, Moore, two black and white Danaids ; 
Athyma selcnophora, Koll.; Yphthima philomcla, Joh. ; 
Arhopala centauries, Fab. ; and Castalius anaura, De 
Nicev., $, while another Blue, Lampides clpis, Godt., pale 
and beautifully sheeny, was common. I also missed what 
was, I believe, Libythea rama, Moore. There were in 

96 Dr. G. B. Longstaff's Notes on the Butterflies 

addition two moths, an Arctiid, Leucoma submarginata, 
Walk., and a Nyctemerid, the fuscous-and-white Zonosoma 
cenis, Cram. ( = intcrlectum, Walk.), the former possibly, 
the latter certainly a day-flyer. 

At last I dragged myself away and an hour later reached 
a most attractive flowery bank immediately above the 
river. This was evidently a great place, for in a very short 
time I secured two sadly battered Papilio m.emnon, L., of the 
form agenor, L. ; a large male Ixias pyrene with the fore- 
wings almost symmetrically bitten near the tip of the costa ; 
also an insect that I had greatly desired to take, the lovely 
and delicate-looking " map-butterfly,'' Cyrcstis thyodamas, 
Bdv., in splendid condition. This, a Nymphalid, by the 
possession of a well-marked anal lobe to the hind-wing 
suggested the Rapala group of Lycsenids, but a close 
examination of the veins shows that neither lobe nor tail 
is homologous in the two widely separated genera. In ad- 
dition to the above I took a second Gaduga tytia, Gray, the 
first having been netted 1000 feet higher. This blue-and- 
black Danaid is distinguished by having brown hind-wings. 
Time was however getting on and my "sais" was waiting 
with the pony by the little bridge, so I reluctantly mounted. 
I had not ridden far when I caught a glimpse of Kallima 
inachis, Bdv., flying by the roadside ; flinging myself out of 
the saddle I was fortunate in netting the butterfly of all 
others that I had wished to see alive. It proved to be a fine 
female ; I could not afford to risk waiting to see her settle, 
and alas ! never saw another. A few minutes later my 
sais brought me a damaged Ewplcea with a lovely purple 
gloss; seeing many about I foolishly did not keep it. 
These things happened close to the Tista bridge, by which 
the road to Lhasa crosses the river, here only some 650 feet 
above the sea, so deeply are these Himalayan valleys cut 
down. Sad to say in a few minutes the winding of the 
road took me under the deep chill shadow of the mountain 
and the purple-glossed Buphvas and nearly all the other 
butterflies vanished for that day. A solitary Neptis accris, 
Cr., together with a few Ixias pyrene, Huphina ncrissa and 
Lampides clpis, were all that I saw ; with them was a. 
Nyctemerid day-flying moth, Trypheromera plagifera, Wk. 

The rest-house at Kiang was reached too late for any more 
collecting, and I had to content myself with watching the 
long trains of Colonel Younghusband's bullock wagons 
painfully dragging loads of compressed hay for the Tibetan 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon, 97 

expedition. Alas for the once fair road, now a foot deep 
in white dust ! 

December 19th. From Riang by way of Mongpn and 
Sareil bach to Darjiling. This was such a long march that 
little time could be given to collecting, moreover many- 
hours were spent passing along a beautiful forest track in 
the deep afternoon shadow of the mountain. At the start, 
close to the river, the silvery-white Acroptcris vagata, 
Moore, was conspicuously spread out upon a leaf, this was 
the only Uraniid that I met with. Near Mongpu, at about 
3000 feet, Ergolis merionc was very common about Bicinus, 
the castor-oil plant, upon which its larva feeds. A little 
higher up I came across Ticherra acte, Moore, a Lycaenid 
with very long tails that wave with the wind ; it has a 
swift jerky flight. The hind-wing of this species is much 
plaited but the anal lobe is rudimentary. 

Other captures were Hitplvina nerissa, a male ; Ganoris 
canidia, a female with all the hind margin of the hind- 
wing gone ; Tachyris hippo, Cr., a male ; Arhopala rama, 
Koll. ; Neptis astola, Moore ; Uerda epicles, Godart, with all 
the hinder part of the secondary apparently bitten off by a 
lizard ; Cirrochroa aoris, Dbl, which I had seen at Pashok 
on the previous day ; Lethe rohria, very like P. xgeria in its 
habits and liking for partial shade ; and Argynnis niphe, 
this last in the cinchona plantation at about 3600 feet. 
A large white butterfly, bright yellow underneath, Mutter- 
ing at the sweet white flower of the cinchona led me to 
dismount, and it was well that I did so, for it turned out 
to be Prioneris thestylis, Dbl., and fortunately a female, 
which must be very much the less common sex, at any rate 
the Hope Collection contained no female of the genus. 

The next day, December 20th, I rode down to the 
Ranjit River, the boundary of Sikkim, the great Papilio 
country. Distance however reduced my actual collecting 
to less than four hours. 

At about 3000 feet I took two of the Erycinid Zemeros 
fiegyas, also Symbrenthia hyppochis. The chief collecting- 
ground was near the suspension bridge leading into 
Independent Sikkim, closed this year to all Europeans, 
including entomologists, on account of the Tibetan difficulty. 
It was trying to one's European temper to be stopped by 
a coloured policeman, while natives passed freely over ! 

Here, some 8000 feet above the sea, the first thing that 
I happened upon was Zivinas chrysippus in extreme 

TRANS. ENT. HOC. LOND. 1905. — PART I. (MAY) 7 

98 Dr. G. B. Longstaff's Notes on the Butterflies 

abundance in a very limited locality, it was in fact 
decidedly gregarious. By the way, pinching and cyanide 
nre both but very imperfect ways of slaying these tough- 
skinned Danaids. 

Mymnias undularis, both sexes, was common, but I did 
not see any L. genutia for its female to mimic ; although 
the under-side of this butterfly is " leaf-like," it is, as a fact, 
usually conspicuous when settled. 

I caught distant glimpses of two Papilios and I missed 
my first Hebomoia, in fact the things that I missed that 
day would have made quite a good collection ! 

The following were all common : Huphina naclina and 
H. nerissa, both males ; Ixias pyrene, large ; Neptis aceris, 
Or. ; Precis iphita, spreading out like a Eupithecia when 
settled ; Symbrenthia hyppoclus, and Lampicles celeno, Ci\, 
while Terias hecabe was very abundant and large. 

Other things taken were Yphthima marshalli and 
Mycalesis runeka, Moore, this last a very dingy species. 
In marked contrast was Jamicles bochus, Cr., the male 
iridescent dark-blue above, quite gem-like, beneath dull 
grey with a metallic ocellus at the anal angle of the hind- 
wing ; the female comparatively dull in colour. 

For some reason I that day missed a larger proportion 
than usual but managed to catch the following : — Prioneris 
thestylis, a male ; Girrochroa aoris, looking on the wing like 
a big Argynnis, but settling with wings half-expanded, 
several seen, but only one netted ; a Charaxes athamas 
taken on a flower was the only individual of the genus 
that I got in all my travels. Another specimen of this 
very distinct and beautiful species was soon after seen 
feeding upon human ordure ! Fear of fouling my net 
prevented me from striking down upon it, and it suddenly 
darted up, went twice round with a swift jerky flight and 
then disappeared. Mr. Moller had indeed told me that 
Charaxes was a very foul feeder. 

The elegant day-flying moth Trypheromera plagifera, 
Walk., must be added to n y list, as well as the little 
Geometer Psilocambogia memorata, Walk., which I found 
dead, caught and set out upon a burr (of some composite 
flower). Lastly a beetle, Mimela horsjieldi, Hope, of 
brilliant green with coppery tinge. 

The extraordinary abundance of dragon-flies of many 
kinds at the Ranjit River was remarkable, yet I did not 
once see a butterfly attacked by any of them. 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. 99 

I left Darjiling on December 22nd, with much regret, 
and a strong desire to return at a better time of the year. 
On the way down, at about 4000 feet, Ixias pyrene was 
common, while close to Tindaria station, at about 2900 
feet, I netted from the train a pale Blue with a whitish 
patch on each wing, Cyaniris dilectus, Moore, as well as 
another Blue, Cyaniris ladon, Cr., form pseudargiolus, 
Boisd., and an Acidaliid, Idssa remotata, Guen. 

At Tindaria I left the train and walked down to Sukna. 
The following things were met with : (1) At altitudes of 
from 2800 feet to 2000 feet :— 

The Erycinid, Zemcros Jlcgyas, Cram., almost abundant, 
but rather worn ; Mycalesis indistans, Moore; Precis lemonias, 
a small specimen in fine condition, also large ones worn 
[this and P. iphita were the only species of the genus met 
with in the Darjiling district] ; single examples of Neptis 
aceris, jV. astola and N. varmona ; Symlirenthia hyppoclus, 
common; Ijampidcs ccleno, Cr., form aleris, Stoll., also 
common ; Ganoris canidia, a female ; Hnphina nadina, a 
male, about 3000 feet ; H. nerissa, a male, about 2500 feet ; 
Tachyris hippo, a very fine female ; Terias hecabe, abund- 
ant, two males, one of them dwarfed, were of the variety 
without the "dog's head." 

(2) At altitudes of 2000 feet to 1500 feet :— Here I 
took Catopsilia pyranthe, a male ; Yphthima marshalli, two ; 
Huphina nerissa, worn males were common ; Precis lemonias, 
several ; Terias libythea, common ; and the Blue, Zizera 
otis, Fab. 

At about 3.30 p.m., I watched a fine specimen of Papilio 
aristolochise, flying very slowly about herbage, apparently 
seeking for a resting-place for the night, just as I had seen 
P. pammon doing at Khairna on November 18th ; near 
the same place I missed two specimens of a black-and- 
white Danaid. 

(3) A little way above Sukna, perhaps at about 700 feet 
above sea-level Orsotriana [Mycalesis'] runeka, Moore, was 
in the greatest abundance in a deeply-shaded wood ; this, a 
typical shade-lover, is sluggish but is on the move later 
than most things (for it was just before sundown), but 
when kicked up from ferns or other low herbage it did not 
rly more than two or three yards. It varies greatly in the 
pale streak on the uncler-side which may be white and very 
conspicuous or almost obsolete. One specimen exhibits a 
well-marked bite on the hind margin of both hind-winos 

100 Dr. G. B. Longstaff's Notes on the Butterflies 

above the anal angle, the injuries on both sides corre- 
sponding closely. 

It was dark when I reached Sukna station, 500 feet 
above sea-level, and fireflies, Luciola sp., were flitting about 
on all sides. A " flare " lighted just before the arrival of 
the train attracted many moths, of which I secured a 
large sharp- winged transparent Pyrale, Cydalima conchyla- 
lis, Guen.; and the Noctua, Prodenia littoralis, Bdv. In the 
train, immediately after starting I bottled a strange-looking 
g winged ant, Dorylus juvcncuhts, Shuck. 

Thus closed my short Darjiling campaign, and leaving 
behind with much regret the awe-inspiring Himalaya, we 
steamed away into the darkness over the monotonous 
plain of Bengal. 

Bankdpur, lat. 25° 30' N., alt. c. 250 ft, 
December 22nd, 1903— January 3rd, 1904. 

In absolute contrast to Darjiling, Bankapur, the civil 
station of the great city of Patna, is situated on the level, 
monotonous, and highly-cultivated plain of the Ganges, 
affording little harbour for butterflies, so that a fortnight's 
stay with old friends at the hospitable parsonage yielded 
small entomological results. 

In spite of these unpromising surroundings, Limnas 
chrysippus was common, and in company with it Hypolim- 
nas misippus, of which I saw several males and secured one 
female, which latter so closely mimics the former species 
that even the small white spots on the thorax and head 
are reproduced ! 

Of Tirumcda limniace I saw a solitary example, of 
Crastia core, two ; but the other very common Danaid, 
Limnas genutia, was abundant in a mango orchard, and 
distinctly gregarious in its habits. It has rather an 
unpleasant scent, but whether or no it is confined to one 
sex I regret that I failed to notice. 

The Satyrids were represented by a solitary Mycalesis 
perseics; the Swallow-tails by Papilio pammon, worn, 
P. aristolochise, and P. erithonius, the last a flower-loving 
species. Precis was represented by four species : almana, 
one of them with large pieces, in part corresponding, bitten 
out of each hind-wing ; tcnonc, one ; lemonias, several ; and 
orithyia, several, the latter all small. Single specimens of 
the common and generally distributed Atella phalanta and 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. 101 

Ergolis merione were seen in gardens. A fine Limenitis 
procris was taken sipping " toddy " from a palm ; I missed 
him at the first shot, but he foolishly returned to his fatal 

Of Catopsilia pyranthe I took two males and a female. 
I held one of the former fluttering beneath my nostrils, 
when it gave out a strong scent that instantly brought 
greenhouses to my mind, then my own greenhouse, then 
Polianthes tuberosa (barbarously termed by nurserymen 
" tuberose "), and lastly jasmine. I do not think that I 
ever smelt so distinct a scent in a butterfly, always except- 
ing the male of Ganoris napi. The other male pyranthe I 
held under my nose while I stroked the " feather-tufts " of 
the hind-wing ; this at once elicited the odour of jasmine, 
further confirming the observation of Wood-Mason. 

Two males of Huphina nerissa bear the following notes : 
" Scented, not like napi, more like rapse" and " this 
specimen had a scent like P. rapaz, i. e., of the sweet-briar 
type." Again a female of Delias eucharis (which was 
common) bears the note, " has a scent much like rapaz," 
and the specimen appears to have been wilfully rubbed. 
My observations on butterflies in England show that in 
some cases females have a scent, but not like, or as strong 
as the males. My strong impression is that the male of 
D. eucharis has the rapaz, or sweet-briar scent. 

The three species of Terias, viz. heeabe, libythea, and 
lazta, were all common ; one of the lazta appears to have 
been bitten by a bird. 

Nychitona xiphia was not uncommon, and several Txias 
marianne were seen. Chilades varunana, Moore (according 
to De Niceville the wet-season form of C. laius, Cr.), was 
common about irrigated flower-beds, indeed Blues are 
wonderfully fond of water. The only butterfly seen at 
Bankapiir that was at all out of the common, besides 
Limenitis procris, was the large grey Lyca3nid Virachola 
isocrates, Fab., of which I took one at flowers in the 
Commissioner's garden. I noted that its hind-wings were 
much folded posterior to the tails, the convexities of the 
folds being towards the upper-surface. These foldings of 
the wings are not well seen in set specimens. 

Although Bankapiir is far from being a good locality, it 
will give some idea of the abundance of butterflies in India 
when I say that in mid-winter, December 24th, I took in 
a suburban garden within three-quarters of an hour no less 

102 Dr. G. B. Longstaff's Notes on the Butterflies 

than ten species, some of them represented by numerous 

Buddha Gat/a, lat. 24° 42' N„ alt. c. 500 ft. 
December 30th and 31st, 1903. 

The vicinity of the shrine and its sacred Bo tree was not 
productive. All the butterflies that I saw there were one 
Terias libythea, a number of Huphina ncrissa (the male 
yielding a distinct, but not strong, flowery scent), together 
with a lot of the Lycsenid Zizera Icarsandra, Moore. 

The next day, on a steep hill of red trap rock overlook- 
ing the town, I saw for the first time the Acrseid Telcliinia 
vioLv, reminding one on the wing of Argynnis euphrosyne ; 
it was locally abundant and gregarious, its tone of colour- 
ing harmonizing with the red igneous rock. On the same 
hill were two or three Precis cenone and several small 
P. orithyia, while Zizera otis, Fab., was abundant. 

In the course of this walk I noticed a Fakir, or religious 
mendicant ascetic, watching my operations with evident 
suspicion, probably owing to the reverence in which some 
of these folk hold all animal life. Presently a small native 
boy threw a stone at a squirrel. I thought better of the 
Fakir when he cursed the boy so fiercely that he fled in 
terror as fast as the squirrel, while I rolled up my 
umbrella-net and passed on, trying to elude observation ! 

Mozufferpur, lat. 28° 8' N., alt. c. 300 ft. 

On a flying visit, January 2nd, 1904, to this place, nearly 
north of Bankapiir, I took in my host's garden two Zizera 
otis, Fab., and one Zizera maha, Koll. 

Allahabad, lat. 25° 30' N., alt. 370 ft. 

Here on January 4th I saw a few of the very commonest 
Indian butterflies in the public garden. The railway 
carriage before leaving in the evening produced a grass- 
hopper, Atractomorpha {Perena) sp., and Prodenia littoralis, 
a Noctua that came to light. This last proved tenacious 
of life, it laid a number of eggs in its paper which hatched 
on the voyage, the young larva3 perishing miserably. 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. 103 

Jhdnsi, lat. 25° 30' N., alt. c. 750 ft. 
January 5th— 13th, also 21st, 1904. 

Situated on a sandy plain, broken by precipitous ridges 
of igneous rock, Jhansi, something like 750 ft. above the 
sea, is characterized by dryness, heat, and sparsity of cover. 

A couple oUPapllio aristolochite taken at flowers near 
the lake were the sole representatives of their family. 

Several Belenois mcsentina were taken, but it was scarcely 
common ; the male had a distinct but faint, sweet scent; 
on the ridge of Retribution Hill (where Sir Hugh Rose in 
1858 slew 2000 mutineers), I took a female B. mcsentina 
in which the hind-margins of the secondaries had been 
symmetrically broken off", probably by the bite of a lizard. 
Of three specimens of Tcrias hecabe, one, a small female, 
was of the variety without the " dog's head " notch. Of 
T. lihythca a single specimen was taken, but T. hvta was 
common and of gregarious habits. Teracolus etrida was 
locally rather common, especially the female. On the other 
hand, the male of Ixias marianne was rather common. 

Two Atclla phalarita were taken ; the only Precis noted 
was orithyia, and that very dwarfed, one measuring only 
14 inches across the wings. 

Telchinia violse was abundant at the foot of Retribution 
Hill, and scattered specimens occurred elsewhere. This 
insect, like the Danaids, has a tough skin which enables it 
to resist pinching, and doubtless makes it indigestible. 
When injured a yellow juice exudes; a minute drop of 
this placed on the tongue tasted somewhat bitter and 
disagreeable, but the flavour was by no means strong. 

The Jhansi Lycsenids were fairly numerous, but not 
very brilliant, the most striking was Ghilades putli, Koll., 
actually smaller and darker than our alsus ; other species 
were Chilades laius, Cr., which appears to have been 
common, but of which I unfortunately took but one 
specimen, and Catochrysops contrada, Butl., of which I took 
two ; Tarucus theophrastus, Fab., of which the two sexes 
are, on the upper surface at least, very different, was 
common, but of T. telicanus, Lang, I only secured one of 
each sex, though noting it as common. Blues are very 
abundant in India, but they are very much alike, so that 
being ignorant of the distinctions between allied species, 
one was but too apt to neglect them while in the eager 

104 Dr. G. B. Longstaffs Notes on the Butterflies 

pursuit of larger game. For these reasons too much 
weight should not be attached to the observation that 
such and such a species was common or abundant, but the 
qualification, "or something superficially like it," should be 

Two moths came to light, an Agrotid Euxoa spinifera, 
Hiibn., and the Maearia-Mke Scmiothisa frugaliata, Guen. 
I also took a brown beetle, Bolboceras quadridens, Fab. 

After prolonged drought there was a heavy rainstorm at 
Jhansi on January 14th, and there was slight rain at 
Gwalior on the 16th and 17th. With the exception of a 
very few days when there had been clouds and occasionally 
a few drops of rain, there had been almost uninterrupted 
sunshine for three months, i. e. since October 8th. On 
January 20th, writing to Dr. Dixey, I said, " There has 
been a very cold 'wave' in Northern India with a few 
showers of rain, but scarcely enough of the latter to affect 
either vegetation or insects." On January 23rd there was 
gentle rain at Jhansi lasting several hours. 

On January 21st I had another day's collecting at 
Jhansi, but the species taken were not such as to show 
any effect in the way of change of type due to the rain, 
even if such change had been possible. The insects met 
with were B. mesentina, I. marianne, T. ctrida, A. phalanta, 
and Tarucus theophrashts. 


On January 9th I had an hour's collecting in this inter- 
esting deserted city, some eight miles to the east of Jhansi, 
and took or saw Limnas genutia, Precis temonias, P. amone, 
and P. orithyia (this last in abundance), Atclla phalanta, 
an Ixias, Teracolus etrida, a Terias, and several female 
Bclenois mesentina. Monkeys were almost as common as 
butterflies among the ruined tombs. 

Burwa Sdgar. 

On January 14th I got a couple of hours' collecting in 
the neighbourhood of the interesting and romantically- 
situated old castle of this name, which lies some twelve 
miles to the east of Jhansi. 

Here I observed in two specimens of Limnas chrysippus 
(of which certainly one was a male) a distinct cockroach- 
like odour, sufficiently strong to be perceptible when the 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. 105 

insect was fluttering in the net. Of Gatopsilia pyranthe I 
took a female of the gnoma form ; of Terias hccabc a male, 
the variety without the " dog's head " mark. T. Ixta was 
quite abundant. Two specimens oi Hupliina nerissa were 
taken, one worn, the other a dwarf. The male of Bclenois 
mesentina was common, in two specimens I detected a 
sweet scent like that of P. rapx, but more or less faint. A 
Polyommatus bxticus completes the list. 

Agra, lat. 27° N., alt. 550 ft. 

January 25th and 26th, 1904. 

At the sisrht-seeing centre of India there was but little 
time or opportunity for entomology. In the fair gardens 
of the Taj Mahal Limnas ckrysippus was abundant, three 
or four Papilio aristolochix haunted the brilliant orange- 
coloured flowers of Bignonia venusta, and a few Belcnois 
mesentina were flying around. In the Government garden 
close by I also saw the Belenois, together with Huphina 
nerissa, Precis orithyia, and P. lemonias, Limnas chrysippus, 
and L. genutia, also a Teracolus, and some Blues which 
escaped capture. 

Fathipur Sikri. 

January 28th and 29th, 1904. 

At the abandoned capital of Akbar the Great, the 
Pompeii of India, some twenty-two miles west of Agra, 
those ruin-frequenting butterflies, Belenois mesentina and 
Teracolus etrida, were both common, but all appeared to be 
males. The Belenois had a faint, sweet, flowery scent, 
which did not appear to me to be quite like that of any 
other insect. 

I also took one Teracolus puellaris, a female, and a most 
ferocious hornet, Eumenes dimididtipennis, Sauss., a %. 

Jdipur, lat. 27° N., alt. 1600 ft. 

February 2nd, 1904. 

The fine public gardens of the enlightened Maharajah 
are too well kept to be a good collecting-ground. Terias 
Ixta was however to be had there [as well as at the 
deserted capital Amber, a few miles to the north and on 
higher ground] ; those taken were males ; a very small 

106 Dr. G. B. Longstaff's Notes on the Butterflies 

Limnas ehrysippus seemed to bear evidence of the prolonged 
drought. The genus Papilio was represented by aristolo- 
chise, and the Chrysid Stilbum splendidum, Fab., did its 
best to gratify the Rajputs' love of brilliant colour. 

Ajmir, lat. 26° 30' N., alt. c. 1800 ft. 
February 4th and 5th, 1904. 

The most notable capture here was Teracolus fausta, 
Oliv., of which I only got one male, a poor specimen, 
missing two others ; it has a very distinct orange look on 
the wing, and I feel sure that I saw one on January 22nd 
at Palipahari, the artillery camp near Jhansi. 

Of T. etrida I took two males, one of them had lost the 
apex of the left fore-wing and all its hind-margin, as well 
as the apex of the left hind-wing. This is notable as 
possibly being an attack on a " direction mark." 

I saw several battered Precis oenonc. The smaller fry 
were represented by a very neat little chequered Skipper, 
Hesperia galba, Fab. The emerald-like Stilbum splendidum 
again turned up. 

On Taragarh, the precipitous hill that overtops the city 
by perhaps 500 ft., I got only Belenois mesentina, Terias 
Ixta, and the long-waisted £ wasp, Eumenes dimidiatipennis, 

ML Abu, lat. 24° 30' N., alt. of civil and military 
station c. 4100 ft. 

February 6th— 8th, 1904. 

Insects were extremely scarce upon the sacred Jaina 
mountain. The commonest butterfly was Terias Iseia ; it 
was abundant up to 4500 ft., and the only representative 
of the genus seen. These, together with Belenois mesentina, 
Huphina nerissa, a few Precis lemonias, and a couple of 
tages-like Skippers (which I missed upon rocks at about 
4400 ft), were the only butterflies that I saw on the 
elevated plateau. One moth, the very widely-distributed 
Crambus, Eromene oeellca, Haw., came to light. 

At lower elevations, on the fine road up from the plain, 
the following were met w r ith : at about 3000 ft., Belenois 
mesentina, Taracus telicanus, and Polyommatus bteticus, the 
last as usual in poor condition. From 3500 ft. down to 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. 107 

2500 ft. a few Yphthima inica, Hew., were seen, and at 
about the last-named elevation, among the rocks of a 
nearly dry water-course, I saw two specimens of the 
beautiful Nymphalid, Symph&dra thyelia, Fab., but only 
secured one. It has the habits of a Vanessa ; unfortunately 
time vvas pressing, or I might probably have taken more. 

Bombay, lat. 19° N., near sea-level. 
February 10 th, 1904. 

In an hour's visit to the Victoria Gardens, where there 
were a fair number of insects, I got PapUio erithonitcs, 
P. aristolochi/B, Neptis varmona, and Nepheronia hippia, a 
female, the last named mimicking Tintmala. 

On February 15th I was much interested in watching 
the movements of a solitary butterfly in the small public 
garden of the University, in the heart of the city. It 
appeared to be a large Catopsilia, possibly the catilla form 
of pomona, but at any rate of a general greenish-yellow 
colour ; when disturbed it invariably settled in one or other 
of several small shrubs with yellow leaves, when it would 
vanish quite suddenly. It was only after several attempts 
that I succeeded in getting a glimpse of it when settled, so 
strong was the protective resemblance. 

Bijdpur, lat. 17° N., alt. c. 1500 ft. 
February 16th and 17th, 1904. 

This was further south than I had yet collected, but the 
scanty vegetation among the ruins seemed too parched to 
yield very much. The most prevalent genera here, as at 
so many places where thorns, burrs, rocks and ruins pre- 
dominated, were Belenois and Teracolus, the last a genus 
which, though beautiful in the cabinet, is not effective on 
the wing. 

Teracolus etrida was abundant, the males appearing to 
be about twice as numerous as the females ; they varied 
greatly in size, so much so that among the males the 
largest had nearly double the alar expansion of the 
smallest. Of T. dulcis I took one female, and of T. amatus, 
var. modestus, two males. 

The only Terias seen was lasta. Belenois mesentina was 
abundant ; a slight sweet scent was detected in one 

108 Dr. G. B. Longstaff's Notes on the Butterflies 

Catochrysops strabo, Fab., was common, also Polyommatus 
btsticus, one specimen having lost two-thirds of each hind- 
wing, presumably the work of some enemy ; of Zizera 
harsandra, Moore, I took one. 

At night several moths came to light, viz. the Ocneriad, 
Enome detersa, Walk., the Geometers, Tephrinia disputaria, 
Guen., and Idma fibulata ? Guen. (worn), and the very 
widely-distributed Etiella zinckenella, Treit. 

A ferocious-looking spider, a Solpuga, shared the Dak 
Bungla with us. 

Anantdpur, lat. 14° 30' N., alt. c. 1500 ft. 
February 18th— 23rd, 1904. 

This small civil station, situated on an irrigated though 
elevated plain devoted to the growing of cotton and rice, is 
typical of Southern India. 

A very hot walk to some small granite hills on the other 
side of the lake produced little beside two males of Ixias 
marianne, and a solitary Teracolus eucharis ; the hills 
seemed too hot, dry, and parched to harbour butterflies. 

About the trees along the dam, or " bandh," were a few 
Hypolimnas misippus, males, and abundance of Papilio 

In the cotton fields by the river Hypanis [Biblia] ilithyia, 
Dru., was to be got, but not plentifully. 

The best collecting-ground was a very weedy nursery 
garden and orchard. Here I one day had the advantage 
of the assistance of my host, Mr. Edwin Scott, I.C.S., 
whose keen appreciation of scents helped me greatly. 
Limnas chrysippus was abundant ; of its scent Mr. Scott's 
first impression was " some sort of dung," then " a zoo " ; 
later he said " possibly like a cockroach, but more like a 
musk-rat." The scent is, I think, general, but is perhaps 
stronger when the scent sacs on the hind-wings are opened : 
a fact that I also observed at Calcutta. 

Crastia core was common and gregarious, frequenting a 
special mango-tree. When he smelt this insect Mr. Scott 
at once cried out "acetylene," adding that he would like 
to put a lighted match to it to see whether it would burn ! 
Subsequent observations on the butterfly and the gas con- 
vinced me of the accuracy of his comparison. The genital 
organs appear to exude the scent, probably the long tufts 
appended to them. 

Observed in a tour through India and. Ceylon. 109 

At this place I confirmed in two specimens of Gatopsilia 
pyranthe the jasmine odour connected with the "scent 
tufts " of the male, but did not find it as strong as in 
specimens of the same species examined at Bankapur six 
weeks before. Mr. Scott agreed to the comparison with 
jasmine, but thought the scent was perhaps even more 
like that of Polianthes tioberosa. 

I also examined two males of Tirumala limniace for 
scent, but was unable to elicit any from the prominent sacs 
on the under-side of the hind-wings, although I suspected 
some to be emitted by the genital tufts. 

Papilio erithonius was frequently met with, and P. 
aristolochii& was common, but I only took a single P. 
pammon. Although the male of Hypolimnas misippus was 
fairly common, I only saw one worn female; this was of the 
very marked variety inaria, Cramer, in which the white 
marks near the apex of the fore-wing are entirely wanting, 
and the black tip is reduced to a narrow border, so that it 
closely mimics L. chrysippus, var. dorippus, Klug., a form 
that is very rare in India. I several times saw the male 
IT. misippus reconnoitring L. chrysippus as if in doubt as to 
its identity ! 

Of Precis oenone I took but one, of P. almana two, but 
P. lemonias was common. Of the following species I took 
mostly single examples : — Limnas genutia; Ergolis ariadne ; 
Ncptis varmona ; Polyommatus bieticus ; Lampides ecleno, Cr., 
form conferanda, Butl. ; C atari try sops hapalina, Butl., two ; 
G. strabo, Fab.; Zizera otis, var. ind/'ca, Murray, two; and 
the Skipper, tfuastus grcmius, Fab. 

Of Melanitis ismene I took but a small fraction, for one 
seldom sees a butterfly so battered, yet even this fraction 
was found in the shade. In marked contrast are the habits 
of Telchinia viol/e, since it haunts the most sun-scorched 
places ; it was not uncommon at Anantapur, but if 
gregarious, as elsewhere, then I did not hit upon its 

I took one Terias libythea, and saw several T. hecabc, 
though it was but moderately common. 

Hovering at flowers I two or three times saw, and once 
caught, Ccphanodes hylas, L., an insect very like Sesia 
bombyliformis, Esp. There were also flying in the sun 
Deiopeia pulchella and Trigonodes hyppasia, Cr., a Noctua 
very like Hydrdia unca, L., which reminded me of 
Headington and old Oxford days. 

110 Dr. G. B. Longstaff's Notes on the Butterflies 

Out of the grass I kicked up Tephrina catalaunaria, 
Guen., a pretty little Macariid Geometer Semiothisa subatbi- 
taria, Swinhoe, and Sterrha paullula, Swinhoe. The 
common dragon-fly, Orthetrum sabina, Dru., and a bug, 
Eysarcocoris guttigcra, Thunb., completed the tenants of the 

A number of things came to light, viz. : — Dciopeia 
pulchella, the Ocneriad, Enome detersa, Walk., a Noctua, 
Ericeia inangulata, Guen., a Pyrale, Schcenobius bipunctifera, 
Walk., and a tiny Quadrifid Noctua Raparna lactea, 
Swinhoe, as well as two bugs, Acanthaspis apicata, Dist., 
and Dieuches uniguttatus, Thunb., the former apparently a 
scarce insect since the national collection contains the type 
only. There was in addition to these a small ochreous 
narrow-winged Geometer to which I have not been able to 
assign a name, and an ichneumon, Henieospilus, sp. In 
fact one evening swarms of insects came to light, including 
many mosquitos, but these appeared to be all Culex, 
fortunately no Anopheles. 

Bangalur, lat. 13° N., alt. 3100 ft. 
February 23rd, 1904. 

The change of trains at this large military station gave 
me an hour or two's collecting in the extensive public 
gardens. There was rather a high wind which was against 
a good day, but the afternoon proved interesting since it 
gave me the first glimpse at the " Ceylon " fauna. Here I 
saw for the first time that very striking black, white, and 
orange Lycasnid, Talicada nyseus, Guer., as well as the 
huge and magnificent Papilio p>olymnestor, Cram, [parinda, 
Moore], a truly gorgeous monster in which a pale lilac is 
the prevailing colour trimmed with black. 

The only other things noted were more ordinary, to wit 
Catopsilia pomona, a female, Grastia core, several Telehinia 
vioLv, Nychitona xiphia, an abundance of Ncptis varmona, 
and one Ncptis jumba, Moore. 

Th e Nilgiris, lat. ll r N. 

February 24th— March 3rd, 1904. 

The Nilgiris, or Blue Mountains, rising abruptly from 
the plain, itself nearly 2000 ft. above the sea, form a 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. Ill 

rolling table-land with an average altitude of from 6500 ft. 
to 7500 ft. This plateau consists for the most part of 
grassy downs with here and there," sholas," or thickets of 
mixed growth, very beautiful at this time of the year 
owing to the red colour of the young leaves of the pre- 
ponderant tree. Unfortunately, alike for the entomologist 
and the artist, these " sholas " have been largely cut down 
to make way for the extensive Government plantations 
of eucalyptus, which are by comparison dreary and 

On the way up the cog-wheel railway I saw on the side 
of the cutting two beautiful blue-green Papilios, which 
may have been either P. telephus, Feld., or P. teredon, 
Feld. At about 4500 ft. I netted a Ncptis varmona from 
the train in motion. 

It was evidently too early in the year to get many 
butterflies at Utakamand, the elevation making the nights 
cool, so it was necessary to seek out sheltered flowery banks 
facing south, or preferably south-east. In two such spots 
within a very circumscribed area Talicada nyseus was 
common ; a single example also occurred [along with the 
inevitable Pyrameis cardui] on the grassy top of an isolated 
and exposed peak of about 8000 ft. This Lycaenid is quite 
typical of " South India and Ceylon " ; it is a conspicuous 
insect on the wing, its tricolour of black, white and orange- 
red, which should delight German entomologists, making 
it look larger than it really is. 

Terias hecabe was rather common, but worn. A female 
Lycsena bsdica and several Pyrameis, indica were also old 
friends, and the same applies to two or three Papilio 
aristolochim seen at flowers in the hotel garden, the latter a 
good deal the worse for wear. 

A few Yphthima chenui, Guer., occurred at about 7800 ft., 
the only Satyrid I met with at Utakamand. Ganoris canidia 
flew up to 8000 ft. ; a male had a distinct smell like that 
of our Picris rapte. I submitted the living butterfly to 
my daughter and her lady friend, who both noticed the 
scent, though unable to describe it. When mignonette 
was suggested for comparison they both said " No " ; but 
when sweet-briar was mentioned they said it was like 
that, my daughter speaking the more confidently of the 

At about 7400 ft. I took a female Gcdophaga paulina, and 
also a fine female of Hiposcritia narendra [Moore], quite a 

112 Dr. G. B. Longstaff's Notes on the Butterflies 

Ceylon species. The specimen is labelled " flies fast : 
rather common from 7400 ft. to 8400 ft." It is but too 
evident that I had not recognized that I was catching 
anything out of the common, and it is more than probable 
that I confounded the females of Catophaga and Tacliyris 
with Hiposeritia, so that I am not by any means disposed 
to trust the statement that H. narendra was common then 
and there. One necessary consequence of my complete 
ignorance of the Indian fauna was that I did not know 
what was most worth catching. These white butterflies 
are as a rule by no means easy to catch and were often in 
bad condition, but in each locality I used to endeavour to 
secure one or two good samples. Doubtless the Hiposeritia 
passed for a very fine Tacliyris. 

Amongst herbage Mecyna polygonalis, Hb., was often 
kicked up, having much the habits and appearance of my 
old Bermuda and Mortehoe friend Stenoptcryx hybridalis, 
Hubn. (Nomophora noctuella, Schiff.), which too was fairly 
common in exposed situations at about 8000 ft. ; at a 
similar elevation a single example of the Danaid Badacara 
nilgiriensis, Moore, was taken. 

Above the Botanic Garden on the road to Dodabetta, at 
about 8000 ft., I several times saw, but missed, Vanessa 
eharonia, Dru., a butterfly that looks dingy in the cabinet, 
but on the wing looks much brighter and bluer than would 
be expected. It is sometimes called the Blue Admiral 
(completing the trio), though in truth it is much more 
like a tortoise-shell. Argynnis niphe was common at the 
higher elevations, and in exposed situations up to 8500 
ft., reminding one of A. aglaia, L. It flew up and down 
the roads, returning again and again to the same spot. 

The commonest and most characteristic butterfly of 
LJtakamand was the pretty little Colias nilgiriensis, Feld., 
which was seen coursing over the grassy downs from 7300 
— 8600 ft. Its flight is moderately fast, but quite close 
to the ground. It was somewhat startling, but in a way 
refreshing, to come across this Arctic survival so far within 
the tropics, associated moreover with species characteristic 
of Ceylon. As it was especially abundant in the hotel 
garden I took the opportunity of examining five males for 
scent ; in two cases I suspected the existence of a slight 
scent, but in the remaining three the result was negative. 

From Utakamand I moved to Koniir, which stands on 
the southern edge of the plateau, overlooking the plain. 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. 113 

It is at about 6500 ft. above sea-level, or 1000 ft. lower 
than Utakamand. At this elevation Colias nilgiriensis was 
not nearly so common as at the higher levels. 

Worn Pyrameis indica, a few Neptis varmona and Precis 
iphita turned up here and there. Of a pair of Terias 
hccabe taken in copula, the male proved to be of "inter- 
mediate dry," the female of " pronounced dry " type. 
Opportunities of noting the pairing of the several forms 
occurred very rarely. Here I secured one specimen of 
Yphthvma ccylonica, Hew., another foretaste of the great 
southern island. Y. inica, Hew., turned up at about 
5800 ft., but at about 6500 ft., in a clearing in a wood, I 
found Y. hilbneri, Moore, together with Y. chenui, Guer., 
and Y. philomela, Joh. There were swarms of these 
Yphthimas on that sunny bank, but as I did not distinguish 
the species at the time I cannot now say of what the bulk 
of them consisted. Some of the specimens have injuries 
to the wings, which from their shapes may have been 
inflicted by birds, but I attach little importance to them, 
especially as the injuries are unilateral, since the wings 
of Yphthima (and to a somewhat less degree of Mycalesis 
also) are so fragile that quite unbroken specimens are 

The genus Papilio was represented by a couple of 
erithonius. As usual Argynnis niphe showed a preference 
for lofty and bare places. On one occasion I watched a 
female of this species for some time under the impression 
that it was Limnas chrysippus I The resemblance on the 
wing is greater than might be supposed. Vanessa charonia, 
Dru., which had before eluded me so often, fell a victim 
at last ; I secured two specimens on a shady road through 
a wood. It settles on rocks or walls, a habit that makes 
it hard to net, moreover it is shy and easily disturbed, 
though usually coming back again to its resting-place. 

Stenopteryx hybridalis was common in grassy places, and 
I took the Boarmid Bilactis inceptaria, Walk., flying in the 
hotel garden at dusk. 

It was tantalizing to be told by the hotel manager at 
Koniir of the immense number and variety of butterflies 
there in the summer. I was, however, fortunate in 
making the acquaintance of a dealer, named Solomon, a 
coloured man, who told me that at that time of the year 
it was no good collecting on the high ground, but for 
a consideration he agreed to show me a very good place 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LUND. 1005. — PART I. (MAY) 8 

114 Dr. G. B. Lcmgstaff's Notes on the Butterflies 

near the foot of the hills. Accordingly I went with him 
on March 2nd, and again alone on the following day. 
This involved travelling by an early goods-train to Kallar, 
the first station on the mountain railway above Mettu- 
palaiyam, about 2000 ft. above the sea, but only 200 ft. to 
300 ft. above the plain. Here, as in other parts of India, 
the best places for insects, at any rate in the winter season, 
are to be found in the belt of jungle at the foot of the 
hills, or in the woods on their lower slopes. But it is just 
in these places where the dreaded Anopheles is as abund- 
ant as the Rhopalocera, and the station-master at Kallar 
told me that entomologists always slept at Koniir and 
went up and down by train to avoid the nocturnal 
terrors of the deadly malaria — the tiny, innocent-looking 
Anopheles ! 

The collecting-ground was various, and included, besides 
bushy jungle with plenty of flowers near the station, large 
irrigated banana and betel-nut plantations as well as the 
bed of the river with its bordering woods. 

The first thing to catch the eye was Papilio hector, L., 
and very magnificent he looked fluttering at the flowers of 
Lantana in his crimson-and-black suit set off with white. 
This is indeed one of the most striking butterflies that I 
met with in my travels, with its wings expanding four 
inches and upwards. It proved to be distinctly common, 
but one does not get within reach of every Papilio that 
one sees, nor indeed does one succeed in netting all that 
are struck at. P. hector was accompanied by plenty of 
P. pammon and a few P. aristolochia? . One of the P. hector 
brought home is remarkable for the fact that the whole of 
the tips and half the hind-margins of both hind-wings 
have apparently been bitten off, almost absolutely symmet- 
rically, by some foe. If the red spots on the under-side 
be really " warning marks " this is the more noteworthy. 

A boggy, but sunny, corner of an irrigated banana- 
garden produced single specimens of the fine Skippers 
Tagiades atticus, Fab. [ ? = T. vunaka, Moore] and 
Tagiades distans, Moore. 

This same garden and the adjoining plantations of 
betel-palm (Areca catechu) yielded a few Melanitis ismene, 
a fair number of Mycalcsis perseits, Fab., as well as 
Yphthima marshalli and Y. philomela. Job. [= oaldns, 
Fab.] ; there was also abundance of the pretty and very 
distinct Yphthima ceylonica, Hew., with its silvery- white 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. 115 

hind-wings, which tried, not without occasional success, 
to pass itself off as a Blue. A few hasty observations on 
this species when at rest failed to detect any such " list " 
as is common in many members of the family. 

I sent home two specimens of Mycalcsis perseus, one an 
ordinary example of the dry-season form in which the 
ocelli are indicated by faint dark dots, the other (unfortun- 
ately very tattered) in which the full complement of 
ocelli on the under-surface is indicated by conspicuous 
chalky- white spots of varying cizes, to wit, two large and 
one small on the primaries and two large and five small 
on the secondaries. Three of these spots are faintly 
visible on the upper-surface. There are no rings and no 
pupils to the spots. It would appear to be a unique 
aberration of the dry-season form. In the shade along 
with the above Satyrids was the inevitable Nychitona 
xiphia and a solitary male Elymnias undufaris. 

A weedy neglected field near the river yielded besides 
Limnas chrysi2)pus and Atella phalanta plenty of the 
"orange-tip" Ixias marianne, as well as a smaller number 
of the more gaudy Ixias pyrene. One proved to be a worn 
specimen of the female lacking the orange tip, a distinct 
and well- marked variety ; another was of the racial form 
eingalensis, Moore. The " whites " Huphina nerissa and 
Gatophaga paulina were in plenty. A single Gatopsilia 
pomona was netted, a somewhat papery-looking insect, 
especially on the under-side, also several G. pyranthe of the 
" transitional Gnoma " form. In one of the latter (a male) 
I detected a faint scent, but less like that of jasmine than 
in the Gatopsilias examined at Anantapiir. In the same 
field Telchinia violse was abundant, while Ergolls ariadne 
was, as usual, common among Rieinus. 

But all this time Solomon was most anxious to get me 
down to the river. This is a rapidly-flowing stream, 
occupying perhaps half its bed, and having on either bank 
sloping woods of mixed growth. Solomon sought out a 
place where a tiny tributary emerging from a rushy swamp 
trickled over the damp sand. He forthwith stuck into 
the wet sand a foot or so from the rill and well clear of the 
herbage, three or four large butterflies of which he had 
netted worn or broken specimens ; then he stood by to 
watch. Nothing much happened, for unfortunately clouds 
had come up and the afternoon was only partly sunny, 
whereas to get many things at water, whether decoys be 

116 Dr. G. B. LongstafFs Notes on the Butterflies 

used or not, it needs, as Solomon put it, to be " plenty hot." 
It was indeed hot enough for most Europeans, but not up 
to the exacting butterfly standard. However, next day 
the conditions were more favourable, and I found near 
what was left of Solomon's decoys a number of "whites" 
and " orange-tips." Accordingly I put down a few more 
decoys and walked away. After spending some time in 
vain endeavours to catch the conspicuous Heuomma glau- 
cippe, L.— giant of orange-tips — which was careering wildly 
about in all directions, I returned to the decoy-place and 
sat down just within the reach of my six-feet net-stick, 
Catophaga paulina were there in abundance, but all males, 
mostly sitting quite close together, almost touching, with 
wings erect so that the " hook-tip " of the fore-wing was 
very conspicuous ; in another cluster close by were from 
six to eight Ixias marianne. 

It will perhaps give some idea of the numbers when I 
say that I quite easily netted five C, paulina in one swoop, 
and seven in another. 

Then Hebomoia glaucippe came along, reconnoitred the 
position with great circumspection, and settled warily for a 
second or two, but darted swiftly off at the least movement 
on my part. Nevertheless, with care and patience, I 
managed to secure a couple of specimens. My old friend 
Papilio eriihonius came next and soon settled down a short 
distance away from the " whites," he was shortly followed 
by another and yet another : they all settled close together, 
within a hand's-breadth, forming an exclusive community 
and continued to drink steadily. All at once a blue-green 
flash, and Papilio telephus, Feld., sailed close past me ; again 
rind again he came, and finally, looking askance at the 
vulgar assemblage of " whites " and " orange-tips," settled 
quite close to the P. erithonius, evidently preferring their 
more select company. This occurred several times. P. 
telephus, when settled with wings erect, displayed an 
unexpected beauty, for, in place of the ebony and emeralds 
on the upper-surface, it shows beneath nothing but sheeny 
mother-of-pearl picked out with tiny rubies. By patient 
watching and judicious swooping I secured three specimens, 
and, be it remembered, these were all I saw that day. So 
much for water ; what share the decoys had in my success 
it is hard to say, but Mr. E. E. Green, of Peradeniya, told 
me that decoys were efficacious, and Mr. Denton, of Regent 
Street, says that he has used even paper decoys with success. 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. 11? 

The congregation of butterflies at damp sand was 
observed by Bates on the banks of the Amazon in 1849. 
He noted that they were all males, mostly of the genus 
Callidryas.* Indeed Sir J. D. Hooker had the year before 
noted butterflies sitting on damp sand " in thousands " in 
the Ranjit valley, Sikkim.-{* 

Mr. E. Andre noted a similar thing in Venezuela in 
1897, where the attraction was the foul mud of a farm- 
yard: the butterflies were chiefly Callidryas, with some 
Heliconms, Papilio, Metamorpha and Cterois. He says : 
" Each species tried to herd with its own kind," but he says 
nothing as to sexes. There is a capital photograph in his 
book of a group of Callidryas.^ 

Doubtless this habit of butterflies is well known to all 
tropical collectors. I myself in Germany some 35 years 
ago, noted swarms of Blues at small puddles in the road — 
several species together, including, so far as I could see, L. 
alsus, L. arion, and L. btetica. A few days afterwards near 
the same place and similarly occupied I caught Apatura 
iris in my hat ! This summer at Mortehoe, on the 1st of 
August, in the early afternoon, I saw 14 or 15 G. napi 
sitting close together on wet mud ; they were all males. 

A piece of waste ground adjoining the plantation of the 
singularly graceful Areca palms, covered with Lantana in 
full bloom, was crowded with butterflies such as Crastia core 
and Narmada coreoides, Moore, one or both of which (for I 
did not distinguish them when alive) was abundant; 
several Neptis varmona, and two or three Nepheronia 
ceylonica, Feld., another southern species. More striking 
than all these were the swarms of Tirumala limniace, a 
big and handsome black and bluish-white Danaid, which I 
found all over India but never saw elsewhere in anything 
like such numbers as on that mass of Lantana. 

Other things that turned up in the course of the two 
days' collecting were Tachyris hippo, two ; Teracohis etrida, 
one ; Hypolimnas bolina, two males ; H. misippus, one male ; 
Precis iphita, common ; Caprona ransonnettii, Feld., one ; 
Parnara mathias, one ; Castalius rosimon, and plenty of 
Lampidcs celeno, Cr., including the form conferanda, Butl. 

Of the above the fine Skipper, Caprona, was seen to 
settle, in full sunshine, on the under-side of a leaf, with its 

* " Naturalist on the Amazons," 1st edn., p. 249. 

| " Himalayan Journals." 

j "Naturalist in the Guianas," p. 142. 

118 Dr. G. B. Longstaff's Notes on the Butterflies 

wings fully expanded like a Geometer. I do not ever 
remember seeing a butterfly do this before, but then we 
are perhaps wrong in calling Skippers butterflies. One 
of the Lampides, a female ( ? ), was found settled close to 
the ground, with all its wings erect as usual and close 
together; it was however moving its hind-wings alternately, 
in a rhythmical manner, in the plane of the wing, about 
10-15° forward and then back. No other specimen of the 
species was near it. 

On the occasion of my first visit to Kallar, as we were 
walking back to the station, Solomon suddenly darted off 
like the wind, and I found that he was after a very large 
Papilio which he had caught sight of flying about a puddle 
in the road, some hundred and fifty yards off". He waited 
long and patiently until it settled to drink and then popped 
his net over it. It was Papilio polymnestor in splendid 
condition, black and French grey, 5| inches in expanse ! 
This haughty beauty was not kind to me at Kallar ; many 
a time I caught a glimpse of her flying about in a super- 
cilious sort of way, but she never gave me a chance of 
closer acquaintance. Solomon had the advantage of me in 
many ways, first and foremost in years, next in his keen 
sight, but he was also wily and skilful with his net. 
During the day he took among other things a specimen of 
Papilio agamemnon, L., a fine black-and-green fellow that I 
too had seen ; also one of that grand diamond-beetle green 
butterfly Papilio crino, F., which I missed the next day at 
Lantana flowers, as I believe, through sheer excitement ! 

Trichindpali, lat. 10° 50' N., alt. c. 400 ft. or less. 
March 4th and 5 th, 1904. 

My collecting here was almost confined to the banks of 
an irrigation canal, where the genus Papilio was repre- 
sented by P. hector, P. pammon, and P. aristoloehiie, of each 
of which I saw several. 

Limnas chrysippus was common; in the male of Tirumala 
limniace I detected a very faint scent, suggesting old cigar- 

Gatopsilia pyranthe was rather common, the specimen 
preserved was of the intermediate form ; I noted a scent 
in the male, but it was not so strong as in some of the 
Bankapiir specimens. Of Delias eucharis I took two 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. 119 

females, by far the less common sex, at all events in 
collections. Of Hivphina nerissa I took one of each sex. 
Terias hecabe was abundant. 

The most striking fact about the butterflies of Trichin- 
apali was the predominance of the genus Teracolus ; of 
these I met with three species : T. eucharis was in abund- 
ance, but I find my specimens comprise eight males to 
two females ; of T. ctrida I took two males ; and I was 
greatly delighted to see here for the first time that truly 
exquisite little gem the crimson-tipped T. danclc. It 
proved to be rather common, and I secured two of each 
sex. It is one of the most " elegant flies " that I have 
ever seen alive. 

Precis orithyia was common, the specimens small and 
brilliant ; P. lemonias was in larger numbers than I met 
with anywhere else, in fact quite abundant; Ergolis 
ariadne was common; I netted a pair of Hypanis Uithyia 
in copula, one was of the " wet-season " form, the other 
"intermediate " tending to " wet." As usual Telchinia 
violte was common. 

I took here one specimen of that beautiful Lycasnid 
with the under-side striped like a tiger, Spindasis vulcanus. 
This is one of the butterflies with an anal lobe to the 
secondaries, but unfortunately I had not an opportunity of 
observing it at rest. Lampidcs celeno, Cr., was common ; 
some smaller and dingy Blues were abundant, Zizera otis, 
Fab., var. indica, Murray, and Ghilades varunana, Moore, 
thought by De Niceville to be the wet-season form of 
G. laius. I also took one specimen of a small bright 
golden Skipper, Ampittia maro, Fab. 

Tanjur, lat. 10° 47' N., alt. 350 ft. or less. 
March 6th, 1904. 

The predominant genus of the plains of Southern 
Madras would appear to be Teracolus, which was repre- 
sented in my envelopes from Tanjur by a male T. etrida, 
a pair of T. eucharis, and five males and two females of 
my favourite crimson-tip, T. dctncle, which was quite 

Of Catopsilia pyranthe I took a dwarf male of the 
intermediate form. Terias hecabe was common, and I took 
a very large female [over 1*8 inches in expanse, it was 

120 Dr. G. B. Longstaff's Notes on the Butterflies 

" dry "]. Single specimens of the following were sent 
home : Nychitona xiphia ; Papilio pammon, male ; Limnas 
ehrysippus, female ; Castalius rosimon and Lampidcs celeno, 
Cr., of the form conferanda. Telchinia violie was common, 
one being; of a fine red colour. 

Mddnra, lat, 9° 55' N., alt. 600 ft. 
March 7th, 1904. 

This was about the least productive place that I visited. 
Limnas ehrysippus was scarcely common. A male Huphina 
nerissa gave out the sweet-briar scent quite strongly. 1 
saw several Telchinia violie upon a railway bank. Precis 
cenone was fairly common, but P. almana was commoner 
here, about the irrigation ditches bordering meadows, than 
at any place I visited ; they were of the " intermediate 
dry " form. P. lemonias was also abundant, some of them 
being very brightly coloured. 

In a grove of young palms near the river a singular 
dragon-fly, Libellula variegaia, Linn., was common ; the 
tips of its wings are transparent and colourless, but the 
basal three-fifths of the primaries, and the basal five- 
sixths of the secondaries, are light-brown with a bold 
dark-brown pattern. I believe that I saw the same crea- 
ture in the Kudsia Gardens at Delhi, flying near the tops 
of trees, and then, as in the present case, took it for a 
ffeliconms-like butterfly, which it greatly resembles on the 
wing. As I did not know that any butterfly of that shape 
was found in India I was greatly excited at seeing it, and 
proportionately disappointed when I at last effected its 

This was the last place at which I collected in India. 

Ceylon, lat. 7° N. 

All the places that I visited in this beautiful island were 
within twenty miles north or south of the seventh parallel 
of latitude. The luxuriance of the vegetation was an 
immense relief after the parched plains of India. At the 
lower elevations it was more distinctly tropical than any 
that I had yet seen, but this character was lost at greater 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. 121 

Peradeniya, alt. c. 1200 ft. 
March 10th, 1904. 

These justly celebrated gardens lie about four miles 
south of Kandy near the centre of the island. Their 
situation is beautiful and all the familiar " hot-house 
plants " grow luxuriantly. Splendid palms of many kinds, 
huge bamboos almost as tall, Dract&nas, Crotons, Acalyphas, 
Marantas, nutmeg, cinnamon, camphor, huge trees of 
Ficus elastica with roots spreading far over the surface, etc., 
etc. Grass has been largely ousted by the sensitive-plant, 
Mimosa pudica, which, introduced from South America, 
has run wild. It grows about a foot and half high, and 
when one walks through it a broad path is left owing to 
the collapse of the leaves. 

Here, well out of reach, I saw my first Omithoptera, 
truly it is well named ; I missed a second specimen through 
sheer excitement. Several Catopsilia pomona were netted, 
one was a female verging on the catilla form, the others 
were typical males, one of which had a slight scent. Of 
three male Terias hecabe two were wet-season, the other 
of " intermediate wet " form. A male T. libythea was also 
of wet-season type, a female was also taken. The only 
Nymphalids noted were two Neptis varmona and several 
Precis iphita. Here also I took my first Paralitica 
ceylonica, Feld., a Danaid found in abundance later. 

Of Mycalesis mandata, Moore, I only saw one, but the 
pretty little Yphthima ceylonica was swarming amongst 
the sensitive-plants. Mr. E. E. Green, the entomologist 
to the Ceylon Government, suggested that its colouring 
might be indirectly protective, since on the wing it looks 
much smaller than it is, only the white posterior two- 
thirds of the hind-wings being conspicuous, and these the 
least vitally important to the insect. The only Blue seen 
was Zizera Jcarsandra, Moore. 

A second visit to the gardens, rather late one afternoon, 
produced no insects, but gave me my only sight of a wild 
cobra, about 2 J feet long, with a very large " hood " ; it 
crawled quickly away into the roots of a " travellers' palm." 

Unfortunately for me Mr. Green was on the point of 
going to England on leave, but though busy with his 
preparations for departure, he was good enough to show 
me several very interesting things, such as larva? of the 

122 Dr. G. B. Longstaffs Notes on the Butter/lies 

leaf insect, young snakes, etc., and above all he gave me 
some very useful advice. Peradeniya, he said, was not as 
rich a locality as Kandy ; and, as regarded the highlands 
of Ceylon, he told me that, at any rite at that time of the 
year, Lepidoptera were for the most part confined to 
certain favoured spots, which it was unlikely that 1 should 
hit upon. He therefore strongly recommended me to 
concentrate my attention on " Lady Horton's Drive " at 

Kandy, alt. 1500 ft. 
March 11th— loth, 1904. 

On the south side of the artificial lake at Kandy stand 
some low hills, covered for the most part with natural 
forests, through which have been cut a number of roads 
named after the wives of former governors. Lady Horton's 
Drive is one of these, which runs about half-way up the 
hill, winding around its southern and eastern slopes. A 
wide road, bounded on either side with forest of rich 
and varied tropical growth, lying fully open to the morn- 
ing sun, commanding moreover a glorious view over 
groves of palms to the bluest of distant hills, it affords an 
almost ideal collecting-ground. The climate of Kandy, 
so far as I experienced it, is delightful, tropical heat 
tempered by elevation, and with a pleasant softness in the 
air, yet free from the excessive damp of many places within 
the tropics. Its vegetation is by far the richest that I had 
seen. My pleasure in collecting in this earthly paradise 
was greatly enhanced by the companionship of Mr. W. G. 
Freedley, junr., a Philadelphia gentleman who had been 
collecting butterflies in Borneo, Celebes, Japan, Macao, etc. 

In such a locality it was perhaps to be expected that 
Pierines would not be dominant, at any rate so it was. 
By far the commonest of the family was Catopsilia jJomona, 
of which the males were very abundant, but strong fliers 
and by no means easy to catch. We remarked that they 
usually all flew in the same direction, and that uphill. 
As the females were comparatively scarce one was not 
surprised to see more than once signs of jealousy on the 
part of the males. I detected a slight jasmine-like scent 
in the male on stroking the " scent tufts " on the hind- 
wings. A female Terias hccabe had apparently been 
bitten in both hind-wings when at rest, the injuries being 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. 123 

more or less symmetrical. Delias eucharis was scarce, 
C'atophaga paidina more common. In one case I saw a 
bird try to catch a specimen of the latter on the wing ; 
the bird missed its quarry, but I was more successful ; it 
proved to be a male. 

The Danaids were well to the front, the commonest 
species being Paralitica ceylonica ; it is smaller and greyer 
than Tirumala limniaee and varies considerably in size, a 
small male measuring only 2*5 in., a large female as much 
as 3'4 in. across the wings. It was curious that this 
species became quite abundant late in the afternoons, as 
other things were retiring. I was surprised to find that a 
male when fluttering in the net gave out a strong scent 
like that of Orastia core, i.e. very like acetylene. This 
was noted in two or three specimens, and was quite un- 
mistakable. Danais septentrionis, Butl., appeared to be 
rather common. A female has the hind-wings much 
broken, perhaps from the bite of a lizard, but the breakage 
is only in part symmetrical. Limnas genutia, of which I 
took a very small one, was very scarce, and I did not see 
L. ehrysippus at all. The genus Crastia was represented 
by many individuals. I took five C. asela, Moore ; of one 
of them I noted at the time, " has a scent as in core." 

Bub the most prominent group of butterflies at Kandy 
was assuredly the Papilionidm ; I met with six species. The 
most remarkable was Ornithoptcra darsius, Gray, peculiar, 
I believe, to Ceylon, an insect that I had greatly wanted 
to take ; it appears to be fairly common, as I saw two at 
Peradeniya, seven or eight at Kandy, and two at Haragama. 
It sails about somewhat slowly and in a dignified manner, 
looking very distinguished in its rich yellow-and-black 
livery and impressive by its size, five and a half to six inches 
expanse of wings ! When it comes within reach it is not 
hard to catch, and I secured two males and a female, but it 
is a formidable-looking creature in the net, with a thorax 
suggestive of a Bombyx. Mr. Freedley told me that the 
males have a scent like sassafras, but I learned this too 
late for confirmation. The male Papilio pammon was 
common enough, one specimen was unusually small, mea- 
suring under three inches. Two specimens of P. aristo- 
lochiss (a distasteful butterfly) were brought home ; one of 
them has the tips of the hind-wings up to the tails bitten 
off quite symmetrically, thus much resembling the muti- 
lated specimen of P. hector taken at Kallar. Of the tailless 

124 Dr. G. B. Longstaffs Notes on the Butterflies 

P. dissimilis, L., I took three, but probably saw more, since 
it so very closely mimics Tirumala limniace or a large 
Paralitica ccylonica, as easily to pass for one of those 
insects ; it is indeed most easily distinguished from them 
by its habit of fluttering while feeding on a flower. One 
of my specimens has the anal angle and a great portion 
of both hind-wings bitten off in an almost symmetrical 
manner, suggesting the bite of a lizard. It should be 
noted, as was observed long ago by the President, that, 
whatever the cause may be, it is in the great majority 
of cases the hind-wings that suffer these injuries; doubt- 
less the framework of the fore-wings is the stronger, 
but that does not seem to be a sufficient explanation, 
since from their greater length they must be more exposed 
to chance injuries from thorns and the like. Mr. Freedley 
took a Papilio that mimicked Euplcea, but I believe that 
P. dissimilis is dimorphic, one form mimicking each genus. 
Indeed it would appear that the name dissimilis implies 
that its bearer is like anything rather than a Papilio. 

In a shaded glen down which a tiny stream and a foot- 
path strove for the possession of the ground, I took close 
to the water a faded specimen of my Kallar acquaintance 
Papilio tclephus, and missed another that was drinking at the 
mud. But far more exciting than all the before-mentioned 
species was Papilio polymnestor, or as Moore has it, P. 
yarinda, a truly magnificent fly that dashed about in all 
directions. It measures about 5^ inches across the wings 
and is rendered most conspicuous by its colouring — French- 
grey and black. It rarely settled and was very hard to 
catch ; Mr. Freedley and I were constantly striking at 
it, but it almost always eluded us. After many fruitless 
attempts I succeeded in netting two, one so battered that 
its powers of flight were seriously impaired ; Mr. Freedley 
was even less fortunate, probably because he had a very 
small net. 

There was yet another Papilio which eluded me alto- 
gether. It was black-and-green and I feel pretty sure 
P. agame?)inon [which I also missed at Kallar in the 
Nilgiris]. It had the extraordinary and most aggravating 
habit of flying up and down, or rather backwards and 
forwards, just like a sentry, over some small trees below 
the road. Its path, if one may so call it, was about a dozen 
yards in length, and it always turned round at the same 
place, moving by a succession of jerks. I once actually 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. 125 

watched it for twenty minutes so occupied, it then settled 
for a moment on a Lantana flower; I struck at it and 
missed, and the performance began again ! Another day 
I saw it at its post as before. Of all the Papilios that I 
saw this species was by far the wariest. 

In striking contrast to the Papilios in every way are 
the Satyrids. A single Calysime [Mycalesis] yerseus 
[? = medics, Fab.] was a very dingy shade-lover. The bright 
little Yphthima ccylonica was abundant ; so far as observed 
it sits upright. Nyssanga patnia, Moore, a very distinct 
species, with leaden metallic lines on the under-surface, 
was fairly common at the edges of woods, but I did not 
meet with it on the "patnas" or grassy plains of the 
highlands of Ceylon. 

The Nymphalines met with included several interesting 
species, notably Cynthia asela, Moore, of which I saw a 
very fine example, but caught only a very tattered fellow. 
It seems to like sailing about over the trees. With 
Cethosia nietneri, Feld., I had similar ill-luck. Of Cupha 
placida, Moore, again I have but a very worn specimen 
annotated thus : " Has the swift flight and to some extent 
the habits of Precis, but is fond of resting on the leaves 
of trees." These remarks are probably intended for, or 
at least include, the allied Cirrochroa cognata, Moore, 
which was certainly common, though very local ; one of 
my five specimens, otherwise in good condition, has two 
snips taken out of each hind-wing, symmetrically, but it 
appears to be an insect readily chipped. Both these 
species have fulvous wings with black tips, so they are 
readily confounded in the field. 

N&ptis varmona might be said to be abundant, while its 
ally, the brown -and-black Bahinda sinuaia, Moore, was 
decidedly common. In this connection may be mentioned 
the Erycinid Libythea rama, Moore, which appears to 
mimic Bahinda. I secured one specimen at Kandy, and 
believe that I missed another in the Pashok tea-garden 
near Darjiling. 

I saw no females of Hypolimnas bolina at Kandy, but 
took three males, one of which had lost both the anal 
angles of the hind-wings, the injury being in part sym- 
metrical. Precis iphita was common, so was /'. atiites, 
looking on the wing like a dingy Neptis; a new brood 
appeared on March 14th. Ergolis merione was common. 

The Lycamids were not well represented, but I saw 

126 Dr. G. B. LongstafFs Notes on the Butterflies 

several Loxura atymnus, Cr., var. arcuata, Moore ; as usual 
Lampides celeno was common, almost spangling in the 
sunlight, one specimen was so unusually brilliant as to 
recall L. adonis ; Talicada nyseus brought up the rear. 

The Skippers were represented by single examples of 
Parnara mathias, a dark fulvous lambrix salsala, Moore, 
and the dingy Spcdgis epius, Westw. 

At rest on a fence outside the " Queen's Bath " I found 
one morning a fine Sphinx, Meganotum melanomera, Butl. 
A very distinct-looking Arctiid having a crimson body and 
light pink fore-wings, with a longitudinal fuscous streak, 
Crcatonotus interrupta, Linn., came to light, as also did 
Enpterote diffusa, Walk., a Lasiocampid. 

A few insects of other orders forced themselves upon 
me, busily occupied as one was, e.g. a very large, black $ 
carpenter-bee, Xylocopa tcnuiscapa, West., with peacock- 
green wings ; a very large, evil-smelling, brown bug, covered 
beneath with a waxy substance that during life glistened 
like silver, Tcssaratoma javanica, Thumb. Another bug, 
Ghrysocoris stockerus, L., was an intense metallic green with 
black spots ; yet more conspicuous than any of these was 
the large Fulgorid Hotinus maculatus, Oliv., or so-called 
Lantern-fly, expanding three inches across the wings. Its 
fore-wings are black-and-white, the hind-wings light blue 
with a very broad black border. This was fairly common, 
flying high and settling on tree-trunks out of reach, but 
easily disturbed, when it flies off to a similar resting- 

Haragdma, 11 miles S.E. of Kandy. 
March 12th, 1904. 

This appears to be locally recognized as a great place 
for butterflies; the collecting-ground is along the course 
of a rapidly-flowing stream with wooded banks, perhaps 
500 ft. below Kandy, or say, 1000 ft. above sea-level. 

Again, I had the advantage of Mr. Freedley's company 
on the occasion of my expedition. The first thing to 
catch our attention was Hcbomoia glaucippe careering 
about in considerable numbers, but most unwilling to be 

The pretty little Talicada ny setts was literally swarming. 
I cannot remember ever having seen a Lycsenid in such 
numbers. I repeatedly observed this butterfly settle with 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. 127 

its head upwards and immediately turn round so that its 
head looked downwards. This habit of resting with the 
head down is common, if not general, in the family, 
and has an obvious bearing on the protective use of tails, 
anal lobes, and directive marks. 

Zizera oiis, Fab., was also in abundance, and Lampides 
ecleno, Cr., was common. 

Tirumala sentcntriouis was not common, and the speci- 
mens netted were tattered males ; one had a symmetrical 
injury near the anal angle of the hind-wings, possibly due 
to the bite of a bird. I saw a few specimens of Crastict 
asela, Moore, and secured two males, which exhibited the 
" acetylene odour." 

Neptis varmona was common, and I took a specimen of 
the elegant Nyctemerid day-flying moth Trypheromera 
nigrovenosa, Moore, which seems to mimic it. Of the 
beautiful Nepheronia ceylonica I took one male. Cirrochroa 
eognata, Moore, was noted flying about a particular tree 
and did not appear to be attracted by flowers ; I only saw 
it in that one spot, and the two taken were in poor 
condition. It is very like Gupha placida, Moore [ = Messaras 
erymanthis,Sbgr.~\, of which I took a fine specimen close by, 
at wet sand. I again confounded the two species as at 
Lady Horton's Drive. A few Ergolis ariadne and several 
Nyehitona xiphia were seen. A male Kuphiiui nerissa 
had the sweet-briar scent ; a female was in fine condition. 

At the furthest point reached in our walk, by a little 
bridge, two or three spots in the damp sand appeared to be 
very attractive. Besides the Giipha already mentioned 
there was hiaspyrene, var. cingedensis, and Papilio pammon, 
the male, was rather common. [It was also seen flying 
about bushes, but not at flowers.] My Kallar friend 
Gatophaga paidina was literally in crowds ; they were all 
apparently males, sitting in dense clusters, their pointed 
white wings suggesting to me toy encampments. I easily 
netted ten at one swoop, while Mr. Freedley by a more 
cunning movement succeeded in getting as many as thirty- 
four into his net ! In the same place I saw six or seven 
of the beautiful Papilio telephus, Feld., settled quite close 
together, and managed to secure three. It is a black-and- 
green species not easy to distinguish from P. jason, L. 

The females of Gcdophaga paidina were common at 
flowers. One of the males, by the way, had a symmetrical 
injury to the tips of the hind- wings, but I can hardly see 

128 Dr. G. B. Longstaff's Notes on the Butterflies 

how it could have been inflicted by an enemy without 
simultaneous injury to the fore-wings. 

This day I saw two Omithoptera darsius, one quite out 
of reach, the other I missed badly. 

Hatton, alt. 4200 ft. 
March 16th— 18th, 1904. 

In going up-country from Kandy when near Ullapane 
station [alt. c. 2500 ft.] I caught, from the train, Nar- 
mada montana, Feld., and a little further on, c. 3000 ft., 
a male Catophaga paulina, a species that is very abundant 
in the Ceylon highlands. 

Before Hatton is reached the line enters the tea country, 
whence the glorious primaeval forests have disappeared, 
having been ruthlessly and completely cleared out to make 
way first for coffee and later for tea. Though doubtless 
"grateful and comforting," the tea-plant is most un- 
picturesque, only slightly surpassing the potato in that 
quality. The Grevilleas with their light feathery foliage, 
planted in regular rows to slightly shelter the tea from 
sun and wind, do but little to relieve its stiffness, and are 
a miserable substitute for the departed woodland glories. 
About Hatton there are but scraps of the forest left on the 
tops of the highest hills, and we were told that the tea- 
planters are constantly urging the Forest Department to 
allow these to be improved away. It results that what once 
was doubtless a grand entomological locality is now a very 
poor one. 

Here for the first time I examined Catophaga paidina for 
scent, and was surprised to find that the three males tested 
had a scent nearly as strong as that of P. napi; it was 
described at the time as " like sweet-briar, but sweeter and 
more luscious," and I wrote to Dr. Dixey the same evening, 
adding " I had no doubt whatever." 

About the hotel garden Argynnis niphe was common, a 
male had the fore-wings notably shorter and broader than 

A short walk in what is left of the old forest, towards 
the top of a high hill, say at about 4500 ft., produced 
several specimens of Lethe daretis, Hew., a regular sylvan 
Satyrid, repeatedly settling on the path, apparently always 
erect. Two of them have lost large portions of the hind- 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. 129 

wings near the anal angle, one symmetrically and in a way 
to suggest the bite of a lizard. On the under-surface of 
this butterfly the unusually large light-coloured scales on 
a black ground near the hind margin of the hind-wings 
are striking. In the same scrap of forest I took a single 
specimen of another species of the same genus, L. drypetes, 
Hew. [ = embolina, Butl.] ; also settled on a leaf of a tree 
far from the ground, as is usual with the genus, a Limenitis 
calidasa, Moore. Several Atella phalanta, a few Neplis 
varmona and Terias hecabc were also seen, a female of the 
last-named being of the " completely wet" form. 

A specimen of Cyaniris sinyalensis, Feld., is very like our 
argiolus. With some difficulty I secured a specimen of the 
large black-and-white Skipper, Celcenorrhinus spilothrys, 
Feld. This is the second Skipper [the other being Caprona 
ransonnettii, Feld., at Kallar] that I have seen settle on the 
under-side of a leaf during full sunshine, the wings being 
expanded like a Geometer'?. Another specimen was 
settled on a rock with its wings expanded in like manner. 

In the hotel I found a fine Burnet (Syntomid) Euchromia 
jpolymcna, Linn., at rest on a wall, it has slender black 
wings bearing orange spots, the body is blue, ringed and 
collared with scarlet; and in my bedroom took a beautiful 
little Tortrix-like Noctua, 3fctaehrostis incondita, Butl., 
measuring only 17 mm. across the wings; also a most 
formidable-looking long-waisted wasp, Eumenes petiolata, 
F., a ¥, and Fomasia psylaria, Guen., a pretty little yellow 
Geometer with metallic markings, evidently attracted by 

When coming down from Adam's Peak on March 18th, 
at the height of about 6000 ft., I saw several of the 
Lithosiid, Asura tiniformis, Hinpsn., but in the rough 
scramble of the descent could only secure one ; at about 
4800 ft. were several Talicada nyseus, and a few hundred 
feet lower down I bottled two green beetles, somewhat 
resembling our Rose-beetles, but much more shiny, 
Coryphocera elegans, Fab. 

Nuicara Eliya, alt. 6200 ft. 

March 18th— 21st, 1904. 

This Sanitarium is in some respects like Utakanumd, it 
is situated on a grassy plain forming a basin among 
TRANS. ENT. SOG. LOND. 1905. — FART I. (MAY) '.! 

130 Dr. G. B. Longstaffs Notes on the Butterflies 

mountains. The " patnas " or grassy areas are bounded 
by woods, which in their turn are fringed by somewhat 
stunted scarlet rhododendrons. At the best season it 
doubtless affords excellent collecting, but I found Mr. 
Green's statement, that I should be unlikely to light upon 
the good localities, amply confirmed. 

I saw several Papilio teredon, Feld., flying about, and 
secured two that were drinking at wet mud. A female 
Tcrias hecale proved, to be of the wet-season form. Of 
Neptis varmona I took two. In a sedgy place surrounded 
by wood, a small "patna," I took the Skipper Baracus 
vittatus, Feld., curiously enough the only butterfly that I 
had taken in a swamp up to that date. The streaky 
markings of the under-side, following the veins, appeared 
when the insect was settled on sedge to be strongly pro- 
tective. Of Talicada nyscus I saw several, the only other 
Blue seen was the aryiohcs-\\ke Cyaniris lanha, Moore, 
much battered. 

Among moths I found one of the yellow Geometer 
Corymica specularia, Moore, at rest on a tree-trunk, and 
one Acidaliid Id/ca costata, Moore. Also on Mt. Pederuta- 
la.galla, at about 8000 ft., the Skipper Baracus vittahis 
among sedgy grass and Abraxas sordida, Hmpsn., flying at 
dusk, nearly uniformly dark fuscous. This last is 
presumably a scarce insect since the British Museum 
possesses the type only. 

Eakgdla, alt. 4800 ft. 

On March 19th and 21st I visited the beautifully- 
situated and well-kept Botanical Garden at Hakgala, 
some five miles south of Nuwara Eliya and at a con- 
siderably lower elevation. 

Along the road Catophoya paulina was swarming, males 
with their sweet-briar-like scent appeared to largely 
predominate. They flew rapidly and always in the 
same direction, roughly speaking from south-east to 
north-west. They frequently flew in strings, just as 
if they were tied together, and reminded me strongly 
of the strings of floating stars that are dropped by a 
certain kind of rocket ; I often saw three, four or five, 
and once even seven, so following their leader's every 

At a turn of the road close by the gajrc|en there was a. 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. 131 

small patch of a tall, but small-flowered composite plant 
(of the Thistle-head sub-order) ; this plant did not appear 
to be common in the district, but it was especially attractive 
to a black Danaid, which was quite abundant within the 
limits of this plant's distribution. Ghittira fumata, But]., is 
very distinct and handsome on the wing, its flight is slow 
and it is easy to catch, but like all Danaids it has a tough 
integument and is very tenacious of life. The favoured 
flower was so attractive to the butterfly that it would even 
go into deep shade to visit it. Ghittira fumata may be 
said to be gregarious ; it has the " acetylene " odour of 
Crastia. core, but not so strong and with a difference. I 
made no observation as to the relation of scent to sex in 
this species, which, by the way, I believe I missed at 

Near this same spot I took two Crastia asela, Moore, and 
saw others. I also got one Danais s&ptcntrionis, Butl. 

The inevitable Lycsenids were worn Talicada ni/seus ; 
Jamides bochus, Cr., one ; and Polyommatus b/vticus, which 
was common. 

It was interesting to watch the pretty little honey-birds 
feeding at some tall spikes of flowers. 

Horton Plains, alt. 7000 ft. 
March 23rd, 1904. 

This beautiful district gives one some idea of what 
Ceylon was before the era of tea-planting. Situated 
about 2500 ft. above the railway and approached by steep 
zigzag paths through rather poor woods, are extensive 
rolling plains of coarse grass, locally called "patnas"; 
these are surrounded by woods having a general temperate 
zone character, but with here and there an epiphytal orchid 
to remind one that the latitude is but 7° N. In the 
swampier parts of the patnas the devastating work of 
wild pigs was evident enough, while the paths through 
woods, and unmistakable droppings, proved that wild 
elephants had passed not many days before. It was how- 
ever not the season for butterflies, the air being too 
exhilaratiug for their luxurious ways. 

About half-a-dozen Chittira fumata were seen at 
elevations of (3000 — 7000 ft,, mostly at their favourite 

132 Dr. G. B. Longstaffs Notes on the Butterflies 

composite. On the patnas and among sedges in the woods 
were a few of the Skipper Baracus vittatus, they were not 
easy to see. I was surprised to come across no other 
butterflies on these patnas, which seemed the very 
place for such a Fritillary as M. aurinia, Rott., or such a 
Satyrid as C. pamphilus, L., or at least for a Blue, but 
no, even the eponymous Nyssanga patnia was not to be 

In the woods I took two sjDecimens of the beautiful 
Lethe darctis, Hew., and saw two or three others. They 
frequented shady paths and flew but a short distance, 
settling upon a trunk or branch, reminding me strongly 
of P. wr/eria in my own garden at Mortehoe. The 
only Argynnis seen here (or indeed in Ceylon) was 
A. niphe ; it was rather common in open spots in woods, 
the female looking on the wing very like Limnas 
chrysippus; a specimen taken, a female, had the apices 
of both hind-wings and the anal angle of both fore-wings 
symmetrically bitten. 

Of Terias heedbe I found a few in a wood, of the 
intermediate dry form. Neptis varmona was not uncommon 
in the woods, as usual flying in a ghostly manner, and 
usually settling upon leaves of trees. In the same woods 
Gyanirls lanka, Moore, was common, but it was astonishing 
to see so few insects in such a locality. 

Haputdle, alt. 4500 ft. 
March 23rd, 1904. 

At this beautifully-situated Rest-house, overlooking the 
plain and the old Boer prisoners' camp, a great many 
moths came to light. 

Owing to its large numbers the most prominent of these 
visitors was the small Noctuid, Ploteia frontalis, Walk., an 
extraordinarily variable species ; another Noctuid was 
Gos?rbophila xanthindyma, Boisd. ; there were two Deltoids, 
Olybama lentalis, Guen., and Rivulet basalis, Hmpsn. ; the 
Lymantriad Dasycliira inchisa, Walk., and the extremely 
widely-distributed Plemyria ftiiviata, Hlibn. 

The formidable-looking beetle, Xylotrupes gideon, L., was 
an uninvited visitor to my bath-room. 

On the same day an Acidaliid, Tdsea costata, Moore, flew 
into my face in a tunnel near Ohiva station, alt. 5000 ft, 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. 133 

Colombo, at sea level. 
March 25th and 26th, 1904. 

Following Mr. Green's advice I went to the Museum and 
was well rewarded, though too pressed for time to reap all 
that I might have got by a more deliberate examination of 
the local collection of butterflies. 

My collecting-grounds at Colombo were the Victoria 
Park, much exposed to the sea wind ; the old Cinnamon 
Garden, said to be much worked for insects by the Museum 
"boys"; and the old Dutch Cemetery. None of those 
were very promising or very productive. 

However, I saw here for the first time in Ceylon Limnas 
ch.rysippus; I also netted one Paralitica ceylonica, and 
missed what I feel certain was a Hcstia, probably jasonia, 
Westw., which is, I believe, common at Colombo. 

Precis dtlites was common in the Dutch Cemetery but 
worn, so was P. almana, nearly all of the wet-season form, 
P. asterie, L. ; one specimen however was dwarfed and 
another was of the " dry " form with the ocelli rudimentary. 
P. almana would appear to be the more prevalent species 
in Ceylon and Southern India, where it replaces P. orithyia, 
so universal in the North. 

I saw several Delias eucharis in the Victoria Park, and 
once more noticed their fondness for lofty flowering trees ; 
those taken were males. In the same place I missed what 
I think must have been the catilla form of Catopsi'Aa 
pomona; its congener p>! Pontile was common and I took 
two males. Once more Telchinia molee was common, but 
of Papilio aristolochiw I have only one to record. Of 
Yphthima ceylonica I took two. 

Of the Blues there were several species ; Naca<hiJ><t, 
norcia, Feld., was very abundant and decidedly gregarious, 
it positively swarmed in Victoria Park, though good 
specimens were scarce. Everes aryiades, Butl., var. parhasius, 
Fab., and Zizcra Icarsandra, Moore, were also both of them 
abundant. I took also a single worn specimen oiCastalius 
rosimun, Fab. 

English is more spoken in Ceylon than in most parts of 
India, but the Cingalese appear more noted for fluency 
than accuracy; the inner meaning of the following 
apparently strange request of a lad is easy to fathom : 
" Master, buy some butterflies, ready-made." On getting 
back to the hotel from an entomological expedition one of 

134 Dr. G. B. Longstaffs Notes on the Butterflies 

the messengers came up to me and said : " Missie told you 
to told me they had gone in." 

An immature locust, Truxalis nasuta, L., taken in Victoria 
Park, completes the list of my captures in Ceylon, an island 
that I was truly sorry to leave and that will always occupy 
a treasured place in my memory. 

Summary of Bionomic Observations. 

Injuries by enemies. 

Specimens of the following twenty-eight species were 
taken which appeared to present injuries caused by the 
bites of birds or lizards ; save in the two cases specified the 
hind-wings had borne the brunt of the attack. 

Tirumala septentrionis, two. 

Cirrochroa cognata. 

Precis lemonias, two. 

Precis almana. 

Hypolimnas oolina, £. 

Hypolimnas misippus, £. 

Pyrameis cardui (fore-wings). 

Vanessa kashmirensis. 

Argynnis niphe, £. 

Yphthima hillmeri. 

Lethe darctis, two. 

Curetis thetys. 

llerda epicles. 

Pratapa deva. 

Polyommatus opticus, 

Colias jicldii. 

Catopsilia pyranthe. 

Ixias pyrene. 

Terias hecabe, two. 

Terias Ixta. 

Catophaga paulina. 

Ganoris canidia, 

Bclenois mesentina. 

Teracolus etrida (fore-wings). 

Papilio hector 1 , i l- j • i*. 1 i 

n r -t ■ j. 7 7 • Y red marks on hmd-wings attacked. 
Papiho aristotochim J ° 

Papilio pammon. 

Papilio dissimilis. 

Observed in a lour through India and Ceylon. 135 

It will be noted that this list includes no Limnas, but 
does include two Tirumala septentrionis, and two Papilios 
with conspicuous red " warning marks." 

In Ceylon a bird was seen to make a swoop at a male 
Gatophaga paulina, but missed it. I may here add that at 
Yokohama, May 19th, 1904, I saw a dragon-fly of moderate 
size, Orthetrum japonicum, Uhler, carry off a Blanaida 
goschkevilschii ; this is a butterfly resembling a very large 
Pararge megsera ; it did not appear to struggle at all. 

Sideways attitude or " list " token at Best. 

In December, 1878, Col. C. T. Bingham noticed this rest- 
ing attitude in a species of Mclanitis, but the account was 
not published till many years afterwards.* E. H. A.'s 
papers in the " Times of India," which contained a refer- 
ence to this habit in M. ismene (p. 203), reappeared as " A 
Naturalist on the Prowl" in 1894. 

In the summer of 1903 Dr. Dixey and I noticed this 
habit in several British Satyrids at Mortehoe, N. Devon. 
In Epincphele janira the list may amount to 15° — 30° ; in 
E. hyperanthus (G. B. L., 1894) to 20°; in Pararge mgeria 
and P. megmra to 25° ; but in Satyrus semele it reaches 40° 
or even 50°. This list may be to right or left in the same 
individual. The insects appear to settle in the upright 
position, then to draw the fore-wings partly within the 
hind-wings, and by a third distinct movement to throw 
themselves over to one side or the other. 

To the above insects having this habit I can now add 
the following Indian Satyrids : — 

Mycalesis indistans, slight list. 
Hipparehia parisatis, 20° to 30°. 
Aulocera sicaha, 45° to 50°. 

In the last-named species the same individuals were 
observed sometimes to go over to the right, sometimes to 
the left ; one was seen to make three efforts, getting further 
over each time. A specimen of H. parisatis was observed 
walking about with a list of 20°. 

To these observations I may add that at Yokohama, May 
19th, 1904, Blanaida gosehJcevitschii, a Satyrid like a large 
P. megmra, was observed with a list of 40°. 

There is no doubt that this sideways attitude makes the 
insects less conspicuous when resting on a fiat surface, but 

* See extracts from Col. C. T. Bingham's Diary for December, 
1878, quoted in Trane. Ent. Soc, 1902, p. 363. 

130 Dr. G. B. Longstaffs Notes on the Butterflies 

I have satisfied myself from observations on English 
Satyrids that the attitude is more often adopted by the 
butterflies when sitting in sunshine than in shade. Now 
if the list be away from the sun the shadow would be 
increased, but if towards the sun it would be diminished, 
in some cases even to extinction. Numerous observations 
are required to determine whether the list has any relation 
to the sun's position. I would however remark that in the 
case of a butterfly with cryptic colouring on the under-side 
the shadow is in many cases far more conspicuous than 
the butterfly itself, as I frequently observed in India. 
Obviously, therefore, economy of shadow might be a 
considerable protection. Now, near Simla in October, 
1903, in the case of Pararge shaJcra, a butterfly closely re- 
sembling P. meg/era, I noted three individuals in succession 
settled with their backs to the sun so as to reduce the 
shadow to a mere line. This was unfortunately just as I 
was leaving the locality where the species occurred, but I 
did not observe any instances to the contrary. I should add 
that in P. shaJcra I looked for, but did not find any list* 

Scents in Butterflies. 

Owing to the imperfections of the human nose these are 
very difficult to detect and to describe, nevertheless certain 
definite results were obtained. 

* Since the reading of the paper Prof. Ponlton has called my 
attention to the following interesting observation by Mr. E. E. 
Green. " M. ismene is an adept at concealing itself. It usually 
pitches amongst fallen leaves where its form and coloration are 
sufficient concealment. But even on bare ground the insect is often 
extremely difficult to localize, though the approximate spot may have 
been carefully noted. I have watched the fly, immediately after 
pitching, alter its position so that its axis is directed towards the 
sun, thus casting no shadow." — "Notes on some Ceylon Butterflies, 
Spolia zeylanica" vol. ii, pt. vi, Aug. 1904, p. 76. 

For the following reference I am also indebted to Prof. Poulton : — - 
Prof. G. H. Parker has clearly established that in the United States 
when Vanessa antiopa, L., after a flight settles in full sunshine with 
wings expanded, it speedily so adjusts its position as to place the axis 
of the body as near as may be parallel to the sun's rays, with its head 
turned away from the sun. Some of the genus Grapta have the 
same habit. He thinks they do this to display their colouring to the 
best advantage. The bearing of his interesting observations on the 
cryptic attitude of Satyrids is that they prove decisively that a 
butterfly can acquire the habit of definitely orienting itself. If one 
can do this for one purpose, another species may do it for a different 
purpose, e.g. concealment. Mr. Parker gives a Bibliography of the 
subject. — "Mark Anniversary Volume," Cambridge University, Mass., 
U.S.A., Article xxiii, p. 453-469, 1903. 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. 137 

(1) The rapcV scent. Dr. Dixey and I have observed a 
slight scent in Ganoris rapss well compared by Mr. Selwyn 
linage to that of sweet-briar, though the comparison is not 
exact. Curiously enough I have been able to prove to my 
own complete satisfaction the existence of the same scent, 
or one scarcely distinguishable therefrom, in several 
Pierines, viz. Delias ciccharis, Ganoris canidia, Suphina 
nerissa, Catophaga panlina, and Belenois mesentivct. 

I think it is confined to the male sex, but cannot speak 
very positively. 

(2) The brassic/z scent. This is fainter than the pre- 
ceding; 1 compare it to violet-powder. It is confined to 
the male. This scent I did not find in any Indian 

(3) The napi scent. Far the strongest, and quite 
unmistakable. It is by common consent compared to 
lemon-verbena, but it is not identical therewith. This I 
did not meet with in India, but it was unmistakable in 
the male of the Japanese Ganoris melete, Men. [My 
specimens were of what Leech calls the Japanese spring 
form = G. aglaope, Motchulsky, = G. megamera, Butl.] 
It proved equally distinct in the male of G. oleracea, Harr., 
a North American form of naj>i. 

That three species of one genus have as many distinct 
scents, but that one of these extends to members of several 
widely-separated genera is very remarkable, and to me at 
least totally unexpected. I cannot help thinking that 
when these scents have been more studied and are better 
understood they may prove of great value in the solution 
of phylogenetic questions. 

(4) Several Danaids of different genera have a strong and 
distinct odour of a disagreeable character, very suggestive 
of acetylene. That it is possessed by the males I am 
certain, but cannot say whether it is confined to that sex. 
The species are Crastia core, C. asela, C. amymone (at 
Macao), Isamict midamus (at Hong Kong), Parantica 
ceylonica, and Chittira famata. A single specimen of 
Pachmma, hollari had a somewhat similar odour. In 
several cases (in at least three of the above), the scent 
was so strong as to be distinctly perceptible when the 
butterfly was fluttering in the net (as it is indeed in the 
case of Ganoris napi). 

(5) Limnas chrysippus has a faint unpleasant odour like 
cockroaches, or musk-rats. I suspected it to come from 

138 Dr. G. B. Longstaff's Notes on the Butterflies 

the pouches on the hind-wings of the male, but more 
observations are needed. 

In the case of Limnas genutia, Tirumala limniace, 
Pararge shalcra, and Colias nilgiriensis the existence of 
scents was suspected, but the results were ambiguous. 

(6) The observations of Wood Mason were confirmed 
in Gatopsilia pyranthe and G. pomona. The tufts on the 
wings of the males gave out on stroking a scent that may 
be compared to jasmine, though I think it more like 
Polianthes tuberosa. 

Seasonal Forms. 

With a view to seeing what light, if any, my fragmentary 
observations might throw upon this puzzling subject, I 
have adopted the following method : 

In the Register, or Index, of my captures I noted to 
every Pierine Dr. Dixey's estimate of its seasonal character, 
and then made my own (far less weighty) estimates of the 
seasonal characters of the genera Precis, Melanitis, Mycalesis, 
and Ypkthima, and then analyzed the results for localities, 
or groups of localities. The seasonal characteristics were 
classed under the following five heads : — 

(1) Wet-season form, including " wet," " very wet," and 

"extreme wet." 

(2) Somewhat wet form, including "intermediate in- 

clining to wet." 

(3) Intermediate form. 

(4) Somewhat dry form, including " intermediate in- 

clining to dry." 

(5) Dry, including " very dry " and " extreme dry." 

Without prejudice, and for the purpose of this grouping 
only, I took Gatopsilia gnoma to represent the dry-season 
form of C. pyranthe, and in like manner Gatopsilia catilla 
and pomona to be dry-season forms corresponding to a wet- 
season form G. crocale. 

It must be borne in mind that such a classification is 
necessarily very vague, for while the extreme forms are 
easy to place it is most difficult to assess the numerous 
intermediate specimens. 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. 139 



4-3 ! 

























Precis orithyia . 

,, csnone 

,, lemonias . 

,, iphita 
Catopsilia pyranthe . 
Ixias marianne . 
Terias hecabe 

,, leeta 
Huphina nerissa 

Total . 








Simla and Kalka, 
> Oct. 10-20, 1903. 
Slight showers. 

Precis orithyia . 

,, omo?ie . . 

,, ahnana . 
Yphthima balanica 
Terias hecabe 
Teracolus etrida 

Total . 













Peshawar and 
Malakand, Oct. 
1 22-29, 1903. 
No rain. 


Precis orithyia . . • . 
,, almana . 
,, lemonias . 
Catopsilia pyranthe . 

,, pomona 
Ixias marianne . 

,, pyrene 
Terias hecabe 
Teracolus etrida 

,, protractus . 
,, puellaris 
,, Calais 
Huphina nerissa 
Appias libythea 

Total . 






















Lahore, Amritzar 

and Delhi, 

V Oct. 31-Nov. 12, 


No rain. 

1 40 Dr. G. B. Longstaff s Notes on the Butterflies 

Precis orUhyia 

,, asnone 

,, almina 

,, lemonias 

, , iphita 
Yphihima ph ilomsla 
Myodesis perseus 
Calopsilia pyranthe 

,, jhnauna 
Ixias marianve . 

, , pyrene 
Terias hecabc 
Huphina nerissa 


Precis almana . 

,, lemonias . 

,, allites 
Melanitis ismene 
Myodesis indislans 
Ccttopsilia pyranthe 

, , pomona 
Ixias pyrene 
Terias hecabc 
Huphina nerissa 


.c <a 
































Naini Tal, Luck- 
now and Benari'S, 
Nov. 16-Dc-c. 2, 
No rain. 


! i 






















Calcutta, Dec. 

4-12, 1903. 

No rain. 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. 141 
























Precis lemomUts . 
Melanitis ismene 
Mycalesis indistans 
Catopsilia pyranthe 
Ixias pyrenc 
Tcrias hecabe 

, , Iwta 
Hiiphina nerissa 
,, nail inn 
Tachyris hippo . 
Prionen's theUylis 
Hi poser Hi a Inlay: 













Daijiling, Dec. 
1 13-22, 1903. 
No rain. 






Precis orithyin . 

, , cenone 

, , aim-ana . 

, , lemonins . 
Yphthima inica . 
Catopsilia pyranthe. 
Jxins marianne . 
Terias hecabe 

, , levtn 
Teracolus etrida 

,, puellaris 
TliLphina nerissa 






















5 1 





Baukipur, Jliansi, 

Agra, Jaipur, 

Ajmir and Mt. 

> Abu, Dec. 24, 

1903-Feb. 8, 1904. 

Slight rain Jan. 


142 Dr. G. B. Longstaff's Notes on the Butterflies 


Precis cenone 
,, aim ana . 

Melanitis ismene 

Hypanis ilithyia 

Catopsilia pyranthe 
, , pomona 

Ixias marianne . 

Terias hecabe 
, , leeta 

Teracolus etrida 
, , dulcis 
, , amatus 
, , eucharis 






























Bijapur, Ananta- 

pur and Bangalur, 

Feb. 16-23, 


No rain. 

Precis orithyia . 

, , cenone 

, , almana . 

,, lemonias . 
Melanitis ismene 
Mycalesis perseus 
Yphthima hiibneri 
Hypanis ilithyia 
Catopsilia pyranthe 

, , pomona 
Ixias marianne . 

,, pyrene 
Terias hecabe 
Teracolus etrida 
„ eucharis 
,, dan&e 
Hupliina nerissa 
Catophaga paulina 




13 20 

Nilgiris, Trichin- 

apali, Tanjur, 

Madura, Feb. 24- 

March 7, 1904. 

Very slight rain 

in Nilgiris. 

Observed in a tour through India and Ceylon. 143 





















Precis almana . 

,, atlites 
Mycalcsis mandata 
Cutopsilia pyranthe, 

, , pomoixa, 
Ixias pyrene 
Tcrias hecabc 

, , Imta 
Huphina nerissa 
Catophaga paulina 














Ceylon, March 
1 10-26, 1904. 
Several showers. 

There was a storm at Simla on October 10th, and a few 
trifling showers during our expedition to Baghi, but wo 
saw no sign of rain after that, and indeed scarcely a cloud, 
save at Kurseong, until January 14th, when there was a 
thunderstorm at Jhansi. There were then several very 
slight falls of rain terminating with a long but not heavy 
rain on January 23rd. There was a very slight fall at 
Konur on the night February 29th — March 1st. Then no 
further rain till Kandy, March 10th. There were several 
showers in Ceylon. 

At Simla the effects of the monsoon were not quite past, 
and wet-season forms were slightly more numerous than 
dry; the same applies to Ceylon. At all the other places, 
as might have been expected, dry^season forms predomin- 
ated. Calcutta occupies an intermediate position. 

It must however be admitted that to prove a species to 
be dimorphic is not neoessarily to prove that the forms are 
associated with seasons, In the genus Precis, so far as my 
very few observations (limited to the dry season) are worth 
anything, the two forms oceljated. and non-ocellated s,eera 

144 Dr. G. B. Longstaff's Notes on the Butterflies, etc. 

to be closely associated with wetness and dryness respect- 
ively. CatopsiUa pyranthc, as Dr. Dixey has shown, 
occupies a far less clear position, and I may add that 
Terias lie.cdbe did not appear to me to follow any rule. The 
two forms were taken together in most places. 

Many dwarfed specimens of the genus Precis were met 
with as the season advanced ; with the exception of one 
P. almana, var. asterie, they were all of the dry type, most 
of them markedly so. The smallest Terias hecabe was of 
the dry form, so was a dwarf Teracohcs dulcis ; four dwarfed 
T. ctricla were half dry, half intermediate. A dwarf 
Behnois mesentina was dry, but a dwarf Gatovsilia pyranthe 
and a dwarf Huphina nerissa were intermediate, while a 
dwarf Teracolus Calais was actually of the wet-season furm. 

In conclusion I have to thank the President for much 
valuable assistance in many ways ; I am greatly indebted 
to Mi\ Hamilton H. Druce for most kindly naming all my 
Lycsenids and Hesperids, to Sir George Hampson for much 
help in naming my moths, to Mr. W. F. Kirby for kindly 
naming my Orthoptcra and Neuroptera, to Col. C. T. 
Bingham, Mr. G. E. Austen, and Mr. Claude Morley ; to 
the Rev. F. D. Morice for naming my Hymenoptcra ; to 
Commander J. J. Walker, B.N. , whose practical experience 
in many lands was of much assistance, and to Mr. W. 
Holland of the Hope Department for constant help, while 
to Dr. F. A. Dixey I am indebted not only for the names 
of all my Pierines and much information about them, but 
for continual encouragement and inspiration. 

( 145 ) 

VII. The genus Otocephalus. By D. Sharp, M.A., F.R.&. 
With Notes on the habits of Asemum striatum and 
Otocephalus ferus. By F. Gilblkt Smith.* 

Plate IX. 

In the Munich Catalogue of Cjleoptera (vol. ix, 1872, 
p. 2789) CHocephalus is allotted ten species. Another 
species has since been added by Herr Edinond Reitter, 
G. syriacus, Wien. Eut. Zeit., 1895, p. 86. G. coriaceus, 
Motsch., must be rejected as the description is totally 
worthless (cf. p. 158), and no type is known. G niexi- 
canus, Thorns., is treated as a synonym of G. ohsoletus. 

Great confusion has always existed as to the species, 
and there are numerous errors in the Munich Catalogue. 
A revision of the genus will therefore be useful as a step 
towards the attainment of further knowledge. 

I owe my thanks to Mr. Gahan for assisting me in the 
examination of the specimens in the British Museum, and 
to M. Rene Oberthlir, Herr Edmond Reitter, M. Louis 
Bedel, Mr. G. C. Champion, and Mr. George Lewis for the 
communication of specimens. 


The genus Criocefhalus is distributed over the Northern 
hemisphere, occurring in about equal numbers in the Old 
and New Worlds; it does not pass the equator, and scarcely 
touches the tropics, except in the highlands of their northern 
parts. This distribution is probably chiefly determined 
by the distribution of coniferous trees, to which it is 
believed the species of Griocepl talus are confined, their 
food being found in the wood of these trees. G. rusticus 
has a natural distribution probably as wide as that of any 
other Coleopterous insect, it is found from Norway to 

* Although Mr. Smith has not had any part in actually drawing 
up the systematic part of this paper, I have received very important 
assistance from him in this matter. He first noticed the peculiarity 
of the deficient spur in the group. The notes on the larvaj have 
been made by us conjointly. I, of course, have hail no part in Mr, 
Smith's account of his observations in the field. — D. S. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1905. — PART I. (MAY) 10 

146 Mr. D. Sharp on 

Algeria, and in the other direction to Japan, and even in 
Yunnan. It is probably occasionally carried about with 
timber, but this cannot have much affected its wide dis- 
tribution. There is no reason for supposing that any of 
the other species are increased in the area of their dis- 
tribution by commercial means, as timber is not imported 
into most of the countries in which the species live. 


Oriocephalus has been placed in the group Aseminm 
of the great subfamily Cerambycides, a group of only a few 
genera, but as to the composition of which systematists 
have veiy widely differed. Lacordaire (Gen. Col., viii, 
p. 205, as Asemidcs) assigns to it five genera, Asemnm, 
Notlwrhina, Cyamophthalmns, Tetropium, Crioceplialns. 
Thomson (Syst. Ceramb., p. 463, as Ascmitte) places in it 
nine genera, excluding Tetropium, but adding five other 
European genera. Leconte and Horn (Class. Col. N. Amer., 
ed. ii, 1883, as Ascmini) adopt Lacordaire's view, 
Cyamophtlialmus being, however, unknown to them ; and 
the same remark applies to Schiodte (Danmark's Ceramb., 
p. 507, as Asemini), who also did not include Notlwrhina. 
Duval (Gen. Col. Eur. Ceramb., p. 125, as Crioccphcdites) 
associated Criocephalus, Cyamophthalmus, Tetropium, placing 
Asemum and Notlwrhina in a distinct group (Asemites). 
Ganglbauer and Bedel, who have, each one, published an 
excellent work on the European Cerambycidse, have not 
dealt at all with the question of minor groups. Kraatz 
has recently added the genus Megasemum (Berlin. Ent. 
Zeitschr., 1879, p. 97) without, however, giving any char- 
acter that would distinguish the genus from Criocephalus. 

On examination it appears that none of the genera 
hitherto associated with Criocephalus are closely allied to it, 
except Megasemum. Criocephalus possesses the very ex- 
ceptional character of having only one spur on the front 
tibia, while the other genera usually associated with it 
have two. 

Criocephalus syriacus, Reitt., is here made a distinct 
genus, Cephalocriits ; it and Megasemum agree with Crioce- 
phalus in the unicalcarate tibia and are extremely closely 
allied to it. 

Megasemum was distinguished by Kraatz solely on the 
strength of shorter antennae. This however does not hold 

the genus Griocephalus. 147 

good for the male which has longer antennae.* Even in the 
female the antennas are not shorter than they are in the 
N. American Griocephalus asperatus, to which species 
Megasemum has a great resemblance. Megasemum differs 
however in the form of the presternum, which is concave in 
profile instead of convex as in certain Griocephalus, or flat 
as in other species. It has moreover the clypeus much 
more elongate, the antennas more distant from the man- 
dibles and the eyes not extended to the under-surface of 
the head. 

I describe also a new genus, Gcphalallus, that is closely 
allied to both Megasemum and Griocephalus. The four 
genera in question form a natural group to be called 
Griocephalinie, distinguished from the Aseminie by the 
presence of only one spur on the front tibiae. 

The four genera of Griocephalinie may be distinguished 
as follows — 

(1) Griocephalus. Terminal joint of palpi only moder- 

ately broad at tip ; presternum protuberant in 
front, or flat ; clypeus short. 

(2) Gcplialocrius. Terminal joint of palpi very broad at 

the apex ; presternum, nearly flat ; clypeus very 

(3) Megasemum. Terminal joint of palpi only moder- 

ately broad ; prosternum slightly descending ; 
eyes not extended on under-surface of the head. 

(4) Gephalallus, n. g. Terminal joint of palpi not very 

broad at tip ; prosternum descending ; eyes ex- 
tending to under-surface of the head. 

The Griocephalinie should come at the beginning of the 
subfamily Ceramhycides, as being one of the most primitive 
forms of Longicorn Coleoptera. The only other genus of 
Longicorns that I have found to agree with Griocephalinie 
as to the unicalcarate tibiae is the genus Philus, which 
forms an annectant link between Geranibycides and 
Prionidcs. This character is not to be looked on as 
primitive. The primitiveness of Griocephalus depends not 
on such points as this, but on the fact that it differs but 

* The male of Megasemum has not yet been described. It is 
similar to the female but has the antennas longer and much more 
hairy. I have seen only one specimen of this sex, it is in the British 
Museum Collection. For my knowledge of the female I am indebted 
to Mr. George Lewis, who met with the species in Japan. 

148 Mr. D. Sharp on 

little from Coleoptera of other families ; that it lacks all 
the specializations that are so remarkable in other divisions 
of Longicorns, while but little changes would suffice to 
make it a member of other divisions, either of Cerambycides 
or of Prionides. 

Cephalallus, n. g. 

Caput brevissimum. 

Palpi perbreves, articulo ultimo modice dilatato. 

Oculi magni, subtus conspicui. 

Prosternum deseenduns, parum elongatum. 

I have only a single example, of the female sex, and in 
a very mutilated state, before me ; but it represents a 
species of so much interest that I do not hesitate to name 
it and call attention to it. 

A slight modification of the prosternum of this insect 
would transform it into a Criocephalus, while an elongation 
of the head would apparently make it a Megasemum. 

The labrum is small and has a pencil of hairs near the 
front as in Criocephalus ferus. Mandibles extremely short, 
each with a single, strong tooth in the middle. Palpi very 
short, the terminal joint only slightly, but still distinctly, 
dilated at the tip. Ligula extending on each side as far 
as the middle of first joint of labial palpus. Eyes convex, 
extending on to the under-surface of the head, but widely 
separated there as in Criocephalus rnsticus. 

Prosternum margined in front ; behind the margin ex- 
tending obliquely downwards; only very slightly separating 
the front coxa?. Metasternum elongate, terminal segment 
of the female less elongate than in Criocephalus. Hind 
femora hairy behind, but not densely so. 

If the genus be not maintained as distinct it will be 
necessary to unite Megasemum and it with Criocephalus. 

Cephalallus oberthuri, sp. n. 

$ . Elongatus, angustus, convexus, piceus, elytris ferr.igineis ; 
prothorace angusto, convexo, asperato, seulpturato, peropaco, medio 
late leviter impresso ; elytris dense fortiter punctatis, subtiliter, 
sex-costatis. Long. 22 mm. 

Hal. Tsekou in North Yunnan. (Coll. R Oberthur.) 
The general form is that of a narrow Criocephalus, but 
from all the forms of that genus it is distinguished by the 
very dense punctuation of the elytra, which renders them 

the genus Griocephalus. 149 

fi noly rugose. The eyes bear a few fine but moderately long 
setae between the facets. The clypeal suture is very 
deep, and forms an acute angle in the middle. The thorax 
is a good deal narrower than the elytra, and only slightly 
broader than the head and eyes ; it is scarcely transverse, 
but is convex transversely, it bears numerous sharp, 
elevated granules, between which it is minutely rugose, 
and has some fine hairs; there is a vague, broad depression 
on the disc, and behind this a feeble prominence in the 
middle just in front of the scutellum. The elevated lines 
on each elytron are not very distinct, the two on the 
middle do not reach the apex, and the lateral one cannot 
be seen either at the base or apex, the sutural angle is 
minutely spinose. 

The legs and antennae are very mutilated ; all that 
remains of the former are some portions of femora, and 
one front tibia. Six joints remain of one antenna : these 
are rather slender, and bear numerous erect hairs ; the 
first joint is rather more than twice as long as the second ; 
the third is not quite three times as long as the second, 
the fourth is about as long as the first, the fifth is shorter 
than the fourth, and the sixth shorter than the fifth and 
but little longer than the first. 

Cephalocrius, n. g. 
Antennas fere corporis longitudine, longius hirtelloe. 
Palpi articulo ultimo ad apicem latissimo. 

Type Crioccphalus syriacus, Reitter. 

Closely allied to Griocephalus, the 0. syriacus of Reitter 
is well distinguished by the above characters. I have 
seen only one example and am not able to describe the 
parts of the mouth more fully. Herr Reitter informs me 
that in the female the antennas are less hairy than they are 
in the male. The really important character of the genus 
is the form of the palpi. 

Cephalocrius syriacus, Reitter. 

Griocephalus syriacus, Reitter, Wien. Ent. Zeit., 1895, 
p. 86. 
£ . Angustng, subdepressus, ferrugineus, elytris bicostatis et crebre 
punctatis, antennis corporis longitudine subtus hirsutis ; tarsis 
posterioribus articulo tertio profunde fisso, articulo basali elongato. 
Long, vix 15, lat. 3| rain. 

150 Mr. D. Sharp on 

This is very distinct by the strongly dilated terminal 
joint of the palpi which is broadly securiform, both on the 
maxilla and labium. The hind tarsi are long and slender, 
with remarkably long basal joint. The eyes are rather 
more prominent and have a greater extension on the 
under-surface of the head than they have in C. rusticus. 
The sculpture of the gular area is transversely rugose, the 
impressed punctures not numerous. This insect was 
kindly sent home by Herr Reitter with the locality " Syria." 
In his description he mentions, Haifa, Akbes. There is also 
a male example from Akbes in the Oberthur Collection. 

N.B. — The British Museum Collection contains a 
specimen of this genus from the collection of Dejean. It 
is in very bad condition, and I do not know whether it is 
G. syriams or another species. In Dejean's collection it 
was labelled " rusticus, Gall, mer." The locality from 
which this specimen really came is, I consider, extremely 

Criocephalus, Mulsant. 

Oriocephalus (Dej.), Muls. Longicornes, ed. i, p. 63. 

I have already mentioned the characters that distinguish 
this genus from the allied forms (p. 147). 

The species present a great uniformity of appearance 
and as they are fairly numerous it is not easy to distin- 
guish them. Particular attention should be given to the 
form of the thorax, the length of the small setse between 
the facets of the eyes, and the form of the third joint of 
the tarsus. 

The genus has been subdivided by the eyes being 
" hairy " or " bare." But this is incorrect ; all the species 
have some setae between the ocular facets, and it is only a 
question of longer or shorter. The same remark applies 
to the lobing of the third joint of the tarsus, which differs 
somewhat from species to species. The labrum apparently 
offers a better character, but unfortunately it is not easy 
to see without opening the mandibles and this it is some- 
what difficult to do, as they are closed by very powerful 
muscles, which cannot be ruptured after the insects are 
dead and dried. 

Group A. 

Labrum without pencil of hairs in fovea on the middle 
of its area. Eyes with long hairs between the facets. 

the genus Griocephalus. 151 

Criocephalus deceptor, sp. n. 

Depressus, fusco-niger, breviter griseo-pubeseens, opacus ; thorace 
fortiter transverso ; elytris bicostatis fortiter punctatis. Long. 
20 ram. 

This species is an extremely distinct one, though it 
looks at first sight very like a moderately-sized individual 
of G. rusticus. It is however more depressed than that 
species, and this character removes it from all the other 
described species.* From C. rustims, G. deceptor differs 
strongly by the tarsal structure, the third joint being only 
slightly lobed. The unique specimen is much damaged ; 
the presternum is not in the least degree protuberant or 
convex, and the under-surface is remarkably flat. The 
labrum is of the type of that of C. rusticus. 

Hob. Western Tibet, one specimen in the collection 
of the British Museum, 

Criocephalus rusticus, Dej. 

Brunneo-ferrugineus, vel fusco-niger, subplanatus, elytris sat dis- 
crete bicostatis, inter costas perspicue punctatis ; prothorace trans- 
verso, ad latera fere regulariter rotundato, posterius plus minus 
angustato. Long. 14-30 mm. 

The male has the basal portion of the antennas, and the 
legs markedly thicker than the female. 

The synonymy of this species, as distinguished from 
G. ferns, is very doubtful. Some of that given in the 
Munich Catalogue is taken from writers who did not dis- 
tinguish the two forms. The G. rusticus of Dejean's 
Catalogue and collection is however certainly this species, 
as is also Mulsant's G. rusticus, and var. B„ 1. c, p. 64, Also 
G. rusticus, Woll. Cat, Col. Madeira (1857), p. 124 (nee 
Col. Canar., for which see C. pinetorum). 

The species is readily distinguished by the strongly 
transverse thorax, which is only one-fifth of the length of 
the elytra, and by the gular area being very indefinitely 
limited, rugose in front and feebly punctate behind, and 
with only a few suberect long hairs, forming a strong 
contrast to what exists in G. ferns. In finely-developed 

* There is an undescribed (?) species in the collection of the 
British Museum, coming from the Amanns mountains of Asia Minor, 
which is also very depressed ; but in other respects this insect is 
very different from C. deceptor. 

152 Mr. D. Sharp on 

specimens the sculpture of the gular area is more largely 
developed, there being both more rugae and more punc- 
tures, but the sculpture always retains the same character. 
The setae between the facets of the eyes are so long that 
they can be easily detected ; the third joint of the tarsus 
is divided nearly to the base, and the lobes formed by the 
division are large and symmetrical. The scutellum is 
always a little impressed along the middle. The meta- 
thoracic epimera are comparatively narrow. 

The species is very variable in size, foim and sculpture, 
but after repeated examinations I fail to find any reliable 
character to separate even the most extreme forms. The 
length varies from 14-30 mm. and the width from 
4-7| mm. The female is generally larger than the male 
and is somewhat darker in colour, but is never quite black. 
There are sometimes three depressions on the thorax, and 
these in a few specimens are deep and well-marked. The 
sculpture of the upper-surface also varies: it is sometimes 
coarser and less dense, and the insect appears slightly 
shining. The elytra usually have the tip-sutural angle 
sharp, or rectangular, but this also is variable. The rugae 
on the gular area vary a good deal, but the sculpture there 
never has the character of definite depressed punctures, 
and it bears only an irregular, somewhat scanty pubescence, 
never the regular dense pilosity of the C. ferns group of 
species. The setosity on the labrum also varies. 

I have examined the male organs in some of the most 
remarkable of the varieties and find they agree. The two 
closely appressed laminae that form the tip of the intromi- 
nent organ are not of equal length, but the lower one is 
the longer and is very sharp. In this respect C. rusticus 
differs from C. ferns. 

I think it quite possible that careful study of a series of 
good examples of both sexes may show that there is really 
more than one species mixed under C. rusticus. I should 
recommend a thorough scrutiny of the labrum as likely 
to give good results, but this is unfortunately attended 
with great practical difficulties. 

The species inhabits apparently all the temperate zone 
of the Old World in the Northern hemisphere, wherever 
there are suitable timbers ; what species of conifer it may 
prefer I do not know ; but doubtless the Scotch fir (Pinus 
sylvcstris) is one of them. I have specimens before me 
from Norway (Champion) ; Hanover ; Vienna ; S. France ; 

the genus Criocephalus. 153 

Spain, Bronchales, Tragaeete, La Granja (Champion) ; 
Corsica, Vizzavona (Champion) ; Akbes (Coll. Oberthlir) ; 
Amurland ; Japan (Lewis) ; Tsekou in North Yunnan (Coll. 
Oberthlir) ; and I have seen specimens from Madeira and 
other localities. 

The species has recently been discovered by Colonel 
Yerbury at Nethy Bridge, near our wildest Highlands, 
where the Scotch fir is still extant in its natural state. 
The specimen he found was on a sprig of heather near a 
large stump of the Scotch fir. It is a fine female and is 
now in the collection at the British Museum. 

This specimen is I think undoubtedly a native of 
Britain, and it is of importance as showing that the dis- 
covery for the first time of a Griocephahis in a locality is 
not sufficient evidence of its being an introduction. Mr. 
Gilbert Smith's extremely interesting notes on the natural 
history of C. ferns and Asemum striatum should also be 
considered in this connection. There can however be 
little doubt that this species is liable to be carried about ; 
though probably this only occurs as an exception, even 
when large blocks of timber are transmitted. A specimen 
has been found in a coal-mine in Wales, where it was 
pretty certainly carried in the wooden props ; and if 
foreign fir-wood be used for railway sleepers it may thus 
be transmitted. The case recorded of its introduction by 
means of timber for masts must also be noticed. 

G. rnsticus was not known to Wollaston when he wrote 
the " Insecta Maderensia " (published in 1854), but it after- 
wards became common in the plantations of introduced 
fir-trees, and in 1857 was recorded by him in the category 
of " undoubtedly introduced " species. [The " G. rnsticus" 
of the Canary Islands is G. pinetorum.] It appears to 
have spread with rapidity in the Madeiran group, as in 
1865 Wollaston recorded it from the extreme summit of 
the small island called Dezerta Grande. But this must 
be received with some caution, as it is far from impossible 
that G. pinetoruvi occurs in Madeira as well as in the 

Criocephalus coreanus, sp. n. 

$ . Fusco-niger, hand nitidis, antennis pedibusque piceis ; pro- 
thorace parnm transverso, densissime rugoso-puuetato, ad latera 
numerose muricato ; elytris costis duabus parura elevatis, punctisque 
impressis per-nmnerosis. Long, 22 mm. 

154 Mr. D. Sharp on 

In this species the thorax is about one-fourth the length 
of the elytra, whereas in G. rusticus it is about one-fifth. 
On measuring two specimens of about equal size I find 
them to be, C. coreanus: thorax 8f, elytra 15i mm. 
long. G. rusticus : thorax 2f , elytra 15 mm., and these 
proportions persist (with some variation) in the individuals 
of different sizes of G. nislicus. The head and thorax of 
G. coreanus are also considerably narrower, and the 
antennas more slender. The length of the thorax is 
4§ mm. The sculpture of this part is denser and finer 
than it is in G. rusticus. The scutellum is narrower than 
in C. rusticus, almost flat, with a slender polished line 
along the middle. 

Although I have only one mutilated female of this form 
I have little doubt that it represents a species closely allied 
to G. rusticus but distinct. The structural characters 
appear to agree with those of C, rusticus. It should be 
noted that the Japanese form of G. rusticus is very 
different from C. coreanus. 

Criocephalus obsolettjs, Randall. 

Criocephalus obsoletus, Leconte, J. Ac. Philad. ser. 2, II, 

p. 196 [ = obscurus, id. p. 36]. ! 
Criocephalus mexicanus, Thomson, Classif. Longic. 1860, p. 

260; Bates, Biol. Cent. Amer. Col, V, p. 15. 

This species is extremely near G. rusticus, but will 
probably prove to be distinct. I have only one specimen 
at my disposal. The sculpture of the upper-surface is 
rather coarser. The thorax has a slight angulation at each 
side ; the second joint of the antenna is a little longer, 
and the scutellum is broadly impressed. 

Hah. N. America : widely distributed and apparently 
not uncommon in Mexico, " in pine forests at the higher 

I have followed Mr. Gahan, in his arrangement of the 
British Museum Criocephalus, in considering G. mexicanus 
of Thomson and Bates to be a synonym of G. obsoletus. 

For remarks on the North American species generally 
see under G. nubilus. 

Group 2. 

Labium with a pencil of hairs placed in a fovea in the 
middle near the front. 

the genus Criocephalus. 155 

N.B. — I have not been able to examine the labrum in 
C. exoticus and C. tibetanus, and one or both may therefore 
prove not to belong to this division. Neither the hairs on 
the eyes nor the lobing of the tarsi can be used as sectional 
characters as there are intermediate conditions of both of 
them. But in this section the ocular setae are usually 
short, and the basal lobes short. 

Criocephalus pinetorum, Woll. 

$ . Criocephalus pinetorum, Woll., Journ. Entom. II, p. 

103 (1863); and Cat. Col. Canar., p. 388 (1864). 
$ . Criocephalus rusticus, id. Col. Atlant., p. 345 (1865). 

Wollaston first fell into the double error of considering 
the sexes of C. pinetorum to be different species and of 
determining the female to be C. rusticus. This was not 
recognized by him in revising the work in 1865, and being 
then baffled to distinguish the C. pinetorum he sank the 
species as being merely C. rusticus, from which however it 
is totally distinct. This does not complete the sum of 
Wollaston's confusion ; for he considered the Madeiran C. 
rusticus to be the same, though he noticed the different 
habitat in the two islands. The insect found about 
Funchal in Madeira in connection with the introduced, 
planted, conifers is really the C. rusticus of authors, while 
the C. rusticus of Wollaston Coll. Atlant. (nee auctt.), 
found in the native pinals of the Canary Islands, is 
the female of C. pinetorum, Woll., and is a quite distinct, 
precinctive species. As Wollaston found the two together 
in the Canaries it appears remarkable that he should not 
have considered them to be the sexes of one and the same 
species. Probably he suspected them to be so, but not 
having detected the characters that distinguish the female 
from C. rusticus and C. ferus (which at that time were 
generally confounded in collections), he finally came to the 
erroneous conclusion that all were one species. Hence 
this good species has since been lost sight of. Bedel how- 
ever suspected some error ; and in placing the name as a 
synonym of G, rusticus added a note of interrogation. 

This species has the eyes bare {%. e. with extremely short 
setse between the facets) and the fourth joint of the tarsi 
intermediate between that of C. rusticus and C. ferus. 
The sexes are very different, and hence Wollaston supposed 

156 Mr. D. Sharp on 

the female to be G. rusticus. The female differs from the 
male by its large size, black colour, and the usual differ- 
ences in the length of the antennas and the structure of 
the apex of the abdomen. 

" Abounds in the Ancient Pinals of intermediate and 
lofty elevations " (Woll. 1865), but nevertheless is exces- 
sively rare in collections. Recorded from the islands of 
Palma, Teneriffe, and Hierro. 

The male is small (sometimes only 10 or 11 mm. long) 
and of a brown colour, the gular area is very definitely 
limited behind, almost semicircular, and is closely and 
coarsely punctured, the bush of erect pubescence moderately 

The female has not been described. I have seen only 
two specimens of it, one in my own collection and one in 
Wollaston's Canarian collection, where it stands as G. 
rusticus. It is more flat than the corresponding sex of G. 
ferus, and has a more transverse thorax. The punctuation 
of the gular area is remarkably definite, and extends over 
a large space ; the prosternum is but little convex in front, 
and the metathoracic episternum is much narrower. In 
these latter respects, as well as in the more deeply divided 
third tarsal joints, it approaches 0. rusticus. 

Criocephalus ferus, Mulsant. 

Transversim convexus ; mas fu^co-niger, femina nigricans ; opacus, 
elytris bicostatis, inter costas tantum subtilissime punctatus. Long. 
10-30 mm. 

The male is usually shorter and paler in colour than the 
female and the prosternum is much less convex. This 
species is rare in collections, and owing to this and to the 
want of knowledge as to the sex-differences are due its 
confusion with G. rusticus by entomologists. The two 
forms are really profoundly different. The structure of the 
labrum distinguishes the two absolutely, but there are 
numerous other characters. In the male of C. ferus the 
basal portion of the antennas is but little thicker than in 
the female. In the female the front of the prosternum 
is more convex, and the metathoracic episterna considerably 
broader than in G. rusticus. The under-surface is altogether 
more closely and finely punctate and pubescent and there- 
fore less shining. The scutellum in G. ferus is never in 
the least depressed along ths middle; and the sculpture 

the genus Qrioeephalus. 157 

and pubescence of the gular area are very different. In 
G. rusticus the tarsi have the third joint divided almost to 
the base, and the seta? on the eyes are very conspicuous ; 
while in G. f erics the eyes appear to be bare, and the tarsal 
lobes are less perfect. 

The species is extra ndinarily variable in size, some 
specimens of the female being quite three times as long as 
the small males, and are broad in proportion ; so that it 
would take twenty or thirty of the small males to make up 
the bulk of one of the largest females. There are also 
some variations in the proportions of certain parts of the 
body, so that I at first thought there to be more than one 
species under the name of G. ferns. A series from Algeria 
kindly communicated to me by M. Bedel has convinced 
me that this is not the case. There is also great variation 
in size independent of sex, some of the females being six 
or eight times the bulk of other individuals of the same 
sex. The distance between the eyes on the under-surface 
of the head varies somewhat, and correlative with it there 
is a difference in the sculpture of the gular area. I 
distinguish the following variety with some doubt, having 
seen only two examples. 


Minor, praesertim angustior, elytris fere ecoatatis. Long. £ 14, 
$ 16 mm. ; lat. £ $ 4 mm. 

I have seen only a single pair found at Navalperal in 
the Guadarrama range by Mr. Champion. They were in 
company with Nothorhina muricata and are damaged by 
turpentine. There is a slightly larger specimen from the 
same locality in the Oberthtir collection. The sculpture 
of the gular area appears to be more rugose and less definite 
than in other forms of C.ferus, but the distinction in this 
respect from certain other Spanish examples is not great. 
It would take eight such females to attain the mass of a 
well-developed female of G. ferns. 

G. femes has a very wide distribution, but is rarely met 
with, and then usually only in one or two individuals. 
Lapland (Coll. Oberthur from Coll. Thorey) ; Denmark ; 
S. England ; France (various localities including Fontaine- 
bleau, in August 1808, Coll. Bedel) ; Portugal ; Spain ; 
Corsica; Algeria; Piraeus, Besika Bay; Caucasus (Leder); 
Akbes (Coll. Oberthur) ; Madeira. 

158 Mr. D. Sharp on 

The synonymy of this species is a rather difficult 
question. The oldest name that certainly applies to it is 
that given by Dejean in his collection as a var. of C. rusticus, 
and formally published by Mulsant in 1840. G. polonicus, 
Motsch. (1845), is probably this species. As regards Calli- 
dium triste, Fabr., Mant. Ins., p. 154, the brief description 
gives no special reason for supposing it to be a Criocephalus, 
except that he likens it to C. rusticus. The G. lugubre, 
Gmelin, is simply an error ; he copies Fabricius' descrip- 
tion of G. triste, and, as he gives no reason for changing the 
name, he probably merely wrote " lugubre " in error for 
G. triste. 

The following is therefore the only synonymy for which 
I can venture to take any responsibility. 

Criocephalus rusticus, var. ferus, Dej., Cat. Coll. (not 
described) ; Mulsant, Long. France, ed. I, p. 4. 

? ? G. coriaceus, Motsch, Bull. Mosc, 1845, i, p. 89. 

? G. polonicus, Motsch., I.e., p. 88. 

G. epibata, Schiodte, Kroyer Tidskr. (3), ii, p. 521 (1864). 

G. ferus, Kraatz, Berlin, ent. Zeitschr., 1863, p. 107, and op. 
cit., 1872, p. 319 ; Bedel, Faune Col. Seine, v, pp. 23 
and 69. 

Criocephalus nubilus, Lee. 

Criocephalus nubilus, Leconte, J. Ac. Philad., ser. 2, II, 
p. 36. 

This species has strong punctuation on the elytra like 
C. rusticus ; the tarsi have moderate lobes like G. pinetorum. 
The labrum, I believe, brings the species in the G. ferus 
group. The sculpture of the gular area is coarse and deep, 
but occupies only a small area. The eyes bear long setce. 
The prosternum is slightly convex in front. 

Hab. N. America. 

N.B. — The North American Criocephalus require a 
thorough revision, for which the material does not exist 
in this country, so far as I know. Leconte, new species 
North American Coleoptera, Part II, 1873, gives no less 
than seven species as North American. He divides the 
genus into two groups : (1) tarsi feebly lobed, G. productus, 
G. agrestis and G. asperatns ; . (2) tarsi deeply divided with 
long lobes, C. montanus, n. sp., G. obsoletus, C. nubilus, 
C. australis. The matter stands practically as he thus left 

the genus Griocephahts. 159 

it thirty years ago. G. montanus is perhaps a variety of 
C. nuhilus. G.obsoletus and G. mexicanus are treated in the 
British Museum collection by Mr. Gahan as being the same 
species, and he is probably right. G. australis I do not 
know; it is probably another genus, as suggested by 
Leconte. » 

In the Bull. Brooklyn Soc, vol. vii, 1884, pp. 63, 64, 
there is given a table of the North American Griocephalus, 
but it is not of any importance. It is taken from Leconte; 
and some synonymy is added that is apparently taken from 
the Munich Catalogue ; there is also a figure of " G. pro- 
duetus," which is certainly not representative of that 
species, but is more like G. asperatus. 

C. nitbihis differs from the first Lecontian group of 
species by having shorter hairs on the metasternum, and 
longer setae on the eyes. It differs from G. tibetanus by 
the less transverse thorax and the much larger lobes of the 

Criocephalus tibetanus, sp. n. 

§ . Major, fusco-niger opacus, prothorace sat transverso, elytris 
bicostatis, fortiter punctatis. Long. 24 mm., lat. 6 J mm. 

Although this insect looks like G. rusticus, and has 
sculpture similar thereto, it is allied to G. ferus. No setae 
are visible on the eyes, there is a bush of erect pubescence 
on the gular area, and the third tarsal joint is only slightly 
bilobed. The labrum I have not been able to examine, 
so that the position of the species is doubtful. The gular 
area is not definitely limited behind, it is very broad, 
densely sculptured, rugose in front, rather finely punctured 

Hal. Tibet. 

The type is in the British Museum, and was found in 
East Tibet by one of the collectors of the late Mr. J. H. 
Leech. A very similar insect from Tibet is the G. deeeptor 
described on a previous page. 

Criocephalus exotic us, sp. n. 

<J. Angustus, niger, prothorace haud transverso, profunde bi- 
impresso ; elytris obaoletissime costatis et punctatis. Long. 17 mm., 
lat. 5 mm. 

Described from a single male in bad preservation in the 
collection at the British Museum. The eyes have no long 

160 Mr. D. Sharp on 

hairs. The gular area is deeply rugosely punctate, and 
bears a bush of long black hair. The front of the proster- 
num shows some deep rugae. The second joint of the 
antennae is elongate, about as long as the first joint. The 
third joint of the tarsus is very little emarginate. Struc- 
ture of labrum not definitely ascertained. The species is 
no doubt quite distinct ; it looks like the North American 
G. agrestis or productus, but appears to be nearer to C. fcrus, 
notwithstanding the intense black colour of the male. 

Hab. North Chin Hills, Burma. Lieut. Watson in 

Criocephalus agrestis, Kirby. 

Augustus, sat elongatus nlger, elytris fusco-nigris ; prothorace 
bi-impresso ad latera vix angulato ; elytris bicostatis, inter costas 
subtilissime sculpturatis. Long. 18£ mm., lat. 5 mm. 

This North American insect in the male sex greatly 
resembles C. fcrus; it is rather more slender and shining, 
and has a smaller thorax, which has a very slight angular 
prominence at each side of the middle. I can give no 
information as to the distribution of this species in North 

Criocephalus productus, Lee 

Gracilis, elongatus, niger, elytris maris dilutioribus ; prothorace 
haud transverso, disco inaequali, tri- vel quadri- impresso, ad latera 
subangulato ; elytris elongatis, costatis, inter costas crebre perspicue 
punctatis. Long. 20-26 mm., lat. 4£, 6| mm. 

Readily distinguished from G. agrestis by the more 
elongate form, the less transverse thorax and the more 
developed sculpture of the elytra. The sculpture of the 
gular area consists of fine rugosities, and there is not much 

Hab. N. America. 

The species is, I believe, not uncommon in N.W. North 
America. I have specimens from Montana {Morrison) ; 
Vancouver (Matheiv) ; California (Hepburn). 

Criocephalus asperatus, Lee. 

Latior, robustus, niger, elytris interdum dilutioribus ; prothorace 
disco inaequali, ad latera numerose muricato-asperato, lateribus angu- 
latim prominalis ; elytris bicostatis, sculptura inter costas obsoleta ; 
anteimis articulis ultimis quatuor abbreviatis. Long. 21-27 mm., 

the genus Criocephalus. 161 

This very distinct species cannot be mistaken for any 
other, the structure of the antennae being very peculiar. 
The terminal four joints are abruptly shorter than the pre- 
ceding, the eighth joint being scarcely half as long as the 
sixth. There is not much difference between the sexes. 
The male has the legs and antennae rather thicker and the 
terminal joints of the latter not quite so abbreviate. The 
bush of hair on the gular area is very remarkable in this 
species. And the clypeus is considerably larger than in 
any other species ; in this last character it approaches the 
genus Megasemum. 

Apparently common in N.W. North America ; it ex- 
tends at any rate from Montana in the north of the United 
States to Guaymas in Northern Mexico (Matheio). 


We have found larvae of at least three species of Longi- 
corn Coleoptera in the wood of the Scotch fir-trees in the 
New Forest, viz. Bhagium hifasciatum, Asemum striatum 
and Criocephalus ferus. These three larvae are extremely 
similar. The characters of the three forms have been 
described by Schiodte, so that it is only necessary here to 
give diagnostic characters. Schiodte and the other writers 
on the subject have given no information as to the habits 
of the three larvae, and as these exhibit very striking 
differences, Mr. Smith's notes on this subject will doubtless 
be acceptable to a wide circle of entomologists. 

The three larva?, as already stated, are of three different 
genera, Asemum, Criocephalus and Bhagium. Mr. Smith 
has never met with all three contemporaneously associated, 
but Asemum is frequently found in the same stumps as 
Bhagium ; and in the trees in which Criocephalus has been 
found in this country it is also associated with Asemum. 

Notwithstanding the extreme resemblance of the three 
larvae, they may be readily distinguished by the spines at 
the anal extremity of the body. In Bhagium there is 
only one spine (Plate IX, fig. 9); in Asemum there are 
two spines placed near one another ""and divergent (Plate 
IX, fig. 8) ; in Criocephalus there are two spines placed 
at a little distance from one another (Plate IX, fig. 7) 
and parallel, or even at the tips very slightly convergent. 
In profile the two Asemum spines are i straight ; in 
Criocephalus they are slightly directed upwards. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LONP. 1905.— PART I. - (MAY) 11 

162 Mr. D. Sharp on 

Asemum larva. The description and figures given by 
Schiodte (Naturalist. Tidskr. (3) x, Plate xiv, pp. 443) are 
correct so far as they go, but he has given of the whole 
larva, and in his figure of the head has omitted all details 
of sculpture and clothing. We have not been able to find 
any other drawing of Asemum larva, and have therefore 
given a figure (Plate IX, fig. 6). Beyond the character 
we have already mentioned, drawn from the spines, there 
are only very slight marks of distinction from the larva of 
Criocephalus ; Asemum larva has the surface slightly more 
shining, the upper-surface of the head is conspicuously 
shining, its colour is paler, and the whole head is less 
robust and powerful than it is in Criocephalus. 

Criocephalus ferus larva (Plate IX, fig. 5). Larva of 
Criocephalus has been described by Schiodte, and some 
of its parts figured by him, t. c, Plate xiii, figs. 11-19. 
His species he considered to be C. rusticus, and, notwith- 
standing the confusion that has existed for so many years 
as to C. ferus and C. rusticus, there is little doubt that he 
was correct in his determination. The larva of C. ferus, 
as found in the New Forest, agrees very closely with 
Schiodte's description of C. rusticus. If actual com- 
parison could be made of the two larvae some distinc- 
tions would probably be found. The head of C. ferus 
larva appears to be shorter than Schiodte's figure, the 
part behind the clypeus especially shorter, and destitute 
of the peculiar lobe-like marks shown in Schiodte's 

The larvae of Asemum striatum (fig. 6) and of Cricoce- 
phalvs ferus (fig. 5) resemble one another extremely. C. 
ferus larva is much larger when full-grown ; it attains a 
length of 30 mm. or more, and a width across the thorax 
of 9 or 10 mm.; the terminal segments are more ample; 
the mandibles and margin of the head are black ; the 
chitinized patches — darker in colour — are more definite 
and conspicuous ; the under-side of the head is rough 
and pubescent, and darker in colour than in Asemum ; 
the antennae are shorter in comparison; the two short 
spines placed at a little distance from one another (Plate 
IX, fig. 7) at the extremity of the body are, as already 
pointed out, diagnostic. The spiracles of the Criocephalus 
larva are more elongate (less circular) than they are in 
Asemum. There is a good deal of ditference in the way 
these two larvae distend their segments for the purpose of 

the genus Crioceplialus. 163 

progression in their burrows, and for working at their 

Bhagivm bifasciatum. This larva is abundant in the 
New Forest, and unlike the larvae of Crioceplialus and 
Asemum is easily obtained owing to its totally different 
habits. The Rhagium lives only in the soft wood that has 
commenced to decay. 

I will here call attention to a very remarkable variation 
that lias been detected by Mr. Gahan during the progress 
of this memoir. By the courtesy of the Director of the 
British Museum (Natural History) I am able to figure it. 
I have in the preceding pages formed the group Crioce- 
phalinss for certain forms that have only one spur on the 
front tibia (Plate IX, fig. 14), instead of two as is usual in the 
Cerambycidse (Plate IX, fig. 13). In the British Museum 
collection Mr. Gahan has detected a female Crioceplialus 
rusticus having two spurs (Plate IX, fig. 15) on the tibia of 
the left front-leg. Unfortunately the right front-leg is 
missing in this specimen, but when the individual was first 
observed it possessed both anterior legs, and Mr. Gahan 
and myself are pretty certain that both legs possessed the 
two spurs. 

There appears to be nothing else abnormal about this 
individual. It ma} r be described in brief as a specimen 
that departs from character of its species, genus and tribe ; 
taking on the character of another tribe. The character 
abnormal in this specimen is normal in Cerambycid 
Coleoj)tera generally. 

It would be almost useless to discuss the nature of this 
variation without further information. Some will see in 
it a case of "reversion." Mr. Punnett has suggested to 
me that it is probable that other specimens similarly 
" abnormal " may be found in the locality where this C. 
rusticus comes from, and if so the case might be viewed as 
one of more continuous heredity. 

On the other hand, it must not be forgotten, that two 
spurs are normal on the other legs of Crioceplialus; so 
that it is possible to view the abnormality as a case of 
homceotic variation (Baleson). 

Summary of changes and additions made in the pre- 
ceding paper: — 

Crioccplialinm, new group separated from Ascminaz. 
Cephalallus, n. g., C. obcrthuri, n. sp., Yunnan. 

164 Mr. D. Sharp on the genus Criocephalus. 

Megasemum, defined and male of M. 4t-eostatum described. 
Cephaloerins, n. g. for Crio. syriacus, Reitter. 
Criocephalus pinctoruni, Woll., established as a valid species. 

Female described for first time. 
C. deceptor, coreanus, tibetanus, exoticus, n. spp. 
C. ferus, var. hispanicus, n. var. 
C. obsoletus, Rand. = (mexicamis, Th.), n. syn. 
C. rusticus, description of an aberration. 

Explanation of Plate IX. 

Fig. 1. Under-side of head of Criocephalus ferns. 

3. Labrura of „ ferns. 

4. » j> 5) rusticus 

5. Larva of Criocephalus ferns nearly full-grown. 

6. ,, „ Asemum striatum, profile. 

7. Spines terminating the body of larva of Criocephalus ferus 

seen from above and in profile. 

8. Do. do. Asemum striatum. 

9. Spine terminating body of larva of Bhagium seen from 


10. Portion of larva of Criocephalus ferus, showing form and 

position of spiracles and the vestigial legs. 

11. One of the legs more highly magnified. 

12. Egg of Criocephalus ferus. 

13. Portion of front-leg of Asemum striatum $ showing the 

two spurs. 

14. Portion of front-leg of Criocephalus rusticus $ showing the 

single spur. 

15. Portion of front-leg of Criocephalus rusticus 9 abnormal 

specimen from Amanus mountains, showing the existence 
of two spurs as in Asemum. 

( 165 ) 

VIIa. The Habits of Asemum striatum and Criocephalus 


[Read February 1st, 1905.] 

Asemum striatum was, prior to 1902, known in Great 
Britain almost exclusively as an inhabitant of Scotch fir 
{Pinus sylvcstris) forests in Scotland. 

Dr. Sharp recorded a specimen from Dumfriesshire in 
1879. Messrs Rye and Skinner in recording the capture 
of a specimen in 1893, in the New Forest, said — " We 
believe this to be the earliest record of the species from 
the South of the Border" ("Entom. Mo. Mag." xxx, 1894, 
p. 277). Nevertheless we have no doubt that it has been 
abundant in the New Forest for a long period of years, 
and has only failed to be detected because of its habits. 

During May and June in 1902, while staying at Bourne- 
mouth, I made several entomological excursions, with the 
express purpose of obtaining Longicorn beetles in the 
larval and pupal stages. It is well known to be very 
difficult to rear these insects, and it may therefore be 
well to explain my method. 

My articles of equipment for this work included a thin- 
edged teaspoon for picking up larva? and pupae ; a small 
tobacco-box fitted up with short lengths of bamboo-cane 
of different diameters to serve as artificial burrows for the 
pupae. The nearer the bamboo sections correspond with 
the burrows from which pupae are taken, the greater are 
the chances of rearing them. 

Also a number of cylindrical strong glass bottles with 
metal screw caps, each one of which is intended for a separ- 
ate larva. The bottles are filled tightly with two or three 
pieces of wood and wood refuse taken from the larval 
burrows ; a suitable cavity is made between the pieces of 
wood and the larva is inserted. Care is necessary in 
order that the larva is not too tight nor yet too loose. 
Once the larva is well established in its new burrow there 
is not much risk of its dying. M. Valery Mayet advocates 
the keeping of the Longicorn larvae in galleries bored by a 
large gimlet in solid wood (Bedel, Fauna Col. Seine V, 
p. 77). For larvae in their last year or so, however, the 

t:ians. ent. soc. lond. 1905. — part i. (may) 

166 Mr. F. G. Smith on the Habits of 

method I describe is very useful, and with care quite 
satisfactory. The chief thing to guard against is empty 
cavities which encourage mildew. 

I secured and reared at this time several of the more 
common species, and at a place near the South Coast I first 
made acquaintance with A senium striatum. 

Emerging from a Scotch fir wood which I had been 
working for some hours, and feeling tired, I sat down on 
one of a great number of stumps of fir-trees which had 
been cut down three or four years previously. 

The tops of the stumps rose several iuches above the 
roots. I immediately noticed a number of distinctly oval 
and clean-cut holes oh the table-like surface of the stump 
and concluded that they were the work of a Longicorn 
unknown to me. 

While examining these holes I noticed a new hole 
actually beginning to form, and through it a mandible 
of a beetle appeared. With my knife I enlarged the hole 
until the boring itself was laid open to view. The beetle 
however had vanished down its burrow. I therefore 
brought a small axe into play. I soon found however 
that the stump was perfectly sound and almost as hard as 
my axe ; added to which, the roots radiating in all direc- 
tions made it impossible to split off large pieces. How- 
ever, after about an hour's hard work I came in sight of 
the beetle, but not of the bottom of its hole, for it seemed 
to be able to retreat indefinitely. I at last laid down my 
axe and sticking a pin into the end of a thin twig hooked 
the beetle out minus two legs. This was my first Asemum 
striatum taken from the bottom of its gallery thirteen or 
fourteen inches long excavated in solid Scotch fir. This 
concluded my day's work, but I revisited the spot next day, 
and after investigation I found that most of the stumps 
were covered with holes almost all of which were quite 
recent, and I also discovered that if I approached very 
cautiously I could see the heads of the beetles at the 
mouths of their burrows ; in many cases they were widen- 
ing them to the required size of exit. In some stumps I 
thus observed as many as twenty beetles at once. But 
to secure them was quite a different matter; for as soon 
as I touched a stump every beetle disappeared down its 
hole not to appear again for an hour or so. I spent 
several days carefully investigating the situation ; during 
which time I was only successful in securing about 

Asemum striatum and Criocepkatus fenis. 16'7 

half-a-dozen maimed specimens. One stray specimen I 
found on the ground among bits of bark. I did not see 
one on the wing although there was brilliant sunshine. 
During these two or three days I must have seen many 
hundreds of the insect, all in their holes. The explanation 
of this is that the insect is purely nocturnal in its habits, 
taking refuge in its burrows during the daytime when 
possible. It would appear however that though nocturnal, 
it likes the sunshine, as most Longicoins do. The odd 
specimens which subsequent to 1902 have been found at 
different places have been stray insects most likely near 
very strong colonies, seeing that from the colony I refer 
to I only found one straggler. During the last day I 
spent at this place at this time I devised a very simple 
but effective method of obtaining specimens, and I took 
in half-a-day about eighty. It would not, I think, be 
fair to the insect to make this method generally known. 
Among this number there were two of the var. agrestis, 
which is a true variety and not an immaturity, as has been 

The normal insect, while undergoing the process of 
hardening never assumes the brick-red tint of var. agrestis, 
but rapidly changes from various hues of dull brown to 
pitchy black ; some however are not so black as others, 
while var. agrestis having once arrived at the brick-red 
colour retains that hue. Dr. Sharp has taken a stray 
specimen of the var. agrestis on the wing, which proves 
its maturity. 

The situation I have referred to fulfilled at the time 
the conditions necessary for a successful colony, which are 
as follows : — 

i. That the wood shall be dead or enfeebled, but not 
have commenced to decay. 

ii. The wood must not have been attacked previously 
by Bhagium bifasciatttm, as the two are not 
friendly, though the existence of Asemum facili- 
tates that of Bhagium. 

Probably the insect exists in the same stump (not includ- 
ing the thin rootlets) during a maximum period of rive 
years. My supposition is based on the following : — 

Throughout the three years during which the first 
brood is maturing, there are no visible punctures on the 

108 Mr. F. G. Smith on the Habits of 

flat face of the stump, consequently the rain does not pene- 
trate into the wood in quantities sufficient to hasten decay. 
Moreover, when the tree was felled a coating of resin was 
formed on the surface, which prevented the water from 
sinking in. For three years therefore the wood was per- 
fectly sound and free from superfluous moisture and quite 
unsuitable for the accommodation of Asemum's greatest 
enemy, viz. Bhagium bifasciatum. 

During these three years successive broods of larvse 
entered upon existence. 

When at the end of this period the first brood emerged 
as perfect insects, the second brood had to live the final 
year of their lives under far less favourable conditions 
than the first; for every time it rained during that 
year, the open burrows of the larvse that had already 
developed conducted the water into the centre of the 
stump, everywhere spreading decay, which had the effect 
of driving some of the larvse deeper into the roots while 
many perished. 

This was proved by the fact that when I revisited this 
spot the following year with my friend, Mr. Willoughby 
Ellis, although a fortnight later than in the previous 
year, there were but few recent though many old 

The third brood exists under very unfavourable con- 
ditions ; for, in the first place, they were tiny one-year 
larvse when the rapid disintegration, caused by the open 
burrows conveying the rain into the stump, commenced. 
In the second place, these unfortunate larvse before they 
were much older found that their burrows were repeatedly 
crossed with the ever widening ones of their great rival 
Bhagium, which species, owing to the decay caused by 
repeated rains, has now completely gained the mastery over 
the stump, so that the third brood of Asemum has very 
little chance of completing its development. 

A few however succeed in finding their ways to the 
thin rootlets, and I have found in upturned stumps in the 
New Forest, the insect in all its stages ; the rootlets sound 
but sometimes no thicker than one's little finger, the 
whole of the decayed part of the stump including the 
larger roots being given over to Bhagium. 

Since the discovery of this colony I have found a great 
number of colonies of Asemum scattered all over the New 
Forest and in remote corners of Hampshire and Dorset, 

Asemum striatum and Criocephalus form. 169 

and I have always observed that the insect is closely 
followed up by Bhagium. 

It is thus clear that Asemum striatum and Bhagium 
bifasciatum together constitute one of the most potent 
(though unobtrusive) helps to forestry. For there is good 
reason for supposing that there is never a considerable 
number of Scotch firs felled in the New Forest but these 
two insects turn the opportunity to good account and 
speedily reduce the stumps to manure. 

The former ever retreats before the progress of decay 
until retreat is no longer possible, while the latter delights 
in decay and feeds on decaying wood until it thus reduces 
the whole stump to powder, with the exception of the 
thinnest layer of outer wood which hides its depredation 
within. It often happens that a stump, the upper-surface 
of which is covered with Asemum holes, and would appear 
to contain larvae of that insect, when tapped, completely 
collapses and appears but a mass of dust and manure. 
Bhagium is not what we may call a hard-working insect 
and does not make a hole of exit unless necessary, but 
uses any convenient fissure, or the holes of Asemum, for 
the purpose of exit. 

The life-cycle of Asemum is as follows, viz. : — 

At the end of May or early in June, a number of eggs 
are inserted between the scales of the bark on the sides of 
the stump or exposed portions of the thick roots. The 
young larvae soon hatch and for some time feed on the 
bark itself. Having worked their way through the bark 
they do not bore between the bark and the wood as the 
Callidiidie do, but penetrate through the outer layer of 
wood, when, if they were deposited in the side of the 
stump, they commence working downwards, just under 
the surface of the wood, making as they proceed galleries, 
the calibre of which is in one direction slightly larger 
than their own bodies and in the other direction much 
wider. These galleries wind about and their margins are 
more or less tortuous. The larvae when about half-grown 
have proceeded some distance down the stump, and they 
then connect the burrows with the outside by means of 
small holes. Up to this point, as they progressed, their 
galleries were completely and tightly filled behind them 
with wood-dust and refuse, which they had compressed 
so tightly that when dry it is almost as hard as the sur- 
rounding wood. Till this period, the decay of the stump 

170 Mr. F. G. Smith on the Habits of 

has not been at all hastened by these larvse, for they have 
left behind them no communications that would facilitate 
the entrance and growth of mildew. 

There are no punctures in the bark, and when this is 
removed there are generally no traces of borings on the 
inside of the bark, nor on the surface of the wood. The 
small borings through which the larvae entered the wood 
itself are filled up and become almost imperceptible. 

Owing to this absence of orifices, even though a stump 
may contain a great number of larvae in this stage, one 
not acquainted with their habits would be most likely to 
overlook them. 

But having made its communication with the exterior 
the larva's efforts have an additional object, for from hence- 
forth they are partly directed towards making suitable 
provision for itself during its later stages. It for a time 
continues to bore downwards but with a more inward 
direction, and instead of compressing the refuse behind 
it as it previously did, it forces it through the orifice 
alluded to. 

After pursuing this method for some time it concludes 
its downward course and enlarges the end of the burrow 
so as to form a sort of turning-space. This may be 
anything between eight to fifteen inches below the flat 
surface of the stum}). The larva now changes its direction 
and strikes upwards, with a burrow which has a calibre 
somewhat more corresponding with the shape of its body, 
and also straighter than its downward burrow. 

An upward burrow may at once be distinguished from a 
downward one by the fact that the latter is almost imper- 
ceptible on account of its being tightly filled with refuse, 
while the former is visible as it is free from debris. 

When the larva has brought its gallery very close to the 
outside of the wood, it discontinues the gallery and pushes 
into the dome-shaped termination thereof a number of 
long wood-fibres, which it tightly compresses together. If 
this be not done to keep out the rain, I cannot suggest 
any other purpose. 

In this completed and unobstructed upward-burrow, the 
larva lives for a considerable time, for I have found com- 
pleted burrows in October, while the insect does not 
pupate till the following spring. 

During this period it gradually ceases its activity and 
becomes whiter in colour. It pupates in May, remaining 

Asemilm, striatum and Criocephalas ferus. 171 

in the pupa state about tbree weeks. The pupa is very 
active. It has no cocoon, but can use the whole of its 
upward-burrow (up and down which it frequently travels) 
for the purpose. 

The extremity of its abdomen is provided with two long 
sharp spines which assist in this operation. 

The way it progresses is interesting. It curls the 
extremity of its body underneath it, with the result that 
one of the spines becomes fixed into the side of the 
burrow. It then straightens itself. This operation con- 
tinually repeated constitutes its mode of locomotion. 
Minute down-curved spines on the dorsal side of the 
abdomen prevent it from slipping down its burrow when 
stationary. A noteworthy point in reference to these 
spines is that they are the only hard and dark parts in 
the pupa immediately after its metamorphosis from the 

Apparently its object in travelling up and down its 
burrow is to prevent the growth of mildew upon its walls. 
I have observed that in <j;lass tubes containing these and 
other Longicorn larva) the galleries when occupied by 
healthy larva or pupa are immune from mildew, while the 
other parts of the wood may be badly infested. 

It will be recalled that the pupa of the clear-wing 
moths are provided with serrations on the margins of their 
abdominal plates to assist them in travelling up and down 
their burrows in a similar manner. 

These spines serve an additional purpose, fur they assist 
the pupa in the initial stages of casting its skin, by enabling 
it to hold its body more rigid and in greater tension, while 
splitting open the thin skin at the back of its neck. It 
will thus be seen how necessary it is in rearing these and 
allied pupae, to put them in tubes which afford them the 
same facilities for doing this as their native burrows do. 

I have lost more pupae from exhaustion in seeking to 
split this thin skin than from any other cause. 

After undergoing its final metamorphosis Asemum 
matures rather rapidly. 

The imago opens the roof of its prison when almost 

Seeing that their burrows are the only places where one 
can hope to find these insects, it seems pretty certain 
that when possible they always hide in them during the 
daytime, affording as they do such excellent retreats. 

172 Mr. F. G. Smith on the Habits of 

Asemum sometimes attacks standing trees, but only 
when the trees' vitality has been impaired. In such cases 
the upward borings are often much shorter than when the 
insect attacks stumps. 

There is no fear of Asemum spreading from sickly trees 
to healthy ones, and the greatest inducement for it to 
attack is if the trees are burnt round the roots. 


My investigations in connection with Asemum striatum 
led to my exploring the Scotch fir woods of the New 

In June 1902, in a grove of large trees, I observed a 
number of conspicuous holes in the trunks between a foot 
and fifteen inches from the ground. They were very like 
Asemum holes, distinctly oval and clean-cut, but the 
majority were much larger. Although it was raining 
heavily I proceeded to investigate the cause. In an hour 
or two I was rewarded by securing fifteen or sixteen large 
larvae which looked much like Asemum larvae but which I 
clearly saw were different. I supposed that the insect 
must be Hylotrupes bajulus. I was therefore much sur- 
prised when early in August I reared from them a long 
brown insect which certainly was not Hylotrupes. I at 
once searched the Birmingham libraries for information, and 
found in W. Rothschild's " Musee Entomologique Illustre " 
a short description and figure of Criocephalus rusticus. I 
concluded that that was my insect, and accordingly so 
labelled it in my collection. Towards the end of the same 
month another emerged, and the only surviving larva, 
showing no sign of pupation, continued to burrow in its 
piece of wood. The reason I lost so many larvae at this 
time was that at the time of capture I had not sufficient 
receptacles to enable me to keep each one separate. The 
larvae proved to be very active and irritable, and in con- 
sequence before I arrived home all except three had 
received injuries. 

Early in 1903 I made the acquaintance of Mr. 
Willoughby Ellis and informed him that I had taken 
Crioccphalus in the New Forest, and after seeing my 
specimens and the surviving larva, he accompanied me to 
the habitat. He subsequently wrote an article on the 
subject which appeared in the "Ent. Reed.," 1908, xv, 259. 

Asemum striatum and Griocephalus ferus. 173 

In setting forth what I know of the life history of this 
insect, with which I subsequently became more fully 
acquainted, I will, in order to avoid repetition, mention 
chiefly those respects in which it differs from that of 
Asemum striatum. 

In the first place, it attacks large trees that are standing 
and growing. When I discovered its habitat, the trees 
appeared in no respect to differ from the surrounding 
ones, but we now believe the vitality of these trees was 
somewhat impaired by some cause or other. 

The wood in which the larvee were boring was by no 
means dead ; for when cut, sap freely exuded. 

A careful examination revealed the fact that some of 
the roots were dead or dying and inhabited by Asemum. 

The holes of Crioccphalus are usually further from the 
ground than in the case of Asemum, when that insect 
attacks trees. 

Judging from the length of time that the larva appears 
full grown and lives in its completed burrow it would 
appear to be much longer-lived than Asemum. 

The following, in addition to other evidence I have 
gathered, proves that this larva lives for a very considerable 
time in its completed burrow, viz. : early in August of last 
year I carefully opened two completed burrows which ran 
side by side ; the unobstructed portion of each was of 
similar length, and I did not observe any difference. Each 
contained a larva ; one of these was about to pupate, while 
the other, judging from its sluggish movements, appeared 
to be rapidly approaching that condition. I concluded 
that both would provide imagos last year. The former 
however pupated, while the latter simply underwent a 
larval ecdysis, and I hope to rear it this year ; also the 
largest larva I have ever seen I procured at that time, 
but it will not mature till next August. 

I am of the opinion that Crioccphalus while in the larval 
state always makes a hole for its exit as an imago and stuffs 
up the entrance with gnawed-d own bark. I do not con- 
sider however that I have sufficient evidence to be quite 
positive on this point. It is interesting to note however 
that. Griocephalus forces a very much larger quantity of 
material into the end of its burrow than Asemum does, 
the stopped-up part sometimes extending right through 
the bark and into the wood itself where long wood-fibre 
is used. 

174 Mr. F. G. Smith on the JTalits of 

This wood-fibre is quite different from any refuse found 
lower down its burrow and is only used for this purpose. 
When the bark is very thick the larva pupates in the bark 
itself, stopping up this portion of its gallery at each end. 
When it pupates in the wood it reserves a considerable 
portion of its burrow for its final stages and the pupa 
travels up and down as that of Asemum does. 

Another interesting point about the burrows of these 
larvae, and one which also shows that the larva lives for a 
considerable time in that portion of its burrow which may 
be termed its pupa-case, is that near the hole of exit the 
larva makes a short off-shoot, into which it pushes one of 
its discarded skins, and carefully covers over the entrance 
to it with wood-dust. The result of this performance is 
to place out of reach an object which would encourage the 
growth of fungi. In one of my specimens of these pupa- 
cases the annex containing the skin is full of mildew and 
putrefaction, while the pupa-case itself is quite free from 
any such thing. 

Another noteworthy fact in the economy of this insect 
is the extreme lateness in the season at which the perfect 
insect appears. It apparently never undergoes its final 
metamorphosis in this country till about the end of July, 
although Dr. Sharp reared a specimen in June of last 
year. I think there is no doubt however that this was 
"due to the high temperature of the room it was kept in 
and to its proximity to the fire. Having cast its pupal 
skin it is at the very least a fortnight before it is ready to 
leave its hiding-place. In large, well-developed specimens, 
it takes quite a considerable time for the distended abdo- 
men to sufficiently contract not to be an impediment to 
the insect and to come within the limits of the elytra. 

Having matured, it leaves its prison as the twilight is 
giving place to darkness. 

It has been thought that it is a sluggish insect, but so 
far is that from the case that I believe it to be second to 
none of the British Longicorns for fleetness of foot and 
agility of wing. There seems no difference between the 
sexes in this respect. They both continue to fly and run 
about at a great rate late into the night. 

I kept several alive last year and they all died about 
one month after maturing. They came from their hiding- 
places regularly at the same time every night, and once 
or twice I looked at them after 12 o'clock, and found 

Asemum striatum mid Crioccphalus ferns. 175 

them still active. I succeeded in breeding with one pair, 
and have at present some of their offspring in a piece of 

I have on two or three different occasions observed them 
flying about in their natural habitat, and noted that the 
time at which they appeared was the same as in the case 
of specimens in captivity. 

The eggs look exceedingly like those of the common 
blow-fly and are thrust deep down between the lamina? of 
the bark to which they are cemented. A female does not 
deposit many more thao fifty or sixty eggs. 

During the daytime the insect is perfectly inert, almost 
to the point of feigning death. It may be said to be at 
large from the middle of August till the middle of 
September, although I have specimens which did not cast 
their pupal skins till September. 

I consider that the following considerations are re- 
sponsible for this insect not having been observed 
previously : — 

i. The comparative rarity of suitable habitats. 

ii. The great difficulty in securing the perfect insect 

(though the habitat may be known) on account 

of its nocturnal habits and its great resemblance 

to the bark among which it hides, 
iii. The difficulty in securing the larva? owing to the 

very hard wood into which they bore, 
iv. The unusual lateness in the season at which it 

v. Its probable confinement to one spot for a great 

number of years. 
vi. The fact that pine woods in S. England have till 

lately been almost entirely ignored as unproductive 

by Coleopterists. 

Most of the above considerations are doubtless respon- 
sible for the fact that Asemum up till 1902 was almost 
unknown as an inhabitant of Great Britain south of the 
Border. But as it does not appear "out of season" as 
Criocephalus does, and is so very much more common than 
that insect, it is indeed remarkable that it has not been 
better known by British collectors before. 

Before bringing these notes on the habits of these two 
interesting insects to a close I must take this opportunity 

176 The Habits of A. striatum and C.ferus, 

of expressing my great indebtedness to Dr. Sharp, who 
has put every possible facility in my way to help me to 
complete my knowledge of these insects, and apart from 
whose generous assistance it would have been impossible 
for me to have contributed this very small item to the 
stock of entomological knowledge. 

My thanks are also due to Mr. Ellis, Mr. Colbran J. 
Wainwright, and Mrs. Lamb of Brockenhurst, for help I 
have received in various ways. 

( 177 ) 

VIII. On the matrivorous habit of the species of Hetero- 
gynis, Rmbr. By T. A. Chapman, M.D., F.Z.S. 

[Bead February 1st, 1905.] 

In presenting these notes in extension of my previous 
papers on Heterogynis, Rmbr., the regret, I must acknow- 
ledge, in having to correct an error I had fallen into but 
slightly modifies the satisfaction I have in having at 
length made certain observations, which I ought no doubt 
to have made before, and in fact narrowly escaped making. 
The satisfaction results not so much from the somewhat 
remarkable nature of the observations themselves, as from 
the circumstance that they appear to explain the object to 
be attained by, and therefore the forces in action that 
evolved, the very anomalous specialization of the female 
imago in this genus, and relieves us from having to regard 
them as isolated and inexplicable phenomena. 

In my paper on H. paradoxa in the Transactions of the 
Society, 1902, pp. 717-718, I said that the young larva? of 
that species " hibernate by spinning a small cocoon in 
some crevice of the food-plant or elsewhere. H. paradoxa 
does this, I find, in the second instar ; Mr. Fletcher found 
H. penella did so in the third. Whether there is here a 
real specific distinction I cannot say, or whether there may 
be an error of observation on my part, or Mr. Fletcher's. 
The newly-hatched larva of H. penella is certainly much 
smaller than that of H. paradoxal Again, p. 726, 1 wrote, 
" The newly-hatched larva? present very important differ- 
ences that have perhaps more specific value than any 
others." I then proceed to describe certain differences in 
the possession of stellate hairs by paradoxa which are not 
to be found in H. penella until the second instar. 

This year I met with H. paradoxa at La Granja ; I was 
too late for larvae or moths, but found cocoons, from some 
of which the larva? had already hatched, from others of 
which they emerged after I took them. Perchance the 
want of the more interesting stages made me attend more 
closely to the material I had. The result of my observa- 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1905. — PART I. (MAY) 12 


Dr. T. A. Chapman on the 

tions is that the passages I have quoted above from my 
previous paper on the species, are quite correct, if, by 
" hatching," one means the emergence of the young larvae 
from the pupa-case and cocoon of their mother. But as 
the true meaning of the word is emergence from the egg 
they are all wrong. Hinc illie lachrymx, though I rejoice 
more over the correction than I weep over the error. 
The actual facts are that in all the species the newly - 

Fig. 1. 

hatched larvae are very similar; in all, their first pious 
duty is to eat the remains of their mother. 

Having done this, H. pcnella and H. canalensis perforate 
the maternal pupa-case with various openings and make 
their escape. An examination of the empty pupa-case 
they have left shows it quite clean and containing only a 
very few threads of silk entangling a small but varying 
number of small greyish pellets, which I take to be urates 
or some similar effete product of the dead mother. In 
H. paradoim, for some reason, the procedure is different, 
probably because the mother is much larger than in the 

Matvivorous habit of the species of Hetcrogynis. 17!) 

other species, and the difference in size is largely expressed 
not in the size or number of her eggs, but in the mass of 
eatable materials she represents after her decease. At 
any rate the young larva? get larger than do those of the 
other species, and undergo their first moult before penetrat- 
ing the pupa-case and cocoon and venturing to appear at 

A pupa-case of H. paradoxa £, from which the young 

Fig. 2. 

larva? have emerged, presents a dirty and muddled aspect 
due to the presence of a good deal of spinning by the 
young larvae, amongst which the skins they cast at their 
first moult are entangled. 

A very interesting point is that there is no trace of 
larval frass present in either species. This one can more 
easily understand perhaps in the case of H. penella, where 
the total amount of maternal tissue is small, and each larva 
gets but little, as evidenced by their small size on emerging 
from the parent cocoon. But in the case of H. paradoxa 
the amount must be considerable, as the larva? grow very 

180 Dr. T. A. Chapman on the 

appreciably, in fact about double their size, besides going 
through a whole instar and making a moult. 

I am afraid that in my previous observations, made in 
the first place hurriedly in the field, and not afterwards 
properly verified, I mistook the heads of the cast skins for 
larval frass, and assumed some such amount of frass to be 
what one would reasonably expect after their first meal of 
the maternal tissues. In H. paradoxa one finds, however, 
nothing but some threads, the cast larval skins (skins as 
well as heads), and the pellets of urates, which from their 
small number and comparatively large size are obviously 
maternal and not larval (Ubris. The young larvae there- 
fore go through a whole instar, more than double their 
size, undergo a moult, and then perforate the pupa skin, 
and make their way through the cocoon without ejecting 
any frass or effete material. It seems to follow that the 
maternal remains must consist almost entirely of com- 
pletely assimilable materials. As the larva? on facing the 
world have to begin life in many cases by making a long 
journey to find their food-plant, a meal before starting is 
an obvious advantage, but this does not explain the 
curious details of the process, or why it should differ in the 
several species. 

I should note that I have examined just now pupae of 
paradoxa and canalensis, but have no adequate specimen 
of penella by me. With regard to it, therefore, I merely 
assume from my previous observations of it that it agrees 
with canalensis. 

It results that at corresponding instars the larvae of the 
several species are very much alike, it also follows that 
the discrepancy between Mr. Fletcher's observations as 
to the hibernating instar of H. penella and mine of 
H. paradoxa does not exist, though it is my fault that 
there appeared to be one. 

The distinction I drew between the first instar larvae of 
II. penella and H. paradoxa does not exist as a structural 
difference at all ; nevertheless there is a difference between 
them in habits and instincts, which is probably of quite as 
great importance. 

The only other matter I observed this year at La Granja 
as regards IT. paradoxa was that it had two widely-separated 
habitats, one at about 5200 ft. elevation, where its food- 
plant was Adenocarpus hispanica, the other at about 
7000 ft. on Gytisus purgans ; the opportunity was wanting 

Matrivorous habit of the species of Heterogynis. 181 

to determine whether there was any varietal distinction 
between the two races, but this is very probable, as the 
intermediate country and elevations were without any 
" broom " capable of nourishing the species, so that the 
two colonies were probably segregated with considerable 

The extreme development of the matrivorous habit in 
H. paradoxa, and its obviously great importance in the 
economy of the species, afford an explanation of the 
remarkably aberrant habits and structure of the female 
imago, and give us some hints as to the probable steps by 
which they were evolved. 

Though the latter are more or less hypothetical, and 
therefore less certain than the former, we may take them 
first, as they are so in point of time. 

We may safely assume that the first steps in the process 
of evolution were similar to those that obviously obtained 
in Psyche and Orgyia. Firstly, apterousness of the $ con- 
sequent on laying the eggs, on or in the cocoon or close by. 
Then eggs laid in the pupa-case. And somewhere at this 
point the dominating conditions would probably be those 
which I imagined still to obtain, as no doubt subsidiarily 
they do, when I discussed this matter in connection with 
H. penella (Ent. Trans., 1898, p. 46), viz. protection of the 
eggs from enemies and from desiccation by the mother 
dying in and blocking the open end of the pupa-case. At 
this time the moth probably still retained some legs and 
some scales or hairs. Both Psychids and Orgyias still 
retain some hairs, so far as I know, in all cases. 

The delicate nature of the eggs (as in the allied 
Anthroceras) would make protection against drought a 
strong selective agency, and there would now come in the 
matrivorous instincts of the larvee. These no doubt would 
originate accidentally in the necessities of the larvse finding 
a way of escape from the pupa-case, leading some of them 
to do so by eating into, or at least nibbling the dead body 
of the %. So soon as matrivoracity became definitely an 
instinct then several forces would come into action. As 
these would be the same that now keep the arrangements 
in their present perfection we may better consider them in 
connection with the explanation they afford of existing 
facts. The very complete closure of the pupa-case, so that 
it looks as if it had never been opened, and no moth ever 
emerged from it, becomes very important when we regard 

182 Dr. T. A. Chapman on the 

the body of the moth no longer as a second line of defence, 
but as a store of food to be kept from enemies gross or 
bacterial, from drying up, and from other dangers. The 
precautions for the moth getting safely back into the 
pupa-case, apparently rather a hopeless matter considering 
its maggot-like structure, become more obviously matters 
of necessity, leading up to the organic connection the moth 
has with the pupa-case at the sites of the atrophied legs. 
The brief time the moth remains out of the pupa-case, less 
probably sometimes than five minutes, is not only import- 
ant as minimizing the period of exposure to enemies, but 
also as a period of deterioration of the moth as a food 

We next come to the extraordinary structure (or want 
of structure) of the moth itself. Everything aims at the 
whole available forces and materials possessed by the larva 
when it spins its cocoon being devoted to egg formation on 
one hand and larval food on the other, and further that the 
last object hardly takes a second place. If we compare 
the iemale Heterogynis with those females of the Psychids 
in which the structures have most degenerated, we find 
that in the Psychids everything has given way to egg 
development. The protection of the eggs is achieved 
chiefly by mixing them with the hairs from the maternal 
surface, and the female drops out of the case after she has 
laid her eggs as a mere sciap of chitin, with considerable 
masses of urate sand some little fluid. There is, in fact, 
nothing whatever edible. In Heterogynis no hairs are 
used to protect the eggs, and not only is the % devoid of 
hairs and scales, but the cuticle is a simple membrane 
without traces of the bases of hairs or scales, without any 
skin points or other structures, and if I said actually 
without chitin, I think I should commit no large error 
demonstrable in a chemical balance. In the next place, 
the urates are very small in amount. The quantity which 
most insects void on emerging from the pupa is very 
considerable, partly left in the pupa-case, partly voided 
after the wings are expanded ; it is usually in solid 
particles suspended in fluid ; there is usually some excess 
fluid to be got rid of after the wings are expanded. Why 
are these urates less in the case of Heterogynis ? If I am 
asked are they really so, I must admit that I am not 
prepared to meet the question, as having weighed the 
material in question. But the thing seems to me to be 

Matrivorous habit of the species of Heterogynis. 183 

so obvious, comparing the few pellets remaining from 
Heterogynis, with the deposits usual in most moths of 
similar size, that the matter is self-evident. The urates 
represent the amount of tissue waste that has taken place. 
Now in Heterogynis this tissue waste is that involved in 
the muscular exertion of spinning the cocoon, in casting 
the larva skin, and in the emergence and retreat of the 
moth, and in laying her eggs. The whole process of 
histolysis and development by which the larval structures 
are absorbed, and the imaginal (wings, legs, hairs, scales, 
antennae, etc.) are built up from their embryonal condition 
is completely saved ; this process must in ordinary Lepido- 
ptera require a good deal of expenditure of tissue material. 
In Heterogynis not only are no imaginal structures de- 
veloped, but the larval skin muscles and the larval 
colouring remain unchanged. I have already noted the 
skin to be devoid of the usual skin points, but there are in 
fact no hard parts whatever, no head plate, no prothoracic 
plate, no appendages, no solid parts to the ovipositor, etc. 
Everything is eatable, and all is eaten ; I do not think we 
can find in the imaginal composition any explanation of 
why the larvae void no excreta during a whole instar, and 
until, during the second instar, they have made their 
escape from the parental cocoon. 

This is probably a matter of hygiene, b}' which the 
presence of such excreta would be most undesirable 
amongst the crowded larvae, especially if their emergence 
were delayed by any climatic or other causes. The case of 
such larvae as those of Cnetliocampa, whose nests are loaded 
with frass, are hardly parallel, since these nests are very 
roomy, and the portion into which the larvae crowd are 
more or less free from frass, whilst in the Heterogynis 
pupa-case the larvae are solidly wedged together with no 
spare space and very few threads of silk. That there shall 
be no frass, however, that the larvae shall not require to 
void anything, it is no doubt necessary that the pabulum 
shall be of a most concentrated and digestible nature. 

Summarizing the facts now advanced, there is first the 
correction of the error as to first stage of H. paradoxa, 
due to the recognition of the circumstance that it does 
not emerge from the maternal pupa-case and cocoon till it 
has moulted into the second instar. Secondly, the import- 
ance in the economy of the genus, and especially in 
H. paradoxa, of the matrivorous habit, all the details 

184 Dr. T. A. Chapman on Hcterogynis. 

connected with which are elaborated to a degree, and of 
which the remarkable structure of the female and her way 
of life, are items which it very largely explains. I cannot 
call to mind any other Lepidopteron with such a matrivorous 

Description of Figures. 

Pupa-cases of H. canalensis (fig. 1) and H. paradoxa 
(fig. 2) longitudinally divided and placed on slides — all 
contents preserved. Photographs by A. E. Tonge, Esq. 
The amplification is four diameters. 

The H. canalensis pupa has no contents, but a few grey 
pellets of maternal urates. 

The H. parodoxd has similar pellets, but also contains 
larval skins, of which the heads are very conspicuous, cast 
on their first moult by the young larvae. There is no 
larval frass. There is in neither case any trace of the 
mother except the pellets of urates. 

The more solid abdominal ends of the cases are split 


IX. Descriptions of some mew species of Satyridae from 
South America. By Frederick Du Cane God- 
man, D.C.L., F.R.S., etc. 

[Read March 1st, 1905.] 

Plate X. 

I take the opportunity of describing the following 
apparently new species of South American Satyridae, which 
have been for some time unnamed in my collection, before 
handing them over to the Natural History Museum. 

Picrella chalybiea, sp. n. 

Very similar to P. lamia, Sulz., but differs in having rather more 
than the basal half of the hind-wings in both sexes suffused with 
steely-blue, the black rings round the subraarginal row of white 
spots is almost or quite absent, the outer margin of these wings is 
very broadly infuscate, and the two inner lines crossing the disc are 

Hob. Brazil, Chapada (H. H. Smith). 

I have two males and one female of this Picrella, which 
seems sufficiently distinct to require a separate name. 
The steely-blue suffusion of the basal area of the hind- 
wings is strongly marked in both sexes. This character 
also distinguishes it from P. rhea, Fabr. 

Euptychia analis, sp. n. (Plate X, fig. 1, £ .) 

$ . Very like E. bated, Butl. ; above faintly suffused with purple 
and the hind-wings with a conspicuous patch of dark blue scales at 
the anal angle, the two reddish-brown bands beneath broad and 
visible from above. 

Hob. Amazons, San Paulo and Tapajos (Bates) ; Peru, 
Pebas (Hawhslcy). 

Three males. This appears to be a form of E. batesi, 
which also occurs at Tapajos, differing from it as 
indicated above. 


186 Mr. F. Du Cane Godman on Descriptions of 

Ewptychia stigmatica, sp. n. (Plate X, fig. 2, £.) 

<$ . Very similar to E. cserulea, Butl., but paler blue, the primaries 
with an elongated brand about the middle of the inner margin 
composed of intermixed white and reddish-brown scales, the broad 
blackish border less sharply defined, the transverse blackish streak 
beyond the cell distinct ; beneath bluish-grey, the lines crossing 
the wings broader. 

Hob. Argentina, Entre Rios (H. H. Smith). 

One specimen. This insect in size, colour, and marking 
resembles the female of E. cserulea, but wants the inner 
submarginal line on the secondaries and the line crossing 
the cell on the primaries. The male has a very con- 
spicuous elongate brand at the middle of the inner margin 
of the primaries, a character not found in E. emrulea. 
There is also a male of this species in the Hewitson 
Collection at the British Museum ; it is labelled " Rio 
River." A female placed with it in the same collection 
no doubt belongs here. 

Euptycliia pcnicillata, sp. n. (Plate X, figs. 3, 2a, £ ; 4, $.) 

£ . Greenish-plumbeous, the primaries with a dense pencil of long 
coarse brown hairs below the origin of the first branch of the median 
nervure ; beneath greenish-brown, crossed by two common dark 
brown lines, and with the usual wavy submarginal line of the same 
colour, the primaries with three small ocelli, the subapical one 
conspicuous, the others indistinct ; the secondaries with a series of 
five ocelli, the second and last large and the others small. 

$ . Uniform brown above ; beneath as in the male, but the 
ground-colour pale brown, becoming greyish towards the outer 

Hob. Amazons, Tapajos (Bates). 

One pair, which I have had for many years unnamed in 
my collection. The male has a tuft of hairs on the fore- 
wings as in the same sex of E. pilata, Butl., the hairs 
themselves being coarser than in E. nmbrosa. 

Euptycliia scopulata, sp. n. (Plate X, figs. 5, 5a, £.) 

r£ . Allied to E. penicillata and having a similar tuft of hairs on 
the fore-wings, but of a browner hue above ; beneath greyish, the 
two common lines crossing the wings broader and of a red-brown 
colour, the primaries with two ocelli only. 

some new species of Satyridie from South America. 187 

Hab. Upper Amazons. 

Dr. Staudinger has sent me a single male example of 
this insect, which for some time has been placed with the 
preceding species in my collection. Although very like 
E. penicillata it differs considerably on the under-side. 

Euptychia mimas, sp. n. (Plate X, fig. 6, £.) 

£ . Uniform dark-brown ; beneath paler, crossed by two dark-brown 
lines and with a narrow, wavy, similarly coloured submarginal line, 
the primaries with a series of two or three small ocelli, that nearest 
the apex the most distinct, the secondaries dusted with ochreous 
scales and with a series of five bipupillate ocelli, the second and fifth 
black within. 

Hah. Bolivia, Coroico, 6500 ft. (G-arlcpp). 

Three examples. Near E.phineus, But!., from Venezuela. 

Euptychia boliviana, sp. n. (Plate X, fig. 7, £.) 

£ . Bright-brown ; beneath paler, primaries with a broad ochra- 
ceous band extending from the anal angle and becoming less distinct 
towards the apex, a wavy submarginal dark line, and two or three 
very minute white spots towards the apex ; secondaries, except at the 
base and outer margin, thickly covered with whitish scales, crossed 
by two irregular ochraceous submarginal bands, three strongly 
angulate dark lines (two crossing the disc, the third submarginal), 
and a series of minute white dots. 

Hob. Bolivia, San Jacinto, 6000-8000 ft. (GarleiJp). 
Two specimens. This is a species of large size, uniform 
bright brown above, and peculiarly marked beneath. 

Euptychia (?) bioccllata, sp. n. (Plate X, fig. 8, $.) 

£ . Uniform brown, the primaries with a double black ocellus to- 
wards the apex enclosed in an ochreous ring ; beneath paler, the 
ocellus more conspicuous aud surrounded by a dark line, which 
becomes faint at the apex and forms an angle towards the inner 
margin, the space between it and the outer margin marked with grey ; 
secondaries with two broad grey bands crossing the wing, one just 
beyond the cell (bordered internally by a dark line), the other close 
to the margin and extending along the inner margin to the base, the 
cell also crossed bj a faint dark line about the middle. 

Hab. Bolivia, Tanampaya, 6000-8000 ft. (Garlepp). 
Three specimens of this small species have been sent 
me by Dr. Staudinger. It will perhaps prove not really 

188 Mr. F. Du Cane Godman on Descriptions of 

to belong to Eu^ptychia. There are, however, several 
members of that genus similarly coloured on the upper- 
side, but the present insect differs from all of them in the 
marking of the under-side of the secondaries. 

Lymanopoda maso, sp. n. (Plate X, fig. 9, <£.) 

£ . Uniform brown ; beneath as above, the primaries at the apex 
and the secondaries towards the inner margin dusted with lilac 
scales, the primaries with a submarginal series of minute white dots, 
the secondaries with a curved series of six or seven whitish pupillated 
spots running from the apex to the anal angle. Primaries truncate, 
at the apex, secondaries dentate on the outer margin. 

Hob. Colombia, Frontino in Antioquia (T. K. Salmon). 

Four specimens. The shape of the wings and the 
conspicuous row of white spots on the secondaries beneath 
readily distinguish this insect. L. albomaculata, Hew. 
(= apulia, Hopff.), has a somewhat similar row of white 
spots on the under-side of the secondaries, but in that 
insect the wings are differently shaped. 

Lymanopoda malia, sp. n. 

Very similar to L. acreeida, Butl., but the secondaries also with a 
conspicuous submarginal row of fulvous spots. 

Hah. Peru, Rio Colorado (Wathins and Tomlinson), 
Pozuzo (Pierce). 

This is a form of L. acrmida, Butl., but as it appears to 
be restricted to Peru I have ventured to give it a name. 
L. malia is not uncommon, though hitherto I have not 
seen a female of it. The Ecuador specimens of L. acr&ida 
in my collection are much smaller than those from Bolivia, 
though they do not otherwise differ. 

Lymanopoda levana, sp. n. (Plate X, fig. 10, £.) 

£ . Dark brown, primaries and secondaries each with a small 
pupillated black spot near the anal angle, and one or two minute 
white dots above it parallel with the outer margin ; beneath, 
primaries as above, but with the apex broadly ferruginous, second- 
aries ferruginous, an ochreous band (outwardly dentate, inwardly 
evanescent) crossing the wing from about the middle of the costa to 
the anal angle, the dots as above. 

ffab. Colombia, Bogota {Chapman and Wheeler). 

some new species of Satyridse from South America. 189 

Two specimens. This is a small species, with somewhat 
pointed primaries, very dark brown above, and with the 
secondaries peculiarly marked beneath. 

Pedaliodes cdbonotata, sp. n. (Plate X, fig. 11, $.) 

c£. Blackish-brown, primaries with a transverse quadrate white 
patch crossing the cell obliquely, two spots beyond this (one towards 
the apex, the other towards the anal angle) also white ; beneath as 
above, the apex of the primaries and the whole of the secondaries 
mottled with white, the two outer spots on the primaries as above, 
but smaller, the secondaries with an irregular transverse W-shaped 
mark at the apex, a spot about the middle of the costa an'd another 
near the anal angle also white. The cilia of the primaries spotted 
with white. 

Hah. Venezuela, Merida {ex Staudinger). 

Two males of this well-marked species were sent me 
some years ago by Dr. Staudinger. One of the specimens 
has, on the upper-side, a minute white dot between the 
two submarginal spots on the primaries and another near 
the apex of the secondaries. There are also two examples 
of P. albonotata in British Museum, both from Venezuela, 
one from Culata, the other from Pedregosa; these have 
the two submarginal spots on the upper-side of the 
primaries almost or quite obsolete. 

Oxcoschistus duplex, sp. n. (Plate X, fig. 12, <£.) 

£ . Dark-brown, an ochreous band running from near the apex of 
the primaries and widening till it reaches the anal angle of the 
secondaries, the band marked with a series of large rounded dark 
brown spots, its outer margin strongly dentate on the second- 
aries, thus forming lunules, which are bordered externally 
with ochreous ; beneath, primaries paler than above, ferruginous 
at the apex, the costa towards the tip streaked with white and 
yellow, the outer margin also faintly spotted with yellow ; 
secondaries obscure ferruginous, a transverse white line from the 
costa crossing the middle of the cell and extending to near the inner 
margin, the submarginal band darker than above and also bordered 
on both sides with white, the black spots pupillate. 

Hob. Bolivia, San Jacinto {Garlepp). 
The single example I possess of this species was sent 
me long ago by Dr. Staudinger under the MS. name of 


Explanation of Plate. 

0. duplex. It is a close ally of 0. puerta, Westw., from 
Costa Rica, Colombia and Venezuela, but differs from it 
chiefly in the very strongly dentate outer margin of the 
band on the secondaries, and in the large size of the spots 
on both wings. There are also two males of this insect 
in the British Museum, both from Bolivia. 

Explanation of Plate X. 


Euptychia analis, £ . 


,, stigmatiea, £ . 


,, penicillata, £ . 


,, „ tuft of hairs on the fore-wing, $ 




,, scopulata, £ . 


„ „ tuft of hairs on the fore-wing, £ 


„ mimas, £ . 


„ boliviano,, £ . 


,, (?) biocellata, £ . 


Lymanop>oda maso, <$ . 


„ levana, £ . 


Pedaliodes albonotata, $ . 


Oxeoschistus duplex, $ . 

( 191 ) 

X. Additions to a knowledge of the Homoptcrous Family 
Cicadidse. By W. L. Distant. 

[Read March 1st, 1905.] 

Plate XL 

Being engaged in an attempt to revise the classification 
of the Cicadidse and to prepare a synonymic catalogue of 
the Family, 1 have been entrusted with much material 
belonging to other collections in order that my purview 
may be as extensive as possible. I have thus come across 
a number of undescribed species, and this paper refers 
only to those belonging to the subfamily Gicadintv. Of 
these I found in the collection belonging to the Paris 
Museum, some beautiful species from Madagascar, which 
are probably among the finest in the whole family 
Cicadidie. A striking species of Pycna from Natal, is from 
the Stockholm Museum. 


Subfamily CICADINsE. 
SadaJca hyalina, sp. n. 

$ . Body brownish-ochraceous ; head with a large central spot, an 
anterior transverse line and linear margins to front, and a somewhat 
broken transverse fascia between eyes, black ; pronotum with the 
lateral margins, a central longitudinal line widened anteriorily, a 
central transverse spot in front of anterior margin, and the incisures, 
black ; mesonotum with four obconical spots, the two central smallest, 
a central lanceolate spot and a small spot in front of each anterior 
angle of the cruciform elevation, black ; basal segmental abdominal 
margins black ; the central sulcation to face, a fascia between 
face and eyes, and apex of rostrum black ; tegmina and wings 
hyaline, venation ochraceous, inclining to fuscous outwardly ; 
tegmina with the costal area and membrane ochraceous, the last 
containing two piceous spots ; upper half of basal cell, and 
basal half of claval area piceous. Head including eyes about equal 


192 Mr. W. L. Distant's Additions to a 

in width to base of mesonotum ; head as long as pronotum exclud- 
ing posterior margin, lateral pronotal margins angularly ampliate ; 
rostrum reaching the posterior coxa?. 

Long. excl. tegm. § 18 milium Exp. tegm. 58 millim. 

Hob. W. Africa ; Guince Frarnjais (Paris Mus.). 

Manza revoili, sp. n. (Plate XI, fig. 5, a, b.) 

<J . Head above piceous-black ; a spot at base of antenna?, eyes, 
ocelli, and a large transverse spot between area of ocelli and eyes, 
ochraceous ; pronotum ochraceous, the margins flavescent, a pos- 
teriority broad central triangular fascia to disk, the incisures, and 
sometimes extreme lateral margins, piceous-black ; mesonotum 
testaceous, with four large obconical black spots, the two intermediate 
spots smallest ; abdomen above brownish-testaceous ; body beneath 
and legs more or less testaceous ; an anterior black fascia between 
face and eyes ; anterior tibia? piceous ; tegmina with about basal half 
creamy opaque, with obscure pale fuscous spots or mottlings, basal 
cell with its anterior and apical margins piceous, apical half of 
tegmina subhyaline, talc-like ; a macula fascia extenling across the 
bases of 1-5 apical areas, a similar fascia at apices of apical areas, 
broken on lower apical area, and more or less extending to outer 
margin ; wings umber-brown and outwardly piceous for about 
two-thirds their breadth from base, the anal area dark fuscous, the 
venation piceous. Head including eyes slightly wider than base 
of mesonotum, the lateral pronotal margins broad and medially 
angulate ; abdomen much narrowed posteriorly ; rostrum reaching 
the posterior coxae ; opercula transverse, centrally overlapping, 
margins moderately convex, just reaching base of abdomen. 

Long. excl. tegm. <J 26 millim. Exp. tegm. 77 millim. 

Hah. Somaliland; Ouarsangueli (Revoil — Paris Mus.). 

Platypleura spicata, sp. n. 

§ . Body brownish-ochraceous, thickly and longly greyishly pilose ; 
head with the area of the ocelli, two transverse lines on the lateral 
margins of vertex, and an anterior marginal line to front, black ; 
pronotum with two central lines fused posteriorly but not extending 
across the posterior margin, and the incisures, black ; mesonotum 
with four medial obconical spots on anterior margin, an elongate 
lateral spot on each side, and a spot at each anterior angle of the 
cruciform elevation, black ; tegmina and wings pale hyaline, a little 
talc-like ; tegmina with a spot on costal membrane and area near 

Jcnoivlcdge of the Ilomopterous Family Gicadidm. 193 

base, a small spot just beyond basal cell, some short shadings on the 
longitudinal veins to ulnar and apical areas and the same on the 
transverse veins at bases of most" of the apical areas black. Head 
including eyes about as wide as base of mesonotum ; the lateral 
margins of the pronotum strongly angularly ampliated, their apices 
acutely spinous and a little anteriority recurved ; the greyish 
pilosity particularly developed on the mesonotum and abdomen, on 
the last forming distinct long segmental margins ; the face is more 
or less piceous, very strongly longitudinally sulcated, its lateral areas 
transversely ridged ; rostrum reaching the posterior coxa?, its apex 
piceous ; intermediate and posterior femora longitudinally and 
linearly streaked with fuscous beneath ; anterior femora obtusely 
spined beneath. 

Long. excl. tegm. $ 22 millim. Exp. tegm. 76 millim. 

Hab. Madagascar; Majunga and Pays Mahafaly 
(Paris Mus.). 

This species is allied to P. polydorus, Walk., of S. and 
E. Africa, from which, apart from other characters, it is at 
once separated by the lai-gely spinous character of the 
lateral pronotal margins. 

Platyplcura seraphina, sp. n. 

$ . Head, pronotum, and mesonotum dull ochraceous ; head with 
two transverse black fascia?, the first extending through area of ocelli 
to lateral margin in front of eyes, the other one connected with it, 
a little more broken and passing through base of front ; pronotum 
with the lateral and posterior marginal areas stramineous, a 
central longitudinal fascia connected with an anterior transverse 
curved line and the incisures black ; mesonotum with two central 
anterior obconical spots, with a much longer fasciate spot on each 
side of them crossing the whole of the lateral area, and a triangulate 
linear spot in front of the cruciform elevation, black ; abdomen 
above pale castaneous with transverse segmental black fascia? which 
are mostly broken on disk ; body beneath and legs dull ochraceous, 
sternum greyishly tomentose, lateral margins and striations to face, 
and a fascia between face and eyes piceous or black. Tegmina 
oreyishly subopaque, the veins reddish-ochraceous, with pale fuscous 
mottlings and shadings, a curved fascia crossing tegmina through 
radial area, more or less connected with a large faciate spot which 
more than occupies the whole of seventh, apical area, a transverse 
spot at end of radial area, the transverse veins at bases of apical area 
2-5, a double series of spots at apices of longitudinal veins to apical 
areas, and basal cell, piceous ; wings reddish-ochraceous ; a basal 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1905. — PART I. (MAY) 13 

194 Mr. W. L. Distant's Additions to a 

costal spot, margins to the abdominal areas, and the outer margin — 
very wide at apex, piceous ; marginal membrane pale hyaline. 
Head including eyes about as wide as base of mesonotum ; pro- 
notal lateral margins ampliate and rounded, obsoletely centrally 
angulate ; anterior femora in $ practically unarmed. 
Long. excl. tegm. $ 18 millim. Exp. tegm. 54 millim. 

Hob. French Guinea ; Reg. de Kouroussa (H. Por- 
beguin — Paris Mus.). 

Allied to P. severini, Dist. 

Platyplmra esa, sp. n. 

Head ochraceous, base and anterior margins of front, a spot above 
base of antennas, a broad transverse fascia between eyes, and margins 
of eyes connected with the transverse fascia near area of ocelli, 
black ; pronotum with the posterior margin stramineous, the disk 
with a central fascia subtriangularly ampliated anteriorly, less 
ampliated posteriorly, the incisures, and sub-lateral margins (broadly) 
black ; mesonotum black, with the margins of four obconical spots 
— the two central shortest— ochraceous ; cruciform elevation ochra- 
ceous ; abdomen black ; segmental margins 'castaneous, tympanal 
flaps stramineous ; body beneath ochraceous, sternum greyishly 
tomentose ; anterior margin and central sulcation to face, a fascia 
between face and eyes, basal areas of opercula, abdominal segmental 
margins, and under-surface of anterior tibiae black ; tegmina and 
wings pale hyaline ; tegmina, with more than half of basal venation 
ochraceous, remainder black ; basal cell and dividing line between 
costal membrane and area, black. Head including eyes slightly wider 
than base of mesonotum ; lateral marginal areas of pronotum moder- 
ately ampliate, but the margins almost straightly truncate, not 
angulate ; opercula in male broad, reaching the second abdominal 
segment, their apical margins obliquely convex, their inner margins 
overlapping ; rostrum reaching the posterior coxse. 

Long. excl. tegm. $ and 9 22-24 millim. Exp. tegm. 65 millim. 

Hab. Somaliland; Ouarsangueliand Obok (Paris Mus.). 

Yanga bouvieri, sp. n. (Plate XI, fig. 2 a, b.) 

£ . Head, pronotum, and mesonotum greenish or brownish- 
ochraceous ; front of head with anterior marginal lines and a 
central spot widened and angulated posteriorly, black ; vertex with 
the area of the ocelli, two transverse fasciae on its lateral area, and a 
linear longitudinal spot on each side of disk, black ; pronotum with 
the anterior margin, the incisures, and two central lines neither 

knowledge of the Homopterous Family Cicadidte. 195 

reaching the anterior margin nor extending to the posterior marginal 
area, black ; mesonotum with two short obconical spots on anterior 
margin, a discal triangular spot and a transverse series of four small 
spots across posterior area, black ; a long, pale castaneous obconical 
spot on each lateral area which contains two small black spots at its 
base and one at its apex ; abdomen above black, with a central basal 
longitudinal ochraceous area, and the segmental margins more or less 
greyishly pilose ; body beneath and legs greenish-ochraceous, the 
sternum greyishly tomentose, the opercula palely piceous and 
greyishly tomentose, their margins dull ochraceous ; tegmina brown- 
isb-ochraceous, costal membrane and area more or less greenish, radial 
area with three pale spots, some obscure paler spots and mottlings 
in ulnar and apical areas and alternate darker and paler outer 
marginal spots ; wings pale umber-brown, basal third blackish - 
castaneous, a streak of the same colour both in and beneath radial 
area, and much paler castaneous longitudinal rays between the veins 
on the apical area, extreme outer margin also pale castaneous ; body 
short, broad, and robust • head including eyes as wide as base of meso- 
notum ; lateral margins of pronotum angularly ampliate ; abdomen 
about as long as space between apex of head and base of cruciform 
elevation ; costal membrane of tegmina a little wider than costal 
area ; rostrum extending to posterior coxa? ; opercula somewhat large, 
their inner apical areas overlapping, their posterior margins slightly 
convexly rounded, and their disks strongly foveately impressed. 
Long. excl. tegm. £ 38-40 millim. Exp. tegm. 113 millim. 

Hab. Madagascar; Baie d'Antongil (Mocouerys — Paris 

I have named this species after Prof. A. Bouvier, " Fon- 
clateur et Conservateur " of the Paris Museum, from whom 
I have received much valued entomological assistance at 
various times. 

Yanga grandidieri, sp. n. (Plate XI, fig. 3 a, b.) 

(£ . Head, pronotum, and mesonotum green; head with margins of 
front, a spot behind anterior angles of vertex, the area of the ocelli 
and a spot at inner margin of eyes, black ; pronotum with the 
incisures and two small central spots in front of posterior margin, 
black ; mesonotum with a spot in front of cruciform elevation and a 
transverse series of four spots behind it, black ; abdomen piceous, a 
central longitudinal basal area, the tympanal coverings and posterior 
segmental margins pale ochraceous ; body beneath and legs pale 
greenish or inclining to ochraceous ; tegmina green, much suffused 
with bronzy-green, the costal area and membrane pale green, the first 

196 Mr. W. L. Distant's Additions to a 

with a central fuscous spot, outer margin with distinct fuscous spots ; 
wings ochraceous, posterior margin narrowly, and apex broadly, 

$ . Larger than g , abdomen above more castaneous, and with the 
apical and anal segments cretaceous ; tegmina less suffused with 
bronzy-green, especially on basal area, where there are two distinct 
fuscous spots in radial area, and about four similar ones beneath 
them, the apical half is also much more broken up with pale green ; 
wings as in £ , but sometimes with the apical castaneous area only 
indicated by two inner spots. 

Head, including eyes, about equal in width to base of mesonotum, 
its length equalling that of pronotum — excluding its posterior 
margin ; opercula in £ very strongly concavely sinuate inwardly, 
the posterior angles overlapping, and thus exposing a circular space 
of the metasternum ; rostrum reaching the posterior coxbo, its apex 

Long. excl. tegm. $ 27-32, $ 29-30 millim. Exp. tegm. £ 
70-90, $ 90-100 millim. 

Hob. Madagascar ; Region du Sud-est (Alluaud — 
Paris Mus.). 

Allied to Y. guttularis, Sign., from which it is to be 
differentiated apart from its very distinct coloration by the 
more produced frontal area of the head and the very broad 
central longitudinal sulcation to face. 

I have dedicated the species to Mon. A. Grandidier, 
whose name is a household word in the zoological literature 
of Madagascar. 

Umjaba alluaudi, sp. n. (Plate XI, fig. 1 a, b.) 

Head, pronotum, and mesonotum pale virescent ; head with the 
anterior margins of front, two spots on lateral margins of vertex, and 
the area of the ocelli, black ; pronotum with two oblique lines on 
disk, and eight small spots — three on each lateral area, and two 
central on posterior area, black ; mesonotum with four pale sub- 
obsolete obconical spots on anterior area, and a transverse series of 
four black spots on posterior area ; abdomen above piceous, centrally, 
longitudinally castaneous on basal area ; body beneath and legs 
greenish-ochraceous, ventral segments margined with piceous ; tegmina 
very pale tawny brown, the costal membrane and area virescent ; on 
basal half there are two spots in radial area, and two or three spots 
in each of the ulnar areas beneath it umber-brown, on apical half 
there are many umber-brown and greyish mottlings, and a prominent 
subcostal greyish spot between radial area and apex of wing ; wings 

knowledge of the Homo%>terous Family Cicadidm. 197 

pale ochraceous, with an umber-brown submarginal macular fascia. 
Head including eyes considerably narrower than base of meso- 
notum ; lateral margins of pronotum slightly and obscurely angulate ; 
costal membrane of tegmina much narrower than costal area ; oper- 
cula with their margins rounded, discally foveate at base, their inner 
apical angles overlapping; rostrum reaching posterior coxse. 
Long. excl. tegm. $ 36 millim. Exp. tegm. 112 millim. 

Hab. Madagascar ; " Vallee d'Ambolo " ; Foret de 
Sakavalana (Alluaud — Paris Mus,). 

Allied to IT. evancscens, Butl., and although very dis- 
similar in colour, the markings of the tegmina are very 
similar in pattern. The two species, apart from colour, 
can be thus identified : 

U. evane.Hcens, £ . U. alluaudi, $ . 

Greatest width of tegmina nearly Greatest width of tegmina little 
equal to half their length. more than one-third of their 

Rostrum passing anterior mar- length. Rostrum only reach- 

gins of opercula. ing anterior margins of oper- 


Pycna natalensis, sp. n. (Plate XI, fig. 4 a, b.) 

Body above ochraceous ; head with two central fascia? to front 
which are connected at centre, a transverse spot at anterior angles of 
vertex, and a fascia between eyes, black ; pronotum with a transverse 
spot on anterior margin, and two oblique lines from near eyes which 
converge on disk, black ; mesonotum with four short anterior 
obconical spots, of which the central two are largest, a ceutral 
lanceolate spot much ampliated at base, two small spots in front of 
cruciform elevation, and a submarginal fascia on each lateral area, 
black ; abdomen greyishly-pilose, segmental margins, and two 
central lines on first and second segments, black ; body beneath and 
legs ochraceous, femora streaked with piceous ; central sulcation to 
face and spot between face and eyes black ; tibiae castaneous, the 
tarsi more or less piceous ; tegmina hyaline, the venation castaneous, 
costal membrane and area ochraceous ; about basal third creamy 
opaque, with two hyaline spots in radial area, two in base of both 
third and fourth ulnar areas, and a long hyaline streak in lower 
ulnar area ; remaining hyaline area of tegmina with scattered fuscous 
markings ; wings hyaline, venation ochraceous, about basal half 
ochraceous, opaque, which is partially margined both outwardly and 
posteriorly with fuscous. Opercula in male broad, transverse, 
strongly overlapping at their inner margins, their posterior margins 

198 Mr. W. L. Distant's Additions to a 

convex ; rostrum reaching the posterior coxa; ; head including eyes 
much less in width than base of mesonotum ; pronotal margins much 
ampliated and medially angulate, reaching base of basal cell to 
tegmina ; costal membrane prominently arched at base and broader 
than costal area. 

Long. excl. tegm. $ 30-31 millim. Exp. tegm. 90-92 millim. 

Hah. Natal (Stockholm Mus.). 

Div. Cicadaria. 

Rihana martini, sp. n. 

Body above dark chocolate-brown, head, pronotum, and meso- 
notum sometimes a little paler in hue ; head with the lateral areas of 
front, a spot at apical angles of vertex, and a transverse fascia between 
the eyes, black ; pronotum with the anterior margin and two central 
longitudinal fascia? connected posteriorly, black ; mesonotum with 
two anterior central obconical spots, a more indistinct lateral fascia 
on each side, a central lanceolate spot, its base widened in front of 
cruciform elevation, which has a spot on each of its anterior angles, 
black ; abdomen greyishly-tomentose at base ; segmental margins — 
very broad on second segment, and anterior margins of tympanal 
coverings, black ; body beneath paler than above ; head and sternum 
greyishly-tomentose, legs and opercula brownish-ochraceous, abdomen 
purplish-brown, margins of acetabular crimson ; a transverse fascia 
between eyes, central sulcation to face, and sometimes subapices to 
femora, black ; tegmina and wings hyaline, extreme bases of 
both sanguineous ; venation ochraceous or greenish-ochraceous ; 
tegmina with the transverse veins at bases of second, third, fourth 
and fifth apical areas more or less infuscate, and a small fuscous spot 
near apices of longitudinal veins to those areas ; opercula about half 
the length of abdomen, inwardly overlapping, their lateral margins 
concavely sinuate, their apical margins rounded ; rostrum just 
reaching the posterior coxa? ; anterior femora with two strong black 
spines beneath. 

Long. excl. tegm. $ and $ 34 millim. Exp. tegm. 102 millim. 

Hah. Madagascar (Coll. Dist.) ; Region du Sud, 
Andranomana (Alluaud — Paris Mus.). 

Rihana hova, sp. n. 

Body above and beneath pale brown, thickly finely greyishly 
pilose ; head with the lateral stria; to front, area of ocelli anteriorly 
emitting a transverse linear fascia, lateral margins of vertex, and two 

knowledge of the Homopterous Family Cicadidw. 199 

transverse oblique fascia before eyes, black ; pronotum with the 
lateral and posterior margins virescent, the disk with two central — 
sometimes broken, longitudinal fasciae united posteriorly, black ; 
mesonotum with two central obconical spots, on each side of which 
are two small oblong anterior marginal spots, a broad sublateral 
fascia, and a large spot in front of cruciform elevation anteriorly 
lanceolately produced, black ; abdomen with the segmental margins 
obscure olivaceous ; a central anterior spot to face, ochraceous 
margined with black, and a black fascia between face and eyes ; 
tegmina and wings hyaline, the venation brownish-ochraceous, 
tegmina with the transvei'se veins at bases of second and third apical 
areas moderately infuscated ; length of head more than half the 
breadth between inner margins of eyes, front moderately prominent ; 
pronotum with the lateral margins angulate a little before the 
posterior angles ; opercula in male longer than broad, centrally 
overlapping, their lateral margins a little sinuate, their apices 
broadly rounded and not extending beyond basal abdominal 
segment ; rostrum reaching the posterior coxse, its apex piceous ; 
anterior femora armed beneath with two long spines and a smaller 
one near apex. 

Long. excl. tegm. £ 25 millitn. Exp. tegtn. 77 millim. 

Red). Madagascar; Ikongo and Morondava (Paris 


Cicada pulverulenta, sp. n. 

Pale brownish-ochraceous, shortly but thickly griseously pilose ; 
head with the lateral areas of front, lateral apical margins of 
vertex, and a transverse fascia between eyes, piceous ; pronotum 
with two central longitudinal lines — united posteriorly, and the 
incisures, piceous ; mesonotum with four obconical spots of which 
the two central ones are smallest, a central lanceolate spot, and a 
small spot in front of each anterior angle of the cruciform elevation, 
piceous ; abdomen above densely griseously pilose, the disks of first 
and second segments distinctly darker in hue; body beneath pale dull 
ochraceous ; a fascia between eyes and a large spot on face, piceous ; 
opercula greyishly tomentose ; basal segmental margins pale cas- 
taneous ; tegmina and wings pale hyaline ; tegmina with the venation 
and costal membrane ochraceous, both finely spotted with white ; 
transverse veins at base of second, third, and fifth apical areas and 
small spots near apices of longitudinal veins to apical areas, fuscous ; 
wings with the veins ochraceous ; length of head not more than half 
the width between eyes ; head including eyes about as wide as base 
of mesonotum ; opercula in <£ not passing base of abdomen, sub- 

200 Mr. W. L. Distant's Additions to a 

elongate, not overlapping internally, apical margins rounded, lateral 
margins moderately concavely sinuate ; rostrum reaching posterior 

Long. excl. tegm. g and § , 21 millim. Exp. tegm. 55 millim. 

Hab. Madagascar and Seychelles (Paris Mus.). 


Cosmopsaltria alticola, sp. n. 

<$ . Dull ochraceous ; head with the following black markings, 
viz. a basal angulate spot, margins of pale central apical spot, 
transverse striations, and basal lateral margins to front and area of 
the ocelli, an oblique streak on each lateral area of vertex and a 
basal spot before each eye ; pronotum with two central fasciae united 
anteriorly and posteriorly, and the inner lateral margins, black ; 
mesonotum with the margins of two central obconical spots, a central 
lanceolate spot, and two small spots in front of basal cruciform 
elevation, black ; abdomen with the segmental margins black, those 
to the third, fourth and fifth segments more or less maculate ; body 
beneath and legs ochraceous ; a fascia between eyes, apex of face, sub- 
apical annulations to anterior femora, anterior tibia? excluding bases, 
apices of intermediate and posterior tibiae, and apices of opercula, 
black, the last posteriorly greyishly tomentose ; tegmina and wings 
hyaline ; the venation ochraceous, transverse veins at base of second, 
third and fifth apical areas to tegmina palely infuscate. 
Long. excl. tegm. <$ 40 millim. Exp. tegm. 108 millim. 

Hab. Borneo ; Kina Balu (Brit. Mus.). 

Allied to C. montivaga, Dist., but with the opercula only 
reaching the fifth abdominal segment ; markings also 

Platylomia juno, sp. n. 

Head, pronotum, and mesonotum dull ochraceous; head with a 
large quadrangular spot on lateral margins of front, the area of the 
ocelli connected with a transverse angulated spot on each side, and a 
basal spot near inner margins of eyes, black ; pronotum with two 
much angidated central fascia? connected with a curved discal fascia 
on each side, and a broad sublateral fascia, black ; mesonotum with 
two broken anterior obconical spots, connected with a central fascia 
much widened posteriorly and occupying the whole anterior area of 
the cruciform elevation, two sublateral fascia? and a posterior 
marginal spot, black ; cruciform elevation centrally ochraceous ; 

Icnovjlcdge of the Homopterous Family Cvxtdidm. 201 

abdomen black, the anterior areas of the segments above somewhat 
castaneous ; sternum and coxae ochraceously tomentose ; transverse 
striations and longitudinal area of face, a transverse spot between 
face and eyes, and spots to coxa? black ; a basal spot to face, and the 
rostrum excluding apex, ochraceous ; legs piceous or black, apices of 
femora ochraceous ; opercula black with their disks dull ochraceous ; 
tegmina and wings hyaline, the venation fuscous or brownish- 
ochraceous, their bases narrowly piceous ; tegmina with the 
transverse veins at the bases of the second and third apical areas a 
little infuscated. Face prominently tumid ; rostrum extending a 
little beyond the posterior coxa?, opercula only reaching the third 
abdominal segment, situate widely apart and occupying the lateral 
abdominal areas, sinuate on each side near base, narrowed and a 
little rounded posteriorly. 

Long. excl. tegm. g 40 millim. Exp. tegm. 114 millim. 

Hob. Se-Tchouen; Ta-tsien-lou (R. P. Gros-Jean — 
Paris Mus.). 

Allied to P. umbrata, Dist. 

Platylomia diana, sp. n. 

Closely allied in general appearance and markings to P. juno, Dist., 
but larger, the opercula reaching the sixth abdominal segment, 
entirely ochraceous excepting their extreme margins and apex, 
posteriorly globosely convex ; legs ochraceous, longitudinal streaks 
to femora, bases and apices of the tibiaa, and the tarsi, black. 

Long. excl. tegm. <J 50 millim. Exp. tegm. 126 millim. 

Hob. Se-Tchouen, Ta-tsien-lou (R. P. Gros-Jean — 
Paris Mus.). 

Oncotympana viresccns, sp. n. 

g . Body above black ; head with a large spot at base of front, 
and a small spot on each side of ocelli, ochraceous ; pronotum with 
a central lunulate ochraceous fascia, the whole of the lateral areas 
piceous, the posterior margin inwardly pale-greenish ; mesonotum 
with the lateral margins, the margins of two central obconical spots, 
and two small spots in front of cruciform elevation, ochraceous ; 
abdomen with the posterior margins of the second and third 
abdominal segments, the tympanal coverings, disk beneath, and 
opercula, pale bright virescent, sternum thickly ochraceously tomen- 
tose ; legs black, longitudinally streaked with virescent ; tegmina 
and wings hyaline, extreme bases of both virescent, the venation 
fuscous ; tegmina with the transverse veins at the bases of the second, 

202 Mr. W. L. Distant's Additions, etc. 

third, fifth, seventh, and eighth apical areas broadly piceons, and a 
series of small piceous spots near apices of longitudinal veins to 
apical areas ; opercula in male, broad, centrally overlapping, and 
reaching base of second abdominal segment ; rostrum reaching the 
posterior coxae. 

Long. excl. tegm. $ and $ 19-20 millim. Exp. tegm. 107-112 

Hob. Tibet ; Tsekoo (Paris Mus.). 

Explanation of Plate XI. 

Fig. 1. Umjaba alluaudi. 

2. Yanga bouvieri. 

3. „ grandidieri. 

4. Pycna natalensis. 

5. Mimvm revoili. 

May 20th, 1905. 

( 203 ) 

XI. On the Pupal suspension of Thais. 
By T. A. Chapman, M.D., F.Z.S. 

[Read February 1st, 1905.] 

Plate XII. 

It is now some ten years since I ventured to question the 
view quoted in Scudder's great work on the American 
Butterflies as to the suspension of the pupa of Thais 
(Ent. Record, Vol. VI, pp. 125, 126), and somewhat Inter I 
obtained (Ent. Record, Vol. VII, pp. 81, 82) tolerably 
strong evidence that my opinion on the subject was correct. 
Up till the present time, however, no one has chosen to 
report actual observation of how the larva and pupa of 
Thais actually manage to make the girth (incidentally 
proving that it is the girth) leave its usual situation and 
become attached to the nose-hooks. This Spring (1904) I 
made an effort to supply the deficiency, and obtained a 
number of larvae of Thais polyxena, Schiff., var. cassandra, 
Mann, from Hyeres. I was successful in observing the 
whole operation by one specimen or another; whether I 
can successfully describe what I saw is I fear doubtful, 
but I will make the attempt. I was so interested in the 
matter, even someway outside the chief point in question, 
that I also made a successful attempt to see Papilio 
machaon and Pieris rapte (as examples of Papilionidm 
and Pieridx, respectively) make their silken holdfasts 
for their pupae. Though there is no novelty about my 
observations of these, there are one or two points that 
may bear description again. 

The first spinning done by the larva of Thais is to form 
what we must call a cocoon, though it consists merely of 
three or four, or at most a dozen, rather strong silken 
cables, sometimes simple, sometimes branching, tying 
together the objects surrounding the position chosen for 
suspension. This structure must be correlative with a 
habit of retiring for pupation into a situation surrounded 
by not very fixed materials, such probably as dead herbace- 
ous material round shorter stems near the ground-level or 
below it. Having prepared a carpet of silk of rather more 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1905. — PART II. (JULY) 14 

204 Dr. T. A. Chapman on the 

than its own length, cither on a flat surface or by prefer- 
ence on a round one such as a stem, it makes the anal 
pad. It may be noted here that in Thais and the other 
girthed pupae observed, when this is completed the larva 
takes its station with the claspers just in front of it, the 
little mound of silk forming the pad being unused, and 
lying immediately behind the claspers and beneath the tip 
of the anal plate. In suspended pupae this pad is held by 
the claspers, whilst the larva awaits pupation. 

Before describing the spinning of the girth, it may be as 
well to explain its position on the larva when it is finished 
and the larva rests before pupating. 

The girth arises well forwards from the carpet of silk, 
and passes over the back of the first abdominal segment. 
Each segment of the larva has on either side three tall 
processes or warts, which with their colours and spines 
give the larva its special and beautiful aspect. These 
three warts are a subdorsal one (= I. + II.?), which is the 
largest, then a somewhat smaller one (= IV. + V.?), which 
arises below the ■ spiracle though one is inclined before 
examining it to think it is subdorsal also, i. e. above spiracle. 
The third one is still smaller, and is marginal (= VI.?). 
In passing over the segment, the girth reaches backwards 
from its attachment, to behind the marginal process, and 
passes up in the same line behind the subspiracular one ; 
then it turns forward, and gets in front of the subdorsal 
process crossing the dorsum therefore rather on the front 
of the segment, proceeding down the other side of the 
larva, by, of course, a precisely similar route, to its attach- 
ment to the carpet on the other side. In taking this 
course it makes several bends. First it inclines rather 
backward from its attachment, has a bend at the marginal 
process where it turns upwards, and two more bends in 
passing from behind the subspiracular to the front of the 
subdorsal process. It is fairly taut, so much so as rather 
to bend forward the marginal process, against the similar 
process of the meta-thoracic segment. Nevertheless the 
curved or angulated route ensures that it shall be of 
considerable length, longer, that is, than a merely simple 
transverse course across the back of the larva. 

I succeeded in seeing this cable or girth manufactured 
on several occasions, but that does not seem to help me in 
describing it in words. As in Pa/pilionidse and Pieriikv, it 
is not spun where we see it when completed, but in a 

I'ii pal suspension of Thais. 205 

position that may be described as in front of the larva, 
the head being thrown back, so that the legs are used as 
hands, one might say, to hold it up. Not, however, the 
claws, but the thick bases of the legs are used, the silk not 
being on the legs proper, but rather in the incision in front 
of them. This is the position when the spinneret is at the 
middle of the girth. But as the head goes from one side 
to another, the relations of parts is much changed, though 
quite gradually and automatically. It is this that makes 
it difficult to give a description easy to understand. 

The actual line of the girth, at the middle of the move- 
ment, when the larva is straight with the head aud legs 
well raised, is behind the marginal process of the 1st 
abdominal segment, then forwards above the marginal 
processes of 2nd and 3rd thoracic, and then across the 
larval venter to the other side in the incision between the 
first and second pair of legs. I have said the head is well 
raised, and so it is, by the Sphinx attitude of the first 
segments, but it is strongly bent forwards, so that the tip 
of the spinneret reaches very closely to the position of the 
girth in the incision behind the first pair of legs. I say 
very nearly, for the girth when completed consists of a 
number of quite separate threads, showing that each 
thread is not spun along, and glued to those that preceded 
it, and that therefore the extremity of the spinneret does 
not actually reach aud touch the previously spun threads, 
which lie deeper in the incision between the segments. 

As the larva moves its head from side to side in adding 
each thread, the position of the girth differs from this 
central position by being stretched along one side and all 
but relieved from the other ; when the head is round to the 
left aud the left end of the thread is being fixed, the thoracic 
and first two abdominal segments have their right sides 
stretched so as to form the margin of nearly a circle, 
whilst their left sides are so approximated as to be close 
together at the centre of the circle. In this attitude the 
line occupied by the girth above the marginal tubercles on 
the stretched side of the larva is raised above the surface 
on which the larva rests, and is on what for the moment is 
rather the upper-side of the larva, though it would be 
rather the under-side if the larva were in a natural resting 
attitude, since, as I have above called attention to, the 
larval warts are, and look, higher up on the larva than their 
real anatomical positions would indicate. 

206 Dr. T. A. Chapman on the 

The following notes made whilst actually watching the 
larva may help to explain the spinning of the girth, though 
they have some incoherence from the circumstances of their 

Cassando-a, when building its loop, has it quite ventral, 
it passes round above the marginal wart of 2nd and 3rd 
thoracic and 1st abdominal and between the 1st and 2nd 
pairs of legs. There is, however, only one phase in this 
process to which this applies, viz. when a thread of silk is 
being added to the loop at exactly its highest point. When 
the spinneret is against either side of the loop or working 
at the point of attachment, the loop is free from all contact 
with that side of the larva, or just touches the marginal 
wart of 1st abdominal, whilst it is fully stretched on the 
other side, over the 2nd thoracic leg, the three warts (2nd, 
3rd thoracic, 1st abdominal), and touches the ventral 
prominence of 1st abdominal. The attitude of the larva 
being that of a curve or twist that brings these parts 
directly away from the twig of attachment, whilst those 
that the loop is free from are crowded together towards 
the twig, the three warts having their apices close together, 
and so that on the curvature relaxing they expand 
again into that side of the loop and hold it whilst the 
other side contracts and frees itself from the loop in its 

The larva moves very leisurely, and with some to and 
fro movement, so that one traverse of the loop takes about 
three minutes and the movements of fastening the end of 
each thread to the twig about one minute ; but between 
each complete traverse usually at least one partial journey 
is taken, i. e. from the twig for about one-third of its 
length and then back again, and along this piece especially 
towards the end of the process a good deal of local spinning 
i.s done which covers this thicker portion of the loop with 
an outside binding. When the loop is finished, the central 
third consists of a number of threads more or less separate, 
or at least apparently separate, straight, parallel and 
uncomplicated. The end portions are thicker, and bound 
together as one strong strand. 

As the larva moves its head from side to side, the loop 
slips to and fro, or rather perhaps the larva slips to and 
fro on it, the loop always taking the position described on 
the convex side of the larva,, and lifting out of it on the 
concave, as the warts and le^s are contracted together into 

Pupal suspension of Thais. 207 

one eminence. The head and prothorax are stretched out 
when the attachment of the loop is being worked at, the 
first pair of legs being one on each side of the strand ; when 
the centre of the loop is under the spinneret the thorax is 
bent back from the twig, but the head is bent down to 
bring the spinneret against the loop in front of the 2nd 
legs, and the 1st pair of legs become practically invisible. 
In two specimens watched the whole process took about 
an hour and a half, in a room at about 64°. One wondered 
all the time how the loop when finished was to get back 
to its place. This however is managed very simply and 
very quickly. After finishing, as it had appeared to finish 
several times before, one of the lappings of the side of the 
loop with binding threads, instead of sliding slowly round 
and bending the head down slowly as it went, to the posi- 
tion it takes when at the central point, it gave it this 
position at once, i. e. before moving round, so that the head 
went under the loop somewhat to one side, and as it then 
gradually assumed the median position, the thread lay 
across the middle of the front of the head. At the same 
time, however, as it assumed the median position, it bent 
back the head and curved the thoracic segments backwards, 
so as to bring close together the back of the head and the 
dorsal thoracic humps. Then the thread became slack 
over the head, and slipped back into its place. In one 
instance, the thread caught, on the side on which the 
manoeuvre was made, the tops of the subspiracular warts 
of the meso-and meta-thorax, bending them back, the larva 
rested here a little, probably from some inadvertent move- 
ment of mine that alarmed it, and then by a simple turning 
and stretching movement the loop fell into its place. One 
asks, Why does the loop always fall to this identical spot, 
how does the larva manage to make the necessary move- 
ment so exactly ? This question is justifiable as an 
expression of admiration that the larva should always 
make precisely the same movement, but is foolish in not 
seeing that the same movement will always produce the 
same result. In fact a little, but very little, latitude is 
possible, as one could see that the result would be the 
same had the movement been a little more or less ample, 
etc. Nevertheless, the length of the loop and the place 
from which it starts must be very exactly related to the 
length, thickness, and movements of each larva. 

Another point may be noted, whilst the larva is at work 

208 Dr. T. A. Chapman on the 

on the loop, the thoracic segments are rather contracted 
and the abdominal somewhat full, and when first the loop 
falls into place, it runs more directly backwards than it 
does later ; the head of the larva being rather in front 
of the points of attachment of the loop. But gradually 
the abdominal segments shrink, the thoracic enlarge and 
bend forwards, the whole larva thickens and shortens so 
that the loop has the position described in my first note. 
The amount of spinning for the anal hold varies a good 
deal, but in two specimens in which it appears to be well 
elaborated, it stands up as a somewhat flocculent little 
mass, and the prolegs take hold not of this, but a little 
way in front of it, suggesting that the pupa shall have 
a freer access to it than if the prolegs held it 

My special object being to see how the girth, now of 
course clearly seen and proved to be a girth, as in other 
Pupil 'ionidie, got moved to the position and function of 
a nose-cable, I watched carefully for the moult to pupa, 
to see how this occurred. My notes on this throw no light 
on the critical question, but may be worth giving on their 
own merits. 

A larva that was very close to the change was watched 
on — 

May 26, 9 a.m. No very definite change noticeable. 
10 a.m. Some movements observable and a slight change of 
colour. 10.30 a.m. All the red has gone from the warts, 
except those of 8 and 9 abdominal. The others are shrivelled 
and show no colour, except their black points, the rest 
of the larva is slaty-grey, quite different to what it was 
an hour or two ago. No trachea drawn out yet, 3rd 
thoracic and 1st and 2nd abdominal are very narrow and 
shrunk. 2nd thoracic large. A good many little wrink- 
lings of empty skin are visible round warts as well as 
elsewhere on segments. Girth hangs heavily on marginal 
wart of 3, pressing it forwards, that of 1st abdominal seems 
to have slipped behind it on one side, collapsed against 
that of 3rd thoracic on the other. Wart of 9 still full and 
red, the red would almost seem to depend on the contained 
fluid, as it disappears with the shrinking and collapse of 
the warts, which has just occurred. The fluid which filled 
them must have been absorbed or evaporated very rapidly. 
Disturbed the larva by placing it in a better position for 
observation. 10.40. A few shsfht movements. 4th, 5th 
and 6th abdominal seem large as also 7th and 8th ; 3rd 

Pupal suspension of Thais. 209 

about normal, intermediate between these and the shrunk 
1st and 2nd. 

10.45. A few more movements, the changes of dimen- 
sions of segments have placed the mouth parts and the 
legs below the girth. They were not very definitely 
above or below it before, but rather unrelated to it, but 
a strictly lateral view made it cross over 2nd pair of 

11.35. Colour all but gone from warts of 9th abdominal 
and claspers are almost collapsed, no other very obvious 
change. Th. 64° Fahr. 11.50. Some movement occurring. 
The large size of abdominal 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th very 
conspicuous, the incisions being much expanded. The 
appearance is as though the girth was holding up the skin 
on 1st and 2nd abdominal and meta-thorax, but the 
contents had gravitated back and distended these lower 
segments. In this specimen the silk for the tail grip is a 
little tag, a little loose and flocculent, shaped like a short 
blunt thorn, of which the apex is at present opposite the 
middle of the dorsal surface of 10th, the prolegs holding 
the stem to which the larva is attached some 25 mm. 
above it. 

12.30 p.m. Length of different portions of larva: 
Head and 1st and 2nd thoracic = 3 mm., but these are 
curved and are much more along dorsum. 3rd thoracic, 
1st abdominal = 2 mm., i. e. 1 mm. each. 2nd and 3rd 
= 3 mm. = 1-5 each. 4th, 5th, 6th = 7 mm., i. e. 
2'3 mm. each ; 7th, nearly as much. 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th 
= 5 mm. 

12.45 p.m. Strong movements of contraction in 2nd, 3rd, 
4th abdominal segments, but quiescence elsewhere. No 
definite vermicular movements. 

12.55. Regular vermiform movement from behind for- 
wards, one every five seconds without so far much change 
in skin. 

12.58. Tracheae drawn out along abdominal segments 
2-7, loop drawn back, front segments straight. 

1.2 p.m. Split down back in usual way. Skin slips back 
under loop. 

1.5. Skin behind loop. Scrap of broken-off tubercle 
sticks to it ; loop lies in 3rd and 4th abdominal incisions. 

1.10. Skin gone. The movements of getting hold by 
the cremaster move the loop to the thoracic abdominal 
incisions, where it deeply indents wings during movements 

210 Dr. T. A. Chapman on the 

for getting rid of skin. Wings not yet descended fully 
on to 4th abdominal. 

1.15. Various movements apparently for forcing fluid 
forward and expanding wings, etc. 

1.18. The attachment of the loop is just opposite the 
eyes of the pupa ; wings, etc., and head above loop swollen 
and knobbed, below smooth and tapered. 

1.22. Occasional movements, but on the whole resting, 
wings not quite down. Hangs much like an ordinary 
Papilio, except for apparent strangulation of front. 

1.24. Wings to place. 

1.35. 1st spiracular hollow (with black spiracle at bot- 
tom) sinking, dorsal eminence of meso-thorax and wing 
angles becoming of more mature form and less like swellings 
from strangulation, but loop still cuts deeply into wing 
and across base of hind-wing. 

1.50. The wings are much straightened out and the 
loop cuts into them very little to what it did. Abdominal 
segments are shortening and closing up, not yet quite so 
much as in a mature pupa. 

1.54. Is hanging with a strong sag (or bend) in 

2.3. From head to end of 4th abdominal, now very long 
and abdominal segments diminished. The loop is now 
hardly buried and is seen to be on top of 3rd thoracic (not 
iu 3rd thoracic to 1st abdominal incision) at about ^ or ^ 
of its width from front border. 

2.15. Straightened itself a little and then fell back 
again. Meso-thoracic dorsal ridges becoming sharper, 
anterior end still obviously somewhat soft. 

2.25. Straighter, — no deformity of wings can be seen 
either where loop now crosses, or where it did before, 
except it seems a little impressed on one ridge of the 

2.30. A lateral jerk or two. 

3.40. Loop is still a girth, though pupa is apparently 
mature as to form, and much dark shading has appeared. 

5.45. No further change, still slung as a Papilio. 

In both this and following specimens the girth is quite 
loose and at liberty to slip in any direction. Moving the 
pupa by touching the head enough to show the girth to be 
quite free does not in any way alter its position. 

It does not look possible for it to slip forwards, but a 
twist of the pupa might catch it by the wing-spine and 

Pupal suspension of Thais. 211 

throw it forward. Something of this sort must occur, — 
when ? 

May 27. This specimen escaped observation but moved 
the girth to nose-hooks some time between 1.15 and 3 p.m., 
twenty- four hours after moulting to pupa. 

Second Specimen. — May 26, 12.35 p.m. Subspiracular 
tubercles of 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th abdominal are now colour- 
less and collapsed, dorsal and marginal of same region also 
changing. 3rd and 4th abdominal segments are beginning 
to enlarge. Incisions 4th to 5th abdominal getting wide; 
up till half-an-hour ago no change was visible and segments 
were not of very unequal lengths. 

1.16. Only a few anal warts still coloured. 

1.35. Only wart of 9th abdominal segment still coloured 

1.50. Thermometer 74° Fahr. Abdominal segments large 
and incisions wide, 3rd thoracic and 1st abdominal very 
small. The higher temperature seems helping this 
specimen on more rapidly than No. 1. 

2 p.m. Abdominal incisions wide, lower end looks like 
end of pupa with larva skin overlaid and claspers (shrunk) 
stuck on outside. 

2.20. 4th, 5th and 6th abdominal very large, incisions 
wide ; some stretching, almost vermiform, movements. 

2.43. Genuine rhythmical vermiform motion begins 
and head rises a little. 

2.50. Quiet again, the three free incisions (of pupa) 
very wide ; from abdominal 4th to 5th incision to head, 

11 mm., to claspers, 9 mm. 

2.59. Movement beginning again, in 1st, 2nd and 3rd 
abdominal segments. 

3.5. Regular vermiform movement from end to end. 

3.6. Skin accumulated at tail. 

3.7. Thoracic skin split, it slips down, the collapsed 
warts passing under loop. 

3.15. Process finished. The getting rid of larval skin 
is delayed a little by its fluid adhesion to pupa. The 
cremaster got hold at second try, aud skin was shoved off 
at two twists, after fluid adhesion gave in. Loop fell into 
abdominal 3rd-4th incision as soon as skin left it, but in 
twistings for shoving off skin it slipped quickly to back 
of prothorax. To end of wings 8 mm., wings to cremaster, 

12 mm. 

3.22. Wings getting rapidly down to place. There are 

212 Dr. T. A. Chapman on the 

contracting and expanding (lengthwise) movements of 

3.30. Wings into place. 9 mm. head to end of wings, 
11 mm. wings to cremaster = 20 mm. 

3.40. Top of wings and meso-thorax, etc., have the 
appearance of being strangulated above loop, being swollen 
out and lumpy. 

3.45. On lateral view, pupa has very Papilio-\ike out- 
line, say podalirms, head thrown back, curvature with 
ventral projection of wings, etc., very different from the 
straightness of the mature Thais pupa. 

4.3. Is now hanging very much sagged and bent. 

5.45. Seems nearly mature and has more dark colouring. 
Head to end of wings 12 mm. Wings to cremaster 9*5. 

May 27, 4.50. Was not looking at specimen but at 
another two inches from it, when a sudden movement 
attracted my attention to it. 

I was in time to see the girth take hold of the nose- 
spines, and see the pupa complete what appeared to be 
two revolutions on its axis, but might have been one, or 
three ; the whole taking place in less than a second, per- 
haps a third of a second, apparently as rapidly as an 
active pupa rotates his tail. 

A very unexpected movement, as the pupa looked so 
straight and stiff (and it is fairly stiff when one receives it 
in autumn), and for a pupa with a girth to rotate on its 
axis seems so unlikely, the way in which the girth is 
twisted round the nose-hooks led me to expect a rotatory 
movement, but without any change of orientation. What 
struck me afterwards as remarkable was how in such a 
sudden movement the pupa came to rest again exactly 
facing its attachment. An examination of these two 
pupae shows that they made at least two revolutions, as the 
girth has reached the nose-hook and one further revolution 
has been made twisting it round once (quite) after it had 
caught, and the cremastral silk also shows twisting. 

I have not made it very clear how the revolution is 
effected. It is by bending the tail to one side and then 
twirling it round ; when I say to one side, I should in this 
case say forwards, as the attitude during the movement 
was that of bending away from the supporting twig. 

Another specimen was observed to make a second 
rotatory movement, on one occasion, some hours after the 
cable had been moved forwards, but it would seem to be 

Pupal suspension of Thais. 213 

the rule that rotation is made once only for a fraction of 
a second, about twenty-four hours after the moult. 

The rotation is on an axis, i. e. it does not sweep the 
head round in a circle, maintaining the venter towards the 
stem of attachment all the time, but presents towards the 
stem successively one side, the dorsum, the other side, and 
so on. The rotation is effected by the abdominal seg- 
ments being bent forwards, i.e. virtually making the pupa 
present a deep curve towards the stem. Then by sweep- 
ing round the abdominal segments in a way that is common 
to many pupai the hollow of the curve remains towards 
the stem, but affects successively each aspect of the pupa 
as it rotates. 

The mature pupa a few days later is very stiff and 
straight, and its possessing such motility twenty-four hours 
after moulting is somewhat unexpected. 

In order to observe the way in which the girth is made 
by the larva of Papilin, I obtained a few larva of P. 
machaon, and kept rather a close watch on them, but four 
succeeded in suspending themselves, girth and all, without 
my having surprised them at work. They do it apparently 
somewhat quickly, and give no clear indication beforehand 
of when they are likely to do so. With the fifth I was 
more fortunate, happening to look at it when the making 
of the girth was under way, indeed more than half-finished; 
he was working at one end, passing the spinneret too and 
fro about the attachment of the loop. The loop itself, 
consisting of a number of quite detached threads, passed 
between the fore-legs of the larva, forwards, the larva being 
so bent round that its head and prothorax were directed 
backwards. Then well above the meso-thoracic leg and 
rather higher on the meta-thorax, then well above the 
spiracle of the 1st abdominal, not quite so far above that 
of the second, and then passed down to its other attach- 
ment. The most anterior portion of the larva in this 
position was the side of the meta-thorax and 1st abdominal 
segment just below the loop. Then the larva began to 
add another thread to the loop. The head and front seg- 
ments are well raised and the loop falls into the incision 
between the 1st and 2nd pair of legs, the head is pressed 
down and the spinneret lies between the first two legs 
and reaches very close to the loop ; the larva sweeps the 
head across from the one end of the loop to the other 
slowly and by short jerks and stops, as though the silk 

214 Dr. T. A. Chapman on the 

had to be drawn out. As it does so, the loop which was 
stretched over the sides of the four segments (2nd, 3rd 
thoracic, 1st, 2nd abdominal) on one flank, gradually leaves 
them and becomes stretched over the same line on the 
opposite side. Then the process of fastening it and 
spinning various sinuations of silk over the other place 
of attachment of the loop is repeated. I saw it do this 
several times, and then at one end it delayed a little, and 
came up with the head not above the loop, still less the 
front-legs, but with the loop across the front of the head 
at the base of the labrum. When about the middle, it 
made some movements and I thought it was going to 
throw the loop backwards into place ; this, however, it did 
not do, but continued to the other side ; so far as I could see 
it spun no thread this time, it then twice repeated the 
ordinary process of adding a thread, and again repeated 
the passage with the thread above the labrum. It was 
now making a good many contortions with the effect that 
the anterior segments became decidedly diminished in 
bulk ; as soon as it reached the end of the loop with it 
above the labrum, it put the head with little difficulty under 
the loop so that the loop was across the vertex, and then 
making the passage across and raising the mouth end of 
the head, the loop easily slipped backwards. It was not, 
however, before some little time spent in twistings and 
contortions, that looked as if intended to push the loop 
back, but were really effective in again distending the 
front part of the larva and diminishing the posterior that 
the loop fell into its place between the 2nd and 3rd 
abdominal segments, and the larva rested as quite satisfied. 

Though the larva was slow and deliberate in its move- 
ments this was all done in a very few minutes ; the threads 
of the girth seem to remain distinct and separate, and do 
so to much nearer their attachment than in T. cassandra, 
where the spreading of silk over the attachment includes 
the lapping of the adjacent portion of the loop. 

It may be noted that the position of the loop in the 
larva between the 2nd and 3rd abdominal is constant, as I 
saw it in all specimens, though I did not see it made. In 
the pupa it is different, viz. just behind the middle of the 

It sinks into the soft chitin of the newly-moulted pupa 
which, as it were, flows over it in two places on each side, 
there is in fact a lappet formed at each of these places, 

Pupal suspension of Thais. 215 

that passes over the loop and encloses it in a short tunnel. 
Sometimes it is quite fixed here, at others it can be drawn 
through these tunnels and removed, if it is first cut. The 
two places where these lappets are found are on the hind- 
wing, and on the fore-wing just below the cell some little 
way basal to vein 2. 

It is perhaps erroneous to say that the loop sinks into 
the soft chitin, at least to say so may produce; the false 
impression that there is something accidental about it ; it 
is, however, a constant arrangement, and the lappets are 
no doubt structures specially arranged for the purpose. 

To test this a larva suspended for pupation was treated 
by cutting the loop away. It was seen very shortly after 
pupation, before the pupa had quite assumed its permanent 
form and was still very soft. The very striking fact 
appeared now, that across the wings there was a very 
distinct depression marked by a central linear mark, as 
if the girth were present and indenting the soft pupa. 
When the pupa had attained maturity with a firm skin, 
this appearance had gone, and at first glance there was no 
evidence of the overlapping chitin that bridges over the 
girth. A closer look, however, showed the prominence at 
the base of the under-wing that forms the anterior over- 
lapping margin, with a linear groove just behind it, and on 
the middle of the fore-wing at the position of the tunnel for 
the girth is a glazed line, but no definite overlapping. It 
therefore seems that the pupa is prepared for the girth tak- 
ing its pi'oper position by a definite channel occurring across 
the wings whilst the cuticle is still plastic ; that the two 
special places (on fore- and hind-wing) are prepared for 
its inclusion beneath the surface; that of the hind-wing 
which is a very strong lappet forms even if the girth is not 
there ; that on the fore-wing, the overlying lappet does 
not form, unless it has the assistance of the downward 
growth of the wings, which occurs during the maturing of 
the pupa just before hardening, and as the lappet is not 
formed, the walls of the tunnel that would contain the 
girth are left exposed as a glazed line in this position. 

As a subsidiary effect of cutting the girth the pupa did 
not succeed in fastening the cremnster on the provided 
anal pad of silk. When at rest for pupation the claspers 
hold the silk in front of the pad, which stands up un- 
occupied just behind the pupa, or rather behind the 
claspers and under the end of the anal plate, and in 

21 G Dr. T. A. Chapman on the 

moulting' the cremaster is thrust back over the skin to 
reach the pad. The loss of the girth, however, deprives 
the pupa of the power of preserving a correct alignment, 
and so the fulcrum provided by the skin held in place by 
the claspers cannot be efficiently utilized. 

The whole process of spinning the girth seems therefore 
to be identical in Papilio and Thais. 

P.S. — The abortive journeys across the loop, between 
the spinnings of its separate threads and the final journey 
iu which the loop is thrown back, may be speculated on as 
showing that the movement for spinning and that for 
throwing back are variations of one and the same move- 
ment, and that the definite distinction between them is 
not so fixed, but that an intermediate movement may 
occur, either as not being yet entirely eliminated or by 

The larva of rapse makes the girth in a way that is 
essentially the same as in Papilio, but yet with an amount 
of variation that renders it actually very different. 
Essentially the girth is made in front of the larva and 
between the head and first pair of legs (not between the 
1st and 2nd pair of legs, as in Papilio), but the raising of 
the front segments of the larva, which in Papilio may be 
likened to the "Sphinx" attitude, is in rapas carried to an 
extreme, so that when the larva is adding to the middle 
point of the girth the head is bent back so that the back 
of the head touches the dorsum of the abdomen, about 
the incision between 2nd and 3rd abdominal segments, 
the ventral face of head and first thoracic segment being 
directed exactly dorsal, the legs of 2nd and 3rd thoracic, 
forwards. As the head is carried to either side, these for- 
ward segments so rotate that the venter becomes ventral 
over all segments, but the forward segments instead of 
being bent dorsally, are bent laterally, and the head is 
against the side of the 2nd and 3rd abdominal segments. 
In all these positions the loop seems to be fairly tense. 
When the head is bent to one side, the girth passes over 
the middle of the 2nd abdominal segment and the middle 
of the 1st thoracic, the portion of the larva between 
these two positions being in front of the loop, the rest 
behind it. In the median position, there is perhaps a 
large proportion of the 1st thoracic segment in front of the 
loop. Indeed the head only might be regarded as behind 
the loop. It is observable, that during this process the 

Pupal suspension of Thais. 217 

2nd abdominal segment seems small and contracted, the 
abdominal segments behind and the thoracic in front 
seeming relatively swollen. 

The completion of the process, when the spinning is 
finished, is really very different from that in Papilio. In 
Papilio the front of the head is put forward under the loop 
and it is slipped back into its place by a movement very 
similar to that by which a thread is added to the girth. 
In rapse, at the end of fixing the last thread at the side, 
the head is merely drawn forward from under the loop. 

The references to the spinning of the loop in Pieridse 
that I have met with, give the idea that it is spun from 
the outside across the abdominal segments, the spinneret 
being carried to and fro across the surface of the 
segment — a feat that a moment's reflection on the details 
of such a process will show to be impossible. It is made 
across the 2nd abdominal segment, but the larva is so 
bent back that the loop passes at the same time round 
its neck and the spinning is from the inner- or under-side. 

When I say that the spinning from the outside is 
impossible, it is perhaps going too far, for there is no 
necessary limit to the amount of bending a larva may do, 
but when one sees the amount of strain on the full-fed 
larva of rapse to get the head as far back as it does, it is 
seen that whatever it might be for some hypothetical larva, 
it would be impossible for rap/e to bend further back till 
the spinneret touches the abdominal dorsum. Or if we 
take the actual position when the larva is fastening one 
end of the loop, if it thence carried the spinneret up the 
side of the segment towards its dorsum, the combination 
of lateral bending and longitudinal twist would stop the 
process before the spinneret reached the dorsum, much less 
reached the other side. 

218 . Explanation of Plate. 

Explanation of Plate XII. 

Suspension of Thais. 

Three several figures of the larvae of different individuals sus- 
pended for change to pupa to show (which the smallest specimen 
does most successfully) the position of the " girth " at this stage, 
and three of pupa, the first with the girth in the Papilla position it 
occupies during the first twenty-four hours after moult, the other 
two with it in the well-known Thais position attached to the 

( 219 ) 

XII. Notes on Neio Zealand Lepidoptera. By IE. MeYriclv, 
B.A., F.R.S., F.E.S. 

[Read February 1st, 1905.] 

For the material of the following notes and descriptions 
I am again indebted to the kindness and energy of Mr. 
G. V. Hudson, of Wellington, except where it is otherwise 
stated. In addition to describing the new species I have 
made some corrections of synonymy and other notes. 


Chloroclystis samlycias, sp. n. 

Chloroclystis plinthina, Huds., N. Zeal. Moths, 41, 
pi. vi, 8, nee Meyr. 

(J?i 14-16 mm. Head and palpi ochreous- white, seldom 
mixed with green, palpi 2|. Antennae white ringed with dark 
grey, in <£ ciliated with fascicles (3). Thorax whitish-ochreous 
sprinkled with blackish. Abdomen ochreous-whitish, more or less 
tinged with reddish-ochreous towards base and apex, and variably 
sprinkled or mixed with blackish. Fore-wings somewhat elongate- 
triangular, costa faintly sinuate, apex obtuse, term en bowed, rather 
oblique ; ochreous-whitish to white ; basal area more or less tinged 
with reddish-ochreous and suffusedly striated with blackish irroration, 
usually extending considerably further on costal area than on dorsal; 
median band almost always conspicuously pale, sometimes mixed 
with green, generally striated with dark irroration on costa and 
dorsum but seldom indistinctly throughout, posterior edge formed 
by a double pale line prominently angulated in middle, more 
than usually approximated to termen on lower half ; when a series of 
blackish neural dots precedes this, it follows the angulation of the 
line ; a blackish linear discal dot, sometimes indistinct ; terminal 
area reddish-brown, seldom mixed with green, interrupted by a 
pale patch opposite angle of median band, subterminal line pale, 
waved ; an interrupted blackish terminal line : cilia whitish more 
or less suffused with fuscous-reddish, basal half barred with 
blackish, apical half less distinctly with grey. Hind-wings with 
termen sinuate, rounded-prominent below middle ; whitish, towards 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1905. — PART II. (JULY) 15 

220 Mr. E. Mey rick's Notes on 

dorsum obscurely striated with reddish and blackish irroration ; a 
rather large blackish-grey discal dot ; terminal area with indistinct 
grey lines, sometimes reddish-tinged ; cilia as in fore-wings. 

Twelve specimens, Wellington. Although very variable, 
this is a neat and easily recognised species; it is one of 
the smallest, and the almost constantly conspicuous paler 
median band is a striking feature ; it is perhaps nearest 
to C. plinthina, but in that species the palpi are much 
longer (especially in the $, in which sex they are 4§), the 
expanse of wing greater (19-20 mm.), termen of fore- 
wings more oblique, post-median series of black dots 
gently curved in disc, not angulated. 

Xanthorhoe chlorias, Meyr. 

Venus,ia princeps, Huds., Trans. N. Zeal. Inst. 1902, 
244, pi. xxx, 1, is a synonym of this. 

Xanthorhoe occulta, Philpott. 

Xanthorhoe occulta, Philpott, Trans. N. Zeal. Inst. 1902, 
248, pi. xxxii, 5. A specimen received ; it is a good 
species, apparently allied to Xanthorhoe mnesichola. 

Xanthorhoe periph&a, sp. n. 

£ . 26 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen fuscous sprinkled with 
whitish. Fore-wings triangular, termen slightly bowed, oblique ; 
light fuscous, sprinkled with darker fuscous and whitish ; two very 
obscurely darker fascia? indicating median band, first curved, pre- 
ceded by several white dots, second irregularly curved outwards 
on upper f, followed by a series of white dots ; some whitish dots 
indicating subterminal line, edged with obscure darker shades : cilia 
fuscous-whitish, with two fuscous lines. Hind-wings rather elongate, 
light fuscous ; cilia as in fore-wings. 

One specimen ; Humboldt Range, Lake Wakatipu, at 
4000 ft. An obscure species, apparently nearest to 
X. chiono gramma. 

Notoreas sipiclinalis, Huds. 

Notorcas synclinalis, Huds., Trans. N. Zeal. Inst. 1902, 

244, pi. xxx, 6. 

£ $ . 25-26 mm. Head and thorax grey-whitish, more or less 

mixed with fuscous ; thorax with a blackish stripe on each side of 

back. Fore-wings rather elongate-triangular, costa sinuate, termen 

bowed, rather strongly oblique ; ochreous-brovvn ; a broad grey 

New Zealand Lepidoptcra. 221 

streak along costa, in $ mixed with whitish, connected at hase with 
a white longitudinal median streak reaching to f of disc ; two longi- 
tudinal black streaks above and below middle, curved upwards 
posteriorly, not reaching termen, upper interrupted near base and 
more broadly posteriorly, lower indented above on veins, margined 
beneath by a white streak curved up round its extremity, indented 
beneath extremity of upper and continued round it to apex of wing ; 
a slender dark grey terminal streak, in $ mixed with whitish : cilia 
dark grey, more or less mixed with white, especially in $ . Hind- 
wings blackish-grey, with faint pale post-median shade. 

Three specimens ; Seaward Moss, Invercargill. Allied 
to N insignis, but very distinct. 

Notoreas mechanitis, Meyr. 

Three specimens sent of a well-marked local form 
occurring on Mt. Holdsworth, Tararua Range, north of 
Wellington, at 4000 feet, characterized as follows : 

25-27 mm. (typical form does not exceed 23 mm.) ; duller, with 
less yellow intermixture ; specially characterised by the obsolescence 
of the black lines on under-surface of hind-wings, which are strongly 
marked in all South Island forms. 

Notoreas isoleuca, Meyr. (the locality for which should, I 
am informed, be Castle Hill, not Wellington), is, as I am 
now satisfied from further material, only a form of N. 
mechanitis, the chief differences being due to a diminution 
of the yellow suffusion. The species is however in all 
its forms always quite distinct from N paradelpha, in 
which the wings are differently formed, the fore-wings 
being somewhat more elongate, with the costa straighter, 
and the hind-wings obviously more elongate in proportion 
to the fore-wings, the cilia sharply barred, the median 
band of fore-wings narrower and differently formed, its 
anterior margin much less curved, and posterior less 
angulated in middle, and regularly indented above and 
below middle. 

Notoreas ischnocyma, sp. n. 

Notoreas isoleuca, Huds., N. Zeal. Moths, 72, pi. viii, 
27, nee Meyr. 
<$ . 20 mm. Head and thorax dark fuscous. Fore-wings trian- 
gular, costa slightly arched, termen obliquely rounded ; dark fuscous, 
with some scattered yellow-whitish scales ; subbasal, first, median, 

222 Mr. E. Mey rick's Notes on 

second, and subterminal lines slender, whitish, subbasal straight, 
first nearly straight, somewhat irregular, median indistinct, curved 
outwards in disc, second waved throughout, angulated in middle, 
indented beneath middle, subterminal irregularly waved : cilia 
white, basal half barred with dark fuscous. Hind-wings with 
ground colour, median, second, and subterminal lines, and cilia as 
in fore-wings. 

One specimen, Castle Hill. This is easily known from 
the allied forms by the slender waved second line. 

Notoreas omichlias, Meyr. 

£ 5 • 22-27 mm. In fresh specimens the fore-wings show a 
bluish-slaty gloss ; in Mt. Holdsworth examples the edge of basal 
patch and margins of median band are marked by slender light dull 
ochreous fascia', but these are hardly perceptible in my other 

Seven specimens, Humboldt Range, and Mt. Holdsworth. 

PARAGYRTIS, gen. 11. 

Face obliquely prominent. Tongue developed. Antennoe f, in g 
bipectinated, towards apex simple. Palpi moderately long, porrected, 
rough-scaled. Thorax not hairy beneath. Fore- wings : 10 anas- 
tomosing with 9 above 7. Hind-wings : 6 and 7 approximated, 8 
approximated to cell to beyond middle. 

Allied to Tlieoxcna. 

Paragyrtis inostentata., Walk. 

Panagra inostentata, Walk. Cat. Geom. 1012; Dichro- 
modes griseata, Huds. Trans. N. Zeal. Inst. 1902, 
244, pi. xxx, 5. 

^ 5 • 15-23 mm. Head and thorax white, more or less irrorated 
with fuscous. Fore-wings rather elongate-triangular, costa straight, 
termen straight, rather oblique, strongly rounded beneath ; ground 
colour formed by fine transverse rows of dark fuscous scales tijjped 
with white, appearing grey, sometimes broadly suffused with white 
beneath costa and beyond second line ; a black discal spot ; 
second line represented by a sinuate dark fuscous shade from 
beneath costa near apex to dorsum beyond middle, sometimes 
broadened on lower portion, more usually faint or wholly obsolete ; 
in one specimen a dark fuscous praatornal suffusion : cilia dark 

New Zealand Lepidoptera. 223 

fuscous, tips white, round torn us lighter. Hind-wings elongate, 
varying from whitish to grey, towards termen usually darker- 
suffused ; in the most strongly marked specimen there are suffused 
darker post-median and prsetornal shades as in fore- wings; cilia grey, 
exti'eme tips white. 

Seaward Moss, Invercargill ; described from one New 
Zealand and twelve Australian examples. This species 
was accidentally omitted from my paper on the Australian 
species of this family, but it has long been known to me, 
being in fact one of the commoner Australian species, 
occurring at Duaringa and Brisbane, Queensland ; Sydney 
and Blackheath, New South Wales; Melbourne, Victoria ; 
Blackwood, South Australia; Perth and Albany, West 
Australia; from September to January. I have not 
however previously seen it from New Zealand. It is 
extremely variable in the depth of colouring and intensity 
of marking. 


Selidosema pungata, Feld. 

Selidosema pungata, Feld., Reis. Nov., pi. exxxi, 23 ; S. 

fascialata, Philpott, Trans. N. Zeal. Inst., 1902, 248, 

pi. xxxii, 7. 

£. 40 mm. Head and thorax brownish-ochreous. Fore-wings 

somewhat elongate-triangular, costa gently arched, termen bowed, 

little oblique ; light ochreous-brown, with scattered short fuscous 

strigulas marked with a few black scales ; a rather broad dark 

fuscous median band, edged narrowly anteriorly and more broadly 

and suffusedly posteriorly with ochreous-whitish, anterior edge 

slightly curved, posterior rounded-prominent near costa and more 

broadly below middle, thus concave above middle ; subterminal line 

waved, ochreous-whitish, edged with dark fuscous suffusion, rather 

broadly interrupted in middle, posterior marginal suffusion running 

to termen beneath apex instead of to costa. Hind-wings light 

ochreous-yellow, towards termen deeper and more ochreous. 

One specimen; according to Mr. Philpott, this species 
occurs in several localities in Southland in February and 
March, and the female does not differ from the male ex- 
cept in being somewhat paler. It is very similar to 
S. productata, but constantly distinguished by the peculiar 
form of the posterior margin of median band of fore-wings. 
Not knowing of the existence of this species, I formerly 
attributed Felder's figure to prodnvtata. 

224 Mr. E. Meyrick's Notes on 


Sporophyla, gen. n. 

Face rounded ; tongue developed. Antennae §, in £ simple, 
shortly ciliated, basal joint moderate. Labial palpi moderately 
long, obliquely ascending, second joint much thickened with dense 
scales, terminal joint short, obtuse. Maxillary palpi rudimentary. 
Fore-wings : 4 absent, 3 and 5 connate, 8 and 9 stalked. Hind- 
wings : 2 almost from angle of cell, 4 absent, 3 and 5 stalked, 6 and 
7 connate, 8 closely approximated to cell and anterior portion of 7. 

Allied to Crocydopora, but distinguishable by the simple 
antennas of the male ; the labial palpi are also shorter 
and stouter. 

Sporophyla cenospora, Meyr. 

Crocydopora cenospora, Mcyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 
1897, 388. 

Having now received additional specimens, including 
the male, which was previously unknown, I am enabled 
to characterize the genus as above, and also to add the 
following particulars to my specific description : 

£ $. 15-17 mm. Head and thorax dark grey mixed or densely 
irrorated with white, sometimes mixed with ferruginous. Fore- 
wings as described, but more usually without ferruginous admix- 
ture, varying considerably in the preponderance of white or blackish 
scales, in one specimen densely irrorated with white throughout so 
as to obscure the markings. Hind-wings varying from grey to dark 
fuscous, usually darker terminally. 

Three additional specimens, Ida Valley, Otago, taken 
by Mr. J. H. Lewis. This species is evidently very 


Orocrambus m.achteristes, sp. n. 

$ 2 ■ 21-24 mm. Head and thorax dark brown mixed with 
blackish, centre of crown and of thorax anteriorly and in <j? face 
whitish. Palpi blackish-fuscous, whitish internally. Antennae dark 
fuscous. Abdomen dark fuscous, somewhat whitish-sprinkled. Fore- 
wings elongate, moderately dilated, costa hardly arched, apex obtuse, 
termen rather oblique, straight, rounded beneath ; brown, more or 
less mixed with dark grey and grey-whitish (more strongly in $) ; 

New Zealand Lcpidoptcra. 225 

an ochreous-white median longitudinal streak from base to 5, dilated 
and obliquely truncate posteriorly, edged beneath by a thick black- 
ish streak which curves up round posterior extremity, where it is 
interrupted by interneural lines of ground colour, and continued as 
a series of diminishing spots to near costa ; a black subdorsal 
streak from base to J ; a curved series of blackish marks on veins 
from i of costa to tornus : cilia grey, with darker basal shade, tips 
ochreous-whitish. Hind-wings dark grey, becoming blackish-grey 
towards termen ; cilia as in fore-wings. 

Two specimens, Mount Earnslaw (5300 feet). A 
striking and distinct species. 

Crambus sethonellus, Meyr. 

The female differs considerably from the male, and may 
be described as follows : 

9 . 20 mm. Fore-wings brassy-bronze, suffused with dark fuscous 
in disc and on veins posteriorly ; a narrow white sub-costal streak 
from base to near apex, sometimes interrupted obliquely beyond 
middle, broader and more suffused posteriorly, connected at base 
with a moderate straight white median streak from base to termen ; 
a white dorsal streak from near base to tornus, dilated posteriorly : 
cilia white, mixed with fuscous at apex and below middle of termen, 
Hind-wings rather dark fuscous, darker posteriorly ; cilia whitish- 
ochreous, with a fuscous line. 

I took both sexes in company at Invercargill, and have 
since received a female taken in the same district by 
Mr. Philpott. 

Crambus heteraulus, sp. n. 

£ . 35 mm. Head white, behind eyes and in centre of face 
brownish-ochreous. Palpi nearly 4, bronzy-ochreous, white above 
and at base beneath. Antenna? dark fuscous. Thorax bronzy- 
ochreous, with broad white dorsal stripe. Abdomen whitish- 
ochreous. Fore-wings elongate, moderately dilated, costa moder- 
ately arched, ajjex nearly rectangular, termen obliquely rounded ; 
brownish-ochreous, with strong brassy reflections ; a rather narrow 
white median longitudinal streak from base to beyond f, thence 
continued as three undefined white interneural lines to termen, 
edged with some darker scales posteriorly above, and towards middle 
beneath ; dor-sum narrowly white towards base ; two elongate 
wedge-shaped white interneural streaks resting on termen beneath 
apex, uppermost longer ; cilia white. Hind-wings fuscous*whitish • 
cilia white, 

226 Mr. E. Mcyrick's Notes on 

One specimen, Humboldt Range (3600 feet). Nearest 
to 0. crcnmus, from which it differs by the fore-wings being 
broader, with more arched costa, th«e median white streak 
incomplete posteriorly, and the white interneural streaks 
between this and apex ; from all other nearly allied species 
it differs by the absence of any white costal or sub-costal 

Omnibus sophistes, sp. n. 

£ . 17 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax fuscous, suffusedly mixed 
with whitish ; palpi 5. Antennae dark grey. Abdomen whitish, 
basal half brassy. Fore-wings very elongate, narrow, gradually 
dilated, costa gently arched, apex somewhat acute, termen rounded, 
rather strongly oblique ; fuscous, irregularly irrorated with grey- 
whitish ; a short suffused dark fuscous mark along dorsum towards 
base * a slender white streak, edged with scattered dark fuscous 
scales, along fold from base to middle, thence acutely angulated in- 
wards to near dorsum, this portion edged posteriorly with some dark 
fuscous suffusion ; two dark fuscous dots longitudinally placed in disc 
about § ; two sub-terminal series of short blackish dashes on veins, 
and a third less complete on termen : cilia whitish, with two inter- 
rupted fuscous lines. Hind-wings fuscous-whitish ; cilia ochreous- 

One specimen, Ida Valley, Dunedin, taken by Mr. J. H. 
Lewis. The species is intermediate between C. eyclopicus 
and narpophorus, but cannot be confused with either, 

Aryyria strophsea, sp. n. 

$ $ . 15-18 mm. Head and thorax ochreous-whitish, partially 
yellowish-tinged, and sprinkled with dark grey. Palpi 4, grey, 
darker-sprinkled, whitish above and towards base beneath. An- 
tenna? ochreous-whitish, obscurely ringed with dark fuscous. 
Abdomen ochreous-whitish irrorated with dark grey. Fore-wings 
elongate-triangular, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen slightly 
rounded, oblique, faintly waved ; pale brassy-ochreous, suffusedly 
mixed with white, and irrorated with dark grey ; subbasal line 
white, edged anteriorly with dark fuscous, angulated near costa, 
obsolete towards dorsum ; first and second lines white, more or less 
edged with dark fuscous, first obtusely angulated above middle, 
second sinuate inwards towards dorsum, preceded on costa by a small 
dark fuscous spot ; a small roundish dark fuscous spot in disc before 
middle ; a narrow white transverse mark in disc beyond middle; 
a terminal series of dark fuscous lunulate marks: cilia whitish, with 

New Zealand Lepidopterd. 227 

a fuscous subapical Hue, basal half barred with fuscous. Hifid-wings 
grey, darker posteriorly ; cilia as in fore-wings. 

Five specimens, Wellington. It is extremely distinct, 
bearing very little resemblance to the other New Zealand 
species, A. pentadactyla, yet probably more allied to it 
than to any other known to me. 

Taurosco2M traj)ezitis, sp. n. 

£ . 22 mm. Head and thorax blackish-fuscous mixed with white, 
orbits and cheeks naked, orange. Palpi dark fuscous, white on 
upper longitudinal half and at base beneath. Antennae blackish, 
towards base whitish-sprinkled. Abdomen bronzy-fuscous sprinkled 
with white. Fure-wings elongate-triangular, costa faintly sinuate, 
apex rounded, termen rather obliquely rounded ; grey, partially 
slightly ochreous-tinged, densely and suffusedly mixed with whitish; 
markings blackish, somewhat irregular-edged ; a streak along basal 
third of dorsum, and a streak from base of costa equal and parallel 
to this ; two small costal spots before and one beyond middle ; an 
oblique narrow-trapezoidal spot in disc before middle, its posterior 
edge formed by whitish first line, which is very acutely angulated 
below middle ; a reniform discal spot slightly beyond middle ; 
second line whitish, obtusely angulated in middle and indented 
beneath costa, edged with black anteriorly and by an oblique 
black spot on costa posteriorly ; a terminal series of small black 
spots : cilia grey, with dark grey basal shade, tips white. Hind- 
wings rather dark grey ; cilia grey, mixed with white towards tips. 

One specimen, Mount Earnslaw, at 5300 ft. This, the 
second discovered species of the endemic genus Tavroscopa, 
bears a general resemblance to T. r/orgopis, but is very dis- 
tinct, especially by the peculiarly formed first line ; whilst 
the singular naked orange cheeks and orbits are quite a 
unique feature, of which there is no trace in the other 

Diptyclwphora, microdora, sp. n. 

c£ ? . 10-12 mm. Head, palpi, antenna;, thorax, and abdomen 
dark fuscoiis ; palpi mixed with yellowish towards base. Fore- 
wings triangular, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen Insinuate, 
oblique, rounded beneath ; dark fuscous, bronzy-tinged ; first and 
second lines dark, angulated, edged on costa with yellow striguh*w, 
first edged on dorsal half anteriorly by two confluent yellow spots 
and posteriorly by a yellow line, second edged posteriorly towards 

228 Mr. E. Meyrick's Notes on 

dorsum by a wedge-shaped yellow mark ; a yellow costal strigula 
just before apex, terminated by a white dot ; cilia dark grey, with 
an irregular white basal line round apex and upper part of termen 
(imperfect). Hind-wings and cilia dark fuscous. 

I took a specimen on Mount Arthur at 3000 feet in 
January, and have received a second from Mr. Hudson, 
but neither is in very good condition. The species is 
nearly allied to •pyrsophanes, but much smaller, darker, 
and with more developed yellow markings. 


Scoparia meliturga, sp. n. 

$ $ . 17-19 mm. Head and thorax ochreous-white irrorated with 
dark fuscous. Palpi 3, dark fuscous, whitish-mixed, white towards 
base beneath. Antenna? dark fuscous, ciliations in £ \. Abdomen 
pale grey, more or less suffused with ochreous-whitish. Fore-wings 
elongate-triangular, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen slightly 
sinuate, rather oblique, rounded beneath ; ochreous-whitish, more 
or less suffused with pale ochreous-yellowish in disc, sprinkled with 
dark fuscous ; first line ochreous-white, edged posteriorly with dark 
fuscous suffusion, slightly curved, indented in middle ; orbicular 
and claviform usually quite undefined or represented only by some 
dark fuscous suffusion, seldom orbicular centred with an ochreous- 
whitish dot; discal spot 8-shaped, ochreous-whitish or whitish- 
ochreous, more or less outlined finely with dark fuscous ; second 
line ochreous-white, edged anteriorly with dark fuscous, moderately 
curved outwards from \ to f , sharply indented at \ ; terminal area 
irrorated with dark fuscous, subterminal line thick, suffused, 
ochreous-whitish, touching second line in middle, sometimes 
slenderly interrupted above this ; an interrupted ochreous-white 
terminal line : cilia whitish, with dark grey interrupted anterior 
and light grey posterior line. Hind-wings without long hairs in 
disc ; pale whitish-grey, suffused with grey posteriorly ; cilia whitish, 
with grey subbasal shade. 

Six specimens, Auckland and Wellington, taken by 
myself in December and January ; I have also received 
the species from Mr. Hudson. Until lately I had mistaken 
this for a form of S. philerga, but am now satisfied of its 
distinctness; it is a neater and smoother-looking insect, 
always recognizable by the well-marked yellowish tinge ; 
moreover in &. philerga the orbicular is normally white 

New Zealand Lepidoptera. 229 

edged with black, and the subterminal line is more broadly 

Scoparia thyridias, sp. n. 

^ . 18 mm. Head fuscous. Palpi 2i, fuscous, white towards base 
beneath. Antennae dark fuscous, ciliations 5. Thorax brownish, 
mixed with whitish and dark fuscous. Abdomen whitish-fuscous. 
Fore-wings very elongate-triangular, costa gently arched, apex 
rounded-obtuse, termen rather oblique, rounded ; brownish, densely 
and suffusedly irrorated with dark fuscous ; first line white, nearly 
straight, rather oblique, irregular-edged, becoming double towards 
dorsum ; an oblong pellucid patch in middle of disc, preceded and 
followed by blotches of orange suffusion, anterior extended down- 
wards along first line ; second line slender, waved, white, curved 
outwards from j to f , forming a spot on dorsum ; subterminal line 
very undefined, Avhitish, broadly interrupted above middle : cilia 
whitish-fuscous, with two darker shades. Hind-wings without hairs 
in disc ; light grey, darker terminally ; cilia as in fore-wings. 

One specimen, locality not specified but probably 
Wellington. This is distinguished from all other New 
Zealand species by the naked discal patch (possibly not 
developed in £) ; a similar structure is found in certain 
Hawaiian species, but I think it improbable that they are 
nearly allied specifically, and regard the character as having 
been developed independently in each "case. S. thyridias 
belongs apparently to the neighbourhood of S. philerga. 

Scoparia dochmia, sp. n. 

£ . 20 mm. Head brownish-ochreous, somewhat whitish-sprinkled. 
Palpi 3, dark fuscous, white towards base beneath. Antennae dark 
fuscous, ciliations \. Thorax fuscous, whitish-sprinkled. Abdomen 
pale ochreous-grey, whitish-mixed. Fore-wings elongate-triangular, 
costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen faintly sinuate, rather 
oblique, rounded beneath ; light brownish irrorated with darker, 
veins and margins suffusedly irrorated with blackish, median area 
irrorated with white ; first and second lines well-marked, white, 
interiorly blackish-edged, first somewhat curved, rather oblique, 
sinuate in middle and rather abruptly rounded-prominent below 
this, preceded in middle by a spot of white and blackish irroration ; 
second parallel to termen, slightly curved from \ to f ; orbicular 
and claviform forming undefined spots of blackish suffusion resting 
on first line ; discal spot X-shaped, blackish, ill-defined ; subterminal 
line indicated by whitish irroration, entire, approximated to termen 

230 Mr. E. Mcyrick's Notes on 

and riot touching second line : cilia whitish-fuscous, with two rather 
dark fuscous shades. Hind-wings without long hairs in disc ; pale 
whitish-fuscous, with a slight brassy tinge ; a grey discal spot ; an 
undefined grey postmedian line ; termen suffused with grey ; cilia 
whitish, with fuscous subbasal shade. 

One specimen, Lake Wakatipu, at 1300 feet. Although 
an ordinary-looking insect, without striking characters, 
this species does not in fact at all nearly approach any 
other ; possibly it has most resemblance to the Australian 
S. cremitis. 

Scoparia triclcra, sp. n. 

$ . 12 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen dark grey sprinkled with 
whitish. Palpi 2§, dark fuscous, white towards base beneath. 
Antenna? dark fuscous. Fore wings elongate- triangular, crista poste- 
riorly gently arched, apex obtuse, termen rather oblique, faintly 
sinuate, rounded beneath ; blackish-fuscous mixed with whitish ; a 
small pale ochreous elongated subbasal spot in middle ; a broad 
ochreons-white postmedian band parallel to termen, somewhat 
narrowed towards costa, mixed with ochreous in disc ; subterminal 
line undefined, whitish : cilia dark fuscous, somewhat whitish-mixed. 
Hind-wings without long hairs in disc ; dark fuscous ; cilia fuscous, 
base pale. 

One specimen, Wellington. In size, shape and general 
markings so like S. chlamydota that I should have thought 
it one sex of that species, of which however I have both 
sexes, not differing at all from one another ; I am there- 
fore obliged to regard it as distinct. It is easily separated 
by the dark fuscous terminal area of fore-wings, and the 
dark fuscous hind-wings. 

Scoparia phahrias, sp. n. 

5 . 23 mm. Head ochreous, sprinkled with dark fuscous. Palpi 
2|, ochreous, mixed with dark fuscous, white towards base beneath. 
Antennae ochreous spotted with dark fuscous. Thorax brown mixed 
with dark fuscous, edged laterally and posteriorly with ochreous- 
white. Abdomen light greyish-ochreous. Fore-wings elongate, 
gradually dilated, costa slightly arched posteriorly, apex obtuse, 
termen rather oblique, faintly sinuate, rounded beneath ; dark 
fuscous, with fine scattered whitish scales ; a pale ochreous patch, 
mixed with ochreous-brown, extending along costa from J to |, and 
reaching nearly half across wing ; a small round pale ochreous sp o t 

New Zealand Lepidoptera. 231 

beneath this before middle, and a narrow elongate one beyond middle: 
cilia ochreous-white. Hind-wings without hairs in disc ; pale grey, 
darker towards apex ; cilia whitish. 

One specimen, Wellington, in April. Not at all like 
any other, but perhaps allied to S. submarginalis. 

Scop>aria sideraspis, sp. n. 

£ ? . 25-28 mm. Head dark grey mixed with whitish. Palpi 3, 
blackish mixed with white, towards base white beneath. Antenna) 
dark fuscous, in ^ pubescent-ciliated on whole surface. Thorax 
shining bluish -bronze. Abdomen bronzy-fuscous, in 9 suffused 
with yellow-ochreous on sides and posteriorly. Fore-wings elongate, 
moderate, suboblong, in $ more dilated posteriorly ; shining slaty- 
bluish fuscous ; a faint darker undefined discal spot : cilia fuscous. 
Hind-wings with long hairs in disc ; fuscous, darker posteriorly, in 
9 more or less tinged or suffused with ochreous-yellowish anteriorly ; 
cilia whitish-yellowish, with two fuscous lines. Under-surface, 
especially of hind -wings, more or less wholly suffused with ochreous- 

Three specimens, Mount Earnslaw (5300 feet) and 
Humboldt Range. The slaty-bluish colouring recalls S. 
catascesta, to which however the species is not really allied, 
but rather to the neighbourhood of S. nomentis, though 
very distinct ; the ochreous-yellow suffusion of the under- 
surface is a peculiar characteristic. 


Platyptilia epotis, sp. n. 

9 . 25 mm. Head white. Palpi 2^, greyish-ochreous sprinkled 
with dark fuscous, white above. Antennas grey. Thorax whitish 
suffusedly sprinkled with brownish-ochreous, patagia becoming clear 
white posteriorly. Abdomen white, partially suffused with pale 
brownish-ochreous except towards base. Legs white, anterior femora 
and tibiae fuscous. Fore-wings with apex pointed, subfalcate, termen 
rather deeply concave ; pale brownish-ochreous densely irrorated 
with white, broadly suffused with white towards costa and dorsum 
on posterior half ; basal J of costa irrorated with dark fuscous, thence 
a narrow dark fuscous costal streak reaching to f ; a dot of two or 
three dark fuscous scales in disc at f ; a short transverse blackidi- 
fuscous mark before cleft ; a strong oblique blackish streak from 
apex to anterior half of lower margin of first segment, where it is 

232 Mr. E. Meyrick's Notes on 

broadest ; an undefined blackish-fuscous longitudinal dasli in centre 
of basal half of second segment : cilia whitish, with a dark fuscous 
spot above apex, an interrupted blackish basal line on central third 
of termen, and two or tbree blackish scales on dorsum at §. Hind- 
wings pale fuscous, second segment whitish-tinged ; cilia whitish- 
fuscous ; two or three fine blackish hair scales in dorsal cilia of third 
segment beyond middle. 

One specimen, Humboldt Range, at 3600 feet. The 
stalk of veins 8 and 9 of fore-wings is very short. The 
species resembles generally Stenoptilia leucoxesta and S. 
charadrias (probably with real genetic affinity), but is 
distinct from everything by the well-defined blackish 
subapical bar. 


Notcraula sideritis, sp. n. 

£ . 15 mm. Head and thorax brownish-ochreous. Palpi moder- 
ately long (2|), ochreous-brown. Antenna? whitish-ochreous, with 
dark fuscous serrations. Abdomen grey, darker posteriorly, anal 
tuft whitish-ochreous. Fore-wings elongate, somewhat dilated 
posteriorly, costa moderately arched, apex obtuse, termen slightly 
sinuate, rather oblique, rounded beneath ; whitish-ochreous finely 
strigulated with dark fuscous, mixed in disc and towards apex 
wholly suffused with ferruginous-ochreous ; two curved posterior 
oblique purplish-leaden-metallic stria? from costa at • and f , terminat- 
ing before and beyond tornus ; a series of undefined blackish marks 
between these, starting from an oblique leaden-metallic costal streak ; 
a short direct leaden-metallic costal streak before apex : cilia grey, 
basal third with a blackish-grey line broadly interrupted with 
brownish-ochreous, at tornus whitish-ochreous. Hind-wings grey, 
terminal edge whitish ; cilia light grey, with darker basal line. 

One specimen, Wellington (?). The discovery of a 
second species of this genus is interesting ; the palpi are 
much shorter and the termen of fore-wings much less 
oblique than in N. straminea. 

Strepsicrales doloptva, sp. n. 

£ . 13 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax pale greyish-ochreous 
irrorated with whitish. Antennae grey, suffused with whitish above, 
notrh at about £ from basal joint. Abdomen pale greyish-ochreous. 
Fore-wings elongate, narrow, costa moderately arched, apex round- 
pointed, termen sinuate, oblique, rounded beneath, costal fold reach- 

Neiv Zealand Lepidoptcra. 283 

ing | ; pale greyish-ochreous, irrorated witli whitish and strigulated 
with fuscous, posteriorly more ochreous ; an undefined patch of 
fuscous suffusion extending along costa from f to £ ; margins of 
ocellus, and an angulated stria beyond it leaden-metallic : cilia 
pale grey irrorated with whitish. Hind-wings with 3 and 4 coinci- 
dent ; whitish-grey ; cilia grey-whitish, with faint grey subbasal 

One specimen, Wellington. Structurally similar to 
S. zopherana, but much paler, and without any of the 
dark markings of that species. 


Dipterina hemiclista , sp. n. 

£ . 15 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax grey mixed with dark 
fuscous, palpi short, H. Fore-wings elongate, considerably dilated 
posteriorly, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen obliquely 
rounded ; rather dark slaty -grey, with irregular angulated dark 
fuscous striae, tending to break up into strigulse ; edge of basal patch 
dark fuscous, right-angled in middle ; an oblique dark fuscous blotch 
on costa before middle, another at f, and a third apical : cilia grey 
mixed with dark fuscous. Hind-wings fuscous, darker posteriorly. 

One specimen, Wellington. Not like any of the other 
New Zealand species (which also differ much among them- 
selves), but with considerable resemblance to an undescribed 
Tasmanian species. 

Eurytheda zel&a, sp. n. 

£ . 10-11 mm. Head ochreous, face and a central longitudinal 
streak on crown suffused with white. Palpi 2, white, externally 
suffused with ochreous. Antenna; dark grey. Thorax fuscous mixed 
with ochreous and whitish. Abdomen fuscous. Fore-wings lanceo- 
late, round-pointed, obviously more elongate and narrower than in E. 
robusta ; fuscous, more or less mixed irregularly with pale yellowish- 
ochreous and white ; costa suffused with white, and marked with a 
quadrate dark fuscous spot before middle, and three smaller posterior 
spots ; a dark fuscous dorsal spot before middle, another on tornus, 
and several more or less defined dots on termen : cilia fuscous, basal 
third mixed with whitish, tips pale. Hind-wings rather dark fuscous, 
darker posteriorly ; cilia fuscous, paler towards tips. 

Two specimens, Ida valley, Otago, taken by Mr. J. H. 
Lewis. This is closely allied to E. rohista, but differs in 

234 Mr. E. Meyrick's Notes on 

the absence of the two dark fasciae, which though often 
interrupted are always present and well-marked as fasciae 
in E. robusta, whereas in E. zelma they are represented only 
by small costal and dorsal spots ; and also structurally in 
the considerably narrower and more elongate fore-wings. 
E. robusta may be extinct ; I believe it has not been seen 
for very many years, though formerly locally abundant. 

Ascerodes, gen. n. 

Palpi moderately long, porrected, triangularly scaled with long 
rough projecting hairs. Antennae in <£ biciliated with fascicles of 
long cilia. Thorax without crest. Forewings in $ without costal 
fold ; 7 and 8 separate. Hind-wings without pecten of hairs on 
lower margin of cell ; 3 and 4 approximated at base, 5 somewhat 
approximated to 4, 6 and 7 approximated at base. 

Apparently most allied to Harmoloya, from which it 
differs by the absence of the costal fold ; separable from 
Proselena and Protliclymna by veins 6 and 7 of hind-wings 
not being stalked. 

Ascerodes igrochlora, sp. n. 

£. 18 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax dark fuscous mixed with 
ferruginous-orange, palpi 3. Antenna} blackish spotted with white, 
ciliations 3. Abdomen dark grey, with whitish lateral streaks. 
Fore-wings elongate, suboblong, costa moderately arched towards 
base and apex, apex rounded, termen somewhat rounded, rather 
oblique ; dark grey, densely overlaid with ferruginous-brown ; costa 
broadly and dorsum narrowly suffused with pale yellowish-ochreous : 
cilia ochreous-whitish, basal half suffused with dark grey. Hind- 
wings dark grey, more blackish-grey posteriorly ; cilia whitish, basal 
half greyish-tinged, with blackish-grey basal line. 

One specimen, Humboldt range, at 4000 feet. 

Tortrix, indigestana, Meyr. 

Tortrix indigestana, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S Wales, 
1881, 520. 

Of this widely distributed Australian species, not 
previously recorded from New Zealand, I took a good 
specimen at Whangarei in December, which I cannot 
distinguish from Australian examples. 

New Zealand Lepidoptera. 235 


Heterocrossa contactella, Walk. 

Tinea contactella, Walk. Suppl. 1813. 

'5- 14-15 mm. Head white. Palpi 2|, white, lower longitudinal 
half blackish. Antennas white, obscurely ringed with fuscous. 
Thorax whitish-ochreous mixed with dark grey, collar and patagia 
white. Abdomen pale greyish-ochreous. Fore-wings elongate, 
narrow, costa moderately arched, apex round-pointed, termen very 
oblique, almost straight, rounded beneath; grey, irregularly irrorated 
with dark grey and white ; a broad irregular-edged white suffusion 
extending along anterior half of costa, and reaching § across wing j 
three or four small black dots on costa anteriorly, second forming a 
short strigula ; a narrow oblique-transverse pale ochreous spot edged 
with black below middle at \ ; a black dot above middle of disc, and 
a small pale ochreous sometimes blackish-mixed spot below it ; three 
small faint whitish-ochreous spots arranged in a triangle in disc 
beyond middle ; all these ochreous spots are ringed with white 
suffusion ; an undefined angulated dark subterminal shade, marked 
with black on veins ; a series of blackish dots on posterior half of 
costa and termen : cilia light grey irrorated with white, basal half 
obscurely barred with whitish. Hind-wings grey, paler anteriorly ; 
cilia whitish. 

Two specimens, Wellington. I have not actually com- 
pared these specimens with Walker's types, but from notes 
I made on a previous inspection I think there is little 
doubt of their identity ; the species had not hitherto been 
rediscovered. It is intermediate between adrcptella and 
the rest. 


Hypercallia aletis, sp. n. 

$ . 13 mm. Head and thorax light fuscous sprinkled with 
whitish-ochreous. Palpi whitish-ochreous, a subapical ring of second 
joint, and terminal joint except apex somewhat infuscated. Antennas 
greyish-ochreous, ciliations 3. Abdomen fuscous. Fore-wings elon- 
gate, moderate, costa gently arcbed, apex round-pointed, termen 
somewhat rounded, rather strongly oblique ; greyish-ochreous 
irrorated with fuscous ; some dark fuscous scales towards base of 
costa ; first discal and plical stigmata very obscure, darker, plica] 
rather obliquely beyond first discal ; second discal distinct, dark 
fuscous, with some whitish scales beneath it : cilia greyish-ochreous 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1905. — PART II. (JULY) 10 

236 Mr. E. Mey rick's Notes on 

mixed with fuscous. Hind-wings rather dark fuscous, lighter 
anteriorly ; cilia light fuscous, with darker subbasal shade, tips 

I took one specimen on Arthur's Pass at 3000 feet, in 
January. It is an insect of the most obscure appearance, 
probably allied to the other New Zealand species of the 
genus, H. amene r na, but differing obviously in the very 
much smaller size and dark hind-wings. These two out- 
liers of a characteristic Australian genus are probably 
amongst the few indications of an immigration by way of 

ProUodes profunda, sp. n. 

^ . 20 mm. Head ochreous, mixed on sides with dark fuscous. 
Palpi dark fuscous, extreme apex of second and terminal joints pale 
ochreous. Antenna?, fuscous. Thorax dark fuscous, somewhat 
mixed partially with whitish-ochreous. Abdomen dark fuscous 
mixed with ochreous-whitish ; at base a pair of oblique narrow 
bladder-like membranes above. Fore-wings broad, suboblong, 
rather dilated posteriorly, costa moderately arched, apex obtuse, 
termen faintly sinuate, little oblique," rounded beneath ; fuscous, 
with series of cloudy dots of black irroration on veins ; markings 
formed by whitish-ochreous suffusion, irregularly sprinkled with 
dark ferruginous ; about six irregular subconfiuent spots towards 
base and anterior half of costa ; a triangular subterminal patch 
extending from apex to tornus and leaving a narrow terminal streak 
of ground colour, its apex extending inwards to lower angle of cell ; 
small discal spots of blackish suffusion before and beyond middle : 
cilia whitish-fuscous, basal half mixed with dark fuscous and whitish- 
ochreous, on costa with four pale dots. Hind-wings grey ; cilia 

One specimen, Mount Holdsworth, in forest, at 2000 
feet. This, the second discovered species of Protcodes, 
differs a good deal superficially from P. camifex, and has 
a very Tortriciform appearance. 

Trachypepla phteoptila, sp. n. 

£ . 15 mm. Head ochreous-white, face and crown mixed with 
dark fuscous. Palpi white, basal third and a subapical band of 
second joint, and two bands on terminal joint blackish. Antennae 
dark grey, ciliations f, even. Thorax fuscous sprinkled with whitish, 
mixed with dark fuscous anteriorly. Abdomen rather dark fuscous. 

New Zealand Lepidoptera. 237 

Fore-wings elongate, costa moderately arched, apex obtuse, termen 
oblique, rounded beneath ; fuscous, irregularly strewn with white, 
ochreous-brown, and black scales ; markings very undefined ; the 
black scales indicate an angulated basal patch, a large irregular 
blotch on middle of costa, some raised tufts in disc, and an apical 
patch ; the anterior edge of the costal blotch is margined with white 
suffusion ; an obscure roundish spot of brownish-ochreous suffusion 
beneath disc beyond middle : cilia fuscous, basal half mixed with 
white and blackish. Hind-wings dark fuscous ; cilia fuscous, with 
dark fuscous subbasal shade. 

One specimen, Mangaterera River, Mount Holdsworth. 
Comparable with T. anastrella from the dark fuscous hind- 
wings, but apart from the more blackish mixture of fore- 
wings (which are also more elongate), differing widely in 
the antennal ciliations of $ , which are short (f ) and even, 
whilst in anastrella they are long (3) and whorled ; this 
character is not noticed in my description of anastrella. 
The length of ciliations differs considerably in various 
species of Trachypepla, and appears to afford here specific 
characters only. 

Trachypepla lathriopa, sp. n. 

£. 14-16 mm. Head and thorax brown. Palpi brownish- 
ochreous, sprinkled with dark fuscous, extreme tips of second and 
terminal joints whitish. Antenna? dark fuscous, ciliations l£, even. 
Abdomen rather dark fuscous. Fore-wings elongate, costa moder- 
ately arched, apex round-pointed, termen very obliquely rounded ; 
light reddish-fuscous, irregularly sprinkled with brown aud dark 
fuscous ; edge of basal patch indicated by a very obscure pale acutely 
angulated narrow fascia ; stigmata dark fuscous, very undefined, 
plical rather obliquely beyond first discal ; a subterminal series of 
undefined dark fuscous dots, indented beneath costa ; a series of 
undefined dark fuscous dots along posterior part of costa and termen : 
cilia whitish-fuscous, tinged with reddish, with a grey postmedian 
shade. Hind-wings dark fuscous, lighter towards base ; cilia grey, 
with dark grey basal shade. 

Six specimens, taken by myself at Wellington, Nelson, 
and on the Mt. Arthur plateau in January, and also 
received from Mr. Hudson. Very like obscure examples 
of anastrella, with which I have hitherto confused it, but 
obviously longer-winged, aud certainly distinct by the 
much shorter and evenly-arranged ciliations of antennas. 

238 Mr. E. Meyrick's Notes on 

Izatha (Semiocosma) mctadclta, sp. n. 

$ . 17 mm, 9- 19-25 mm. Head fuscous sprinkled with whitish, 
with well-marked conical horny frontal prominence concealed in 
scales. Palpi white, second joint mixed with dark fuscous, with 
dark fuscous basal and subapical bands, terminal joint mixed with dark 
fuscous at base, with dark fuscous median band. Antennae dark 
fuscous ringed with whitish. Thorax whitish, mixed with fuscous 
in g , on patagia ochreous-tinged, anteriorly suffused with dark 
fuscous. Abdomen dark fuscous mixed with whitish, two basal 
segments ferruginous-ochreous. Fore-wings elongate, moderate, 
costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen straight, rather oblique, 
rounded beneath ; brownish -ochreous or fuscous, more or less 
sprinkled with whitish and dark fuscous, darkest in <$ , towards costa 
and dorsum suffused with whitish in $ '■> dark fuscous marks at base 
of costa and dorsum ; a small fuscous spot on costa at -J, and a larger 
triangular one on dorsum at |, latter followed in $ by a patch of 
ochreous suffusion ; a dark fuscous subquadrate spot on costa before 
middle, and a larger subtriangular one extending on costa from 
middle to £- ; two dark fuscous transverse discal spots before and 
beyond middle, touching these costal spots respectively, partially 
edged with black and then with white, first suboval, mostly filled 
with raised scales, second curved -reniform, lower posterior margin 
broadly interrupted ; in £ two undefined longitudinal discal black- 
ish streaks traversing these spots ; an ill-defined cloudy whitish 
curved subterminal line ; a terminal series of small dark fuscous 
spots: cilia fuscous sprinkled with whitish. Hind- wings in g black- 
ish-fuscous, in § dark fuscous, lighter anteriorly ; cilia fuscous, with 
darker basal shade. 

Three specimens, Wellington. Nearest to /. epiphanes, 
but very distinct ; the conical horny frontal prominence is 
a noticeable structure; it recurs (though previously un- 
observed because slight and concealed) in a less developed 
form in some but not all of the other species, and is 
doubtless adaptive. 

Gymnobathra bryaula, sp. n. 

£ . mm. Head and thorax ochreous- whitish, somewhat mixed 
with pale greenish -yellow, thorax with two small anterior dark 
fuscous spots. Palpi whitish, base and a subapical ring of second 
joint, and subbasal and subapical rings of terminal joint dark 
fuscous. Antennae ochreous-whitish, basal joint dark fuscous above, 
ciliations 2. Abdomen ochreous-whitLsh, second segment more 

New Zealand Lepidoptera. 239 

ochreous. Fore-wings elongate, somewhat dilated posteriorly, costa 
moderately arched, apex obtuse, termen straight, oblique, rounded 
beneath ; ochreous-whitish, mixed with light greenish-yellow and 
sprinkled with dark fuscous, especially on veins ; markings fuscous 
mixed with dark fuscous ; small spots on base of costa and dorsum, 
a small double spot near base in middle, and three small double spots 
representing stigmata, plical obliquely beyond first discal ; two 
elongate marks above tornus ; a subterminal series of small subcon- 
fluent spots, approximated to termen, acutely indented beneath apex ; 
five small spots on posterior half of costa : cilia ochreous-whitish, 
basal half spotted with dark fuscous (imperfect). Hind-wings 
ochreous-grey-whitish ; cilia whitish, with grey basal dots on veins. 

One specimen, Wellington. Very distinct; might be 
placed between sarcoxantha and thetodes. 

BorlcJuiusenia (CEcophoni) penthalea, sp. n. 

<$ 5 . 15-17 mm. Head pale brownish-ochreous, whitish- 
sprinkled. Palpi ochreous-whitish, second joint with basal half 
dark fuscous and a subapical ring of dark fuscous irroration, terminal 
joint with subbasal and subapical rings of dark fuscous irroration. 
Antennae grey, ciliations of <$ 1. Thorax pale brownish-ochreous 
sprinkled with fuscous, anteriorly suffused with dark fuscous. 
Abdomen light grey. Fore-wings elongate, costa moderately arched, 
apex obtuse, termen very obliquely rounded ; whitish-ochreous, 
irrorated with light brownish, with some dark fuscous scales towards 
margins, sometimes forming distinct patches of dark suffusion on 
costa at base, J, and middle ; an oblique dark fuscous mark above 
dorsum before middle ; discal stigmata crescentic, dark fuscous, 
hollow beneath, often ill-defined ; a moderately broad subterminal 
fuscous or brown fascia, irrorated with dark fuscous, narrowed 
towards costa and on tornus : cilia whitish-ochreous irrorated with 
fuscous, at tornus with a darker bar above a pale spot. Hind-wings 
light grey, darker towards apex ; cilia grey-whitish, with grey basal 

Three specimens, Wellington. Allied to griscata; readily- 
distinguished by the smaller size and well-defined dark 
fuscous subterminal fascia. 

Borkhcmscnia chloradelpha, sp. n. 

$ ? . 18-20 mm. Head whitish-ochreous. Palpi ochreous-whit- 
ish, basal half of second joint sometimes irrorated with dark fuscous. 
Antenna? whitish ringed with dark fuscous, ciliations of <$ 1, 

240 Mr. E. Meyrick's Notes on 

Thorax whitish-ochreous, with brown subdorsal stripes. Abdomen 
ochreous-whitish. Fore-wings elongate, costa moderately arched, 
apex pointed, termen faintly sinuate, rather strongly oblique ; pale 
whitish-ochreous, along dorsum and on posterior half more or less 
partially brownish-tinged and sprinkled with brown and dark brown ; 
a suffused brown streak, mixed with dark brown, along submedian 
fold from base to tornus ; stigmata fuscous, often indistinct, plical 
obliquely beyond first discal ; a subterminal line of dark fuscous 
scales very indefinitely indicated : cilia pale whitish-ochreous, more 
or less sprinkled with fuscous. Hind-wings and cilia ochreous- 

Four specimens, Wellington. Intermediate between 
griseata and politis, but easily distinguished from both by 
the whitish-ochreous colouring, brown submedian streak, 
and whitish hind-wings. 

Borkhauscnia thranias, sp. n. 

^ . 10 mm. Head and thorax oivange-yellow. Palpi whitish- 
yellow, second joint irrorated with dark fuscous except towards 
apex. Antennae dark fuscous, ciliations 1. Abdomen light silvery- 
grey. Fore-wings elongate, costa moderately arched, apex round- 
pointed, termen very obliquely rounded ; deep yellow, towards base 
orange-tinged ; a well-defined rather dark fuscous streak along costa 
from base to middle ; a few fuscous scales in disc beyond middle 
and towards tornus : cilia light ochreous-yellow. Hind-wings light 
grey ; cilia whitish-grey-ochreous. 

One specimen, taken by myself at Whangarei in 
December. Nearest hortBa; characterised by small size, 
well-defined costal streak reaching middle, and absence 
of dark colouring on thorax. 

BorJchmcsenia mclanamma, sp. n. 

£ . 12-14 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax grey irrorated with white. 
Antenna?, dark grey ringed with whitish, ciliations 1. Abdomen 
grey, more or less mixed with ochreous-yellowish. Fore-wings 
lanceolate, costa bent at \ ; fuscous, irrorated with white, with a few 
scattered dark fuscous scales ; four oblique fascia? of dark fuscous 
irroration from costa at base, J, f, and § indicated or obsolete : cilia 
light fuscous, some irroration and tips whitish. Hind-wings grey; 
cilia light grey, with darker basal shade. 

Two specimens, Ida Valley, Otago, taken by Mr. J. H. 
Lewis. Near siderodeta ; similar in form of wing but 
differs by the white irroration (causing grey appearance), 

New Zealand Lepidoptera. 241 

absence of ochreous-yellow or ferruginous suffusion, and 
lighter hind-wings. Both species evidently vary con- 
siderably, but I have taken siderodeta in plenty, and in 
all its forms it is clearly distinct from mclanamma. 

Borkliauscnia loxotis, sp. n. 

g. 11-12 mm. Head and palpi dark fuscous irrorated with 
oclireous- whitish. Antenna; dark fuscous, pale-ringed. Thorax and 
abdomen dark fuscous. Fore-wings elongate, costa moderately 
arched, apex round-pointed, termen very obliquely rounded ; dark 
fuscous ; some scattered pale yellowish scales along submedian fold ; 
a narrow straight pale ochreous-yellowish fascia, edged with some 
black scales, from J of costa to § of dorsum ; a pale ochreous-yellow 
dot in disc at §, and sometimes others on costa beyond middle and 
at tornus ; a more or less indicated subterminal line of pale yellowish 
scales, starting from a small costal spot : cilia fuscous, irrorated with 
yellow-whitish. Hind-wings dark fuscous ; cilia fuscous, with 
darker basal shade. 

I took one specimen at Wellington in January, and 
have received another from Mr. Hudson. It is inter- 
mediate between siderodeta and ehry si gramma, but quite 
distinct from either. 

Borkhausenia pharmactis, sp. n. 

£ . 15 mm. Head fuscous, sprinkled with pale yellowish hairs. 
Palpi whitish-yellowish, sprinkled with dark fuscous. Antenna? 
whitish-yellowish, ringed with dark fuscous. Thorax ochreous- 
yellow, anteriorly suffused with fuscous. Abdomen grey. Fore- 
wings elongate, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen slightly 
rounded, rather strongly oblique ; deep ochreous-yellow, finely 
sprinkled throughout with brown ; extreme costal edge dark 
fuscous towards base : cilia ochreous-yellow, somewhat sprinkled 
with brown. Hind-wings dark grey ; cilia whitish-grey, with grey 
basal shade. 

I took one specimen on the Mount Arthur plateau, at 
an elevation of 4000 feet, in January. Perhaps allied to 
anmma, but much deeper-coloured, and quite without the 
dark costal streak and other markings. 


Phylacodes, gen. n. 

Head with appressed scales ; ocelli present ; tongue developed. 
Antenna? f, in $ shortly ciliated, thickened above with scales on 

242 Mr. E. Meyrick's Notes on 

basal half, basal joint moderate, without pecten. Labial palpi long, 
recurved, with appressed scales, second joint somewhat roughened 
beneath towards apex, terminal joint longer than second, acute. 
Maxillary palpi short, slender, acute, porrected. Posterior tibice 
smooth-scaled above, loosely haired on apical half beneath. Fore- 
wings: 2 from very near angle of cell, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to termen, 
11 from middle of cell. Hind-wings slightly over 1, subtrapezoidal, 
termen slightly sinuate, cilia § ; 3 and 4 rather approximated at 
base, 5, 6, 7 parallel. 

Not obviously near to any described genus. 

Phylacodcs cauta, sp. n. 

c^.*14 mm. Head and thorax light brownish-ochreous, slightly 
purplish-tinged. Palpi whitish-ochreous, slightly fuscous-sprinkled, 
especially beneath apex of second joint. Antenna3 pale greyish- 
ochreous. Abdomen dark grey, anal tuff white. Fore-wings elongate, 
narrow, costa gently arched, apex round-pointed, termen very 
obliquely rounded ; light greyish-ochreous, on costal half suffused 
with ochreous-white, especially on veins ; several minute black dots 
along submedian fold, dorsum, and termen, and towards apex ; a 
larger round dot in disc at § : cilia ochreous-whitish. Hind-wings 
grey, becoming blackish-grey towards apex ; cilia light grey, with 
dark grey basal shade, tips whitish. 

One specimen, Ida Valley, Otago, taken by Mr. J.H.Lewis. 

Orthenches drosochalca, sp. n. 

c£ $ . 11mm. Head and thorax leaden-grey. Palpi dark fuscous, 
inwardly and towards base white, terminal joint half as long again 
as second (1^). Antenna? dark fuscous, ringed with white. Abdomen 
grey, towards base pale ochreous, apex in g whitish. Fore-wings 
elongate, costa moderately arched, apex pointed, termen sinuate, 
rather strongly oblique, rounded beneath ; 7 to termen ; shining 
coppery -bronze ; four oblique fascia? of white irroration, first 
slender, second antemedian, broader, third angulated, considerably 
enlarged towards costa, fourth forming an apical patch extended 
along termen ; a spot on base of costa, an interrupted streak along 
submedian fold, and a spot above middle of disc purple ; a dark 
fuscous-purple transverse mark in disc at |, in third fascia : cilia 
light grey, above apex spotted basally with purplish. Hind-wings 
ovate-lanceolate, apex acute, termen sinuate ; light grey, darker 
posteriorly ; cilia whitish-grey. 

I took a specimen in the Otira Gorge in January, and 
have received another from Mr. Hudson, taken in Welling- 

New Zealand Lepidoptera. 243 

ton. Allied to porphyrins, and similar in form of wing, 
but structurally distinct by vein 7 of fore- wings run- 
ning to termen, not apex, and terminal joint of palpi 1J 
instead of 2, as well as by the clear coppery-bronze colour- 
ing and lighter hind-wings. 

Compsistis orthophanes, sp. n. 

2 . 9-10 mm. Head, antennae, and thorax dark bronzy-fuscous. 
Palpi rather dark fuscous, internally whitish-ochreous, terminal 
joint as long as second. Abdomen dark fuscous, apex •whitish- 
ochreous. Fore-wings elongate, narrow, costa gently arched, apex 
round-pointed, termen very obliquely rounded ; fuscous, slightly 
purplish-tinged, irrorated with dark fuscous and blackish ; a straight 
rather narrow fascia at J, a small spot in middle of disc, and opposite 
subcostal and subdorsal spots at J pale ochreous-yellow, irregular- 
edged : cilia fuscous, mixed with dark fuscous towards base. Hind- 
wings dark fuscous ; cilia fuscous, with dark fuscous basal shade. 

Two specimens taken by myself at Auckland and Nelson, 
in December and January. 


Dryadaula myrrhina, sp. n. 

£ . 9 mm. Head, palpi, antenna 1 , and thorax ochreous-whitish. 
(Abdomen broken.) Fore-wings elongate, rather narrow, costa 
gently arched, apex round-pointed, termen faintly sinuate, extremely 
oblique ; 7 and 8 separate ; shining, whitish-yellowish ; two very 
oblique triangular fuscous spots on costa about \ and before middle ; 
a fuscous dot above dorsum at J ; an inwardly oblique fuscous strigula 
on dorsum at § ; a fuscous costal dot at § ; some indistinct brownish 
suffusion on dorsal half posteriorly and towards apex ; a thick 
black terminal line, interrupted below apex and in middle : cilia 
whitish-yellowish. Hind-wings trapezoidal, termen faintly sinuate 
below apex ; light grey ; cilia grey-whitish. 

One specimen, probably from Wellington. Nearly allied 
to the Australian D. glycinopa, under which name I now 
believe I confused two distinct species ; I therefore add 
diagnoses of these, to show that all three are distinct. 

Dryadaula glycinopa, Meyr. 

Dryadaula glycinopa, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. 
Wales, 1892, 559 (part). 
$. 9-10. (Antennae broken.) Fore-wings with 7 and 8 stalked ; 
shining whitish-yellowish ; very oblique ochreous-yellow fascia-like 

244 Mr. E. Meyrick's Notes on New Zealand Lepidoptera 

streaks from costa at A and before middle, and a blotch on costa 
about §, all marked with dark fuscous on costal edge ; a suffused 
ochreous-yellow streak along submedian fold, and indications of two 
or three oblique streaks from dorsum coalescing with it ; an incom- 
plete fine dark fuscous line from about f of disc to apex ; an irregular 
blackish line along termen, tending to be interrupted below apex and 
in middle. Hind-wings sub trapezoidal, termen not sinuate ; grey, 
lighter toward base. 

Two specimens, Blackheath, New South Wales, in 

Dryadaula naptea, sp. n. 

Dryadaula qlycinopa, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. 
Wales, 1892, 559 (part). 

9 . 8 mm. Antenna; towards apex with three dark fuscous bauds. 
Fore-wings with 7 and 8 short-stalked ; white ; very oblique 
ochreous-yellow fascia-like streaks from costa at 4, and ^, marked 
with fuscous on costa, meeting in disc two shorter oblique ochreous- 
yellow streaks from dorsum ; a deep ochreous-yellow streak along 
submedian fold from base ; a triangular fuscous blotch extending 
on costa from middle to |, connected with termen by a yellow- 
ochreous suffusion ; a fuscous spot on costa near apex ; an incomplete 
line of dark fuscous scales from -§ of disc to termen beneath apex, 
space beneath this mostly suffused with yellow-ochreous ; blackish 
dots at apex and tornus, connected by an incomplete row of blackish 
scales along termen. Hind-wings broadly lanceolate, pale grey. 

One specimen, Deloraine, Tasmania, in November. 

( 245 ) 

XIII. On three remarkable new genera of Microlepidoptera. 
By Sir George F. Hampson, Bart., B.A. 

[Read March 1st, 1905.] 



Genus Pachypodistes, nov. 

Proboscis aborted ; palpi not projecting beyond frons and very 
thickly clothed with hair ; maxilliary palpi absent ; frons with 
thick tuft of hair ; antenna? ciliated ; legs of male thickly clothed 
with hair, the fore tarsi fringed with hair, the mid and hind tarsi 
with immense tufts of hair on upper-side, the spurs absent, female with 
the tibiae and tarsi smoothly scaled and very much swollen, the tarsal 
joints indistinct, the spurs absent ; abdomen very long, especially in 
female where the anal segment is twice the length of the others. 
Fore-wing with the costa concave and the apex produced upwards, 
especially in male, the termen strongly excurved ; vein 3 from angle 
of cell ; 4-5 stalked in male, approximated for some distance in 
female ; the upper angle of cell produced, especially in male, 6 from 
angle in male, in female shortly stalked with 7, 8, 9, 10 ; 11 from 
cell. Hind-wing with the inner angle thickly clothed with hair ; 
vein 3 from angle of cell ; 4, 5 stalked in male, approximated for 
some distance in female ; 6, 7 stalked, 7 anastomosing with 8. 

The genus is best placed in the Chrysauginaz in spite of 
the absence of proboscis. 

Paehypodides goeldii, n. sp. 

£ . Head and thorax greyish-ochreous mixed with fuscous-brown ; 
patagia dull vinous-red irrorated with grey and edged with ochreous; 
hind tarsi tinged with vinous-red, the fringe of hair dark brown at 
tips ; abdomen ochreous-brown, the ventral surface tinged with 
vinous-red. Fore-wing vinous-red irrorated with greyish-ochreous 
especially on costa and inner margin ; an oblique grey antemedial 
line joined at inner margin by a very obliquely curved line from 
costa near apex below which it is slightly angled ; cilia brownish- 
ochreous. Hind-wing vinous-red irrorated with greyish-ochreous, 


Sir G. F. Hampson on three 

an indistinct very obliquely curved postmedial greyish line ; cilia 
brownish-oclvreous ; the inner margin clothed with long brownish 

9 . Wings much brighter vinous-pink ; fore-wing with the post- 

Pachypodistes gocldii, \ 

medial line oblique, not curved and well separated from the ante- 
medial line, at inner margin. 

Larva a whitish stoutly-built grub with red-brown head, evidently 
an internal feeder. Cocoon- red-brown, flattened, bivalvular, formed 

remarkable ' new genera of Microlepidoptera. 247 

in layers and rather resembling a mussel-shell, probably attached 
to bark or between leaves. 

Hab. Amazons, Pava (Goeldi), 1 £ , 2 ?, larva, pupa and 
cocoons. Exp. $ 38, $ 50 mm. Type in B. M. 


Genus Triscledecia, nov. 

Proboscis fully developed ; palpi with the 2nd joint porrect about 
twice the length of head and broadly fringed with hair below, the 
3rd oblique, moderate ; antenna: of male ciliated ; tibia? with pro- 
jecting tufts of hair at the spurs. Fore-wing divided into six plumes 
to rather more than one-third length : the costa with six tufts of 
scales ; the scaling rough ; vein 3 from well before angle of cell ; 

Triscsedecia dactyloptera, 6 ?. 

4-5 from angle ; 6 from below upper angle ; 7-8 stalked ; 9, 10, 1 1 
from cell. Hind-wing divided into seven plumes to half length ; 
veins 3-4 from angle of cell ; 5 absent ; 6-7 from upper angle ; 
8 free, from base. 

This is the third known genus of the family, the others 
being Omeodes, Latr., and Pzelia, Wlk. 

Triscsedecia dactyloptera, n. sp. 

$ . Head, thorax and abdomen clothed with whitish, pale brown 
and black scales; antenna? and legs mixed with whitish; abdomen 
with diffused blackish bands. Fore-wing clothed with greyish, pale 
brown and black scales ; the costa with whitish spots between 
the black tufts of scales ; the cell with small black lunules followed 
by whitish spots at middle and extremity ; traces of a diffused 
oblique whitish band from lower angle of cell to inner margin ; an 
indistinct slightly waved whitish postmedial line ; the plumes with 


Sir G. F. Hampson on three 

white spots at base and subterminal and terminal series of white 
lunules. Hind- wing with the basal half white with diffused irregular 
black antemedial and two medial lines on it, the 1st of the medial 
lines arising from a discoidal bar ; a slightly waved whitish post- 
medial line; the plumes with white spots at base and subterminal 
and terminal series of white lunules. 

Hah. Ceylon, Maskeliya (J. Pole), Ohiya (Gossage). 
Exp. 26 mm. Type in B. M. 


Genus Titanoptilus, nov. 

Proboscis fully developed ; palpi porrect, slender, projecting about 
the length of head ; antenna? with the shaft roughly scaled, the 
basal joint with large tuft ; fore femora with tuft of scales near 


Titanoptilus mclanodonta, & f. 

extremity, the tibia with large tuft at extremity ; mid tibiae with 
tufts at middle and extremity ; hind tibiee with three tufts ; abdomen 
very long with lateral tufts of scales at extremity of segments. 
Fore-wing bifid to near middle, the lower plume falcate at extremity ; 
a very large scale-lobe on inner margin below end of cell ; vein 3 
absent ; 5 absent ; 6 from below upper angle of cell ; 7-8 stalked ; 
9-10 absent; 11 from cell. Hind-wing trifid, the upper excision to 
two-thirds, the lower to near base ; the inner margin with large 

remarkable new genera of Microlepidojrtera. 249 

scale-tooth at one-third and very large scale-lobe at two-thirds ; 
veins 3, 5 and 6 absent. 

Nearest to Trichoptilus, Wlsm. 

Titanoptihis melanodonta, n. sp. 

£. Head, thorax and abdomen clothed with grey, brown and 
black scales. Fore-wing greyish suffused with dark brown and 
irrorated with rough black scales ; a whitish mark at base of excision, 
the fringes of scales below upper plume and above lower black and 
whitish ; the lobe on inner margin formed of large black scales, the 
lower plume fringed below with black and whitish scales and with a 
scale-tooth before its falcate extremity. Hind-wing greyish suffused 
with dark brown ; a few black scales in the fringes below and at 
extremity of the two upper plumes ; the inner margin with the 
long spatulate scales of the scale-tooth and lobe pale at base, black 
at extremities ; a tuft of black scales at extremity of plume with 
the fringe on inner margin before it white. 

Hob. British E. Africa, N'dimu, Uganda Ry., mile 
469. (Betton), $ . Exp. 42 mm. Type in B. M. 

( 251 ) 

XIV. Descriptions of some new species of Diurnal Lepido- 
ptera, collected by Mr. Harold Goohson, in Northern 
Rhodesia, in 1903 and 1904. By Herbert 
Druce, F.L.S. Lycsenidae and Hesperiidoe, by 
Hamilton H. Druce, F.Z.S. 

[Read March 1st, 1905.] 

Plate XII i. 

The collection contains a large number of species, the most 
interesting being Planema poggei, Precis touhilimasa, Crenis 
rosa $ and £, Pseudacrsea poggei, Euryphene plistonax, 
Euryphene Is&titia ^and %, Crenidomema concordia $ and £, 
Ckaraxes mdcclounii $ and £, Teracolus regina, Papilio 
ridleyanus, Papilio toboranus. 

We have described 11 as now species, leaving several 
others, of which only one specimen has been sent, for future 


Mycalesis coohsoni, sp. nov. (Plate XIII, fig. 1.) 

£ . Upper-side. Primaries and secondaries dark brown, the 
fringes of both wings lighter brown. Primaries with a small in- 
distinct apical ocellus, a large black ocellus near the anal angle with 
a small white dot in the middle, a short oblique cream-coloured band 
crosses the wing from the costal margin to the upper-side of the 
black ocellus. 

Under-side. Primaries greyish-brown crossed beyond the middle 
by a narrow yellow curved Hue, the cream-coloured band as above but 
smaller, the ocellus more distinct, two fine yellow lines close to the 
base. Secondaries greyish-brown mottled with darker brown, a 
blackish-brown line crosses the middle of the wing from near the 
apex to the inner margin above the anal angle, a submarginal row 
of minute black dots extending from near the apex to the anal angle, 
those near the anal angle the largest. 

Expanse 2 inches. 

Red). North-west Rhodesia. 

This species is allied to Mycalesis sciathis, Hew., from 
Old Calabar, and M. selousi, Butl. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1905. — PART II. (JULY) 17 

252 Mr. H. Druce's Descriptions of 

Mycalesis haroldi, sp. nov. (Plate XIII, fig. 2.) 

<$ . Head, antennae, palpi, thorax and abdomen brownish-black, 
under-side of the abdomen and the legs pale brown. Upper-side : 
Primaries cream-colour broadly shaded with brown at the base, the 
costal margin apex and outer margin dark brown, a small indistinct 
ocellus close to the apex, a large ocellus nearest the anal angle, a 
faint submarginal line extends from the apex to the anal angle. 
Secondaries cream-colour, the base and inner margin clouded with 
brown, the apex and outer margin dark brown with a faint sub- 
marginal line extending from the apex to the anal angle. 

Under-side : both wings pale brown. Primaries crossed beyond the 
middle of a cream-coloured band which widens out to the anal 
angle, two large ocelli close to the outer margin, the first near the 
apex, the second above the anal angle ; a marginal and submarginal 
pale greyish band extends from the apex to the anal angle. Second- 
aries crossed about the middle by a rather wide cream-coloured band, 
a submarginal row of six ocelli extending from the apex to the anal 
angle, the first large, second and third very small, four and five large, 
six small. The marginal lines the same as on the primaries. 

Expanse 2 inches. 

Hal>. North-western Rhodesia. 

Amongst the Lycsonidse are many interesting species, 
showing an admixture of Western and South Tropical 
forms. The collection contains Alssna oberlhnri, Auriv., a 
species with uniform black hind-wings on the tipper-side, 
a good series of Pcntila amenaida, Hew., showing consider- 
able variation as regards the richness of colour and the 
number of black spots ; Mimacrsea marshalli, Trimen, in 
fine condition ; a large series of the little-known Terias- 
looking Liptena homeyeri, Dewitz.* A $ specimen agree- 
ing exactly with Dr. Trimen's figure of Epamera trimeni, 
Walleng., which if this is the true Trimeni makes one 
doubt whether the insects from the Transvaal referred by 
Mr. G. A. K. Marshall to this species are correctly deter- 
mined or whether Dr. Trimen's figure really refers to 
Trimeni or some other unnamed form. Zeritis sorhageni, 
Dewitz, and Z. neriene, Boisd., agreeing exactly with 
Boisduval's figure, and in my opinion quite distinct from 
Dr. Butler's Z. amine. Aphnseus erilcssoni, Trimen. 

* Homeyeri, Dewitz, D. E. Z., 30, p. 429, t. 2, f. 5, 5a, 56, 5c. 

some new species of Diurnal Lepidoptera 253 

Spalgis lemolea, H. H. Druce, known from the Gambia. 
Lycxncstlics adhcrhal, Mabille, L. lasti, S. and K., L. liodes, 
Hew., L. crawshayi, Butl., L. dcjina, Butl., and L. 
monteironis, Kirby, agreeing exactly with the type in the 
Hewitson collection.* 

Uranothauma autinorii, Oberth., U. falhenstcinii, 
Dewitz, and a large series of U. pogyei, Dewitz, showing 
scarcely any variation. Gastalius hintza, Trimen, C. calice, 
Hopff., and 0. melsena, Trimen. Catoehrysops glauca, 
Trimen, a good series, C. peculiaris, Rogenh., and the giant 
C. stormsi, Robbe. 

I recognize in all about sixty species, including the new 
forms hereafter described. 

Liptena cukrines, sp. nov. (Plate XIII, fig. 7.) 

,1; . Allied to L. prsestans, Grose Smith, f from which it differs on 
the upper-side by the black costal margin on the primaries being 
broken beyond the end of the cell, and projecting downwards, thus 
freeing the black apex ; the outer margin has only a linear black 
edge and the secondaries are unmarked excepting at the base of the 
cilia, where there appears to be a very narrow black line. Under- 
side : primaries differ from those of L. praestans, as on upper-side ; 
secondaries, ground colour pale grey dusted with brown and crossed 
by numerous broken bands composed of irregular brown spots. 

Head black ; eyes ringed with white ; legs yellowish ; abdomen 
yellowish above, grey beneath ; antennae white-ringed, with black 

Expanse 1^ inch. 

Hob. North-east Rhodesia. 

Three specimens showing no variation. This species 
agrees in venation with L. libyssa, Hew. J ; the upper 
radial on fore-wing originating at end of cell a.s in that 
species. It has close superficial resemblance to Teriomima. 

* Since the above was written, Mr. Bethune-Baker lias shown me 
M. Mabille's type of L. adherbal, and pointed out that it is identical 
with L. monteironfis, Kirby, and has priority. With this conclusion 
I quite agree. The species I have in this paper referred to as L. 
adherbal should be known as L. lunulata, Trimen. 

t Liptena prasstans, Grose Smith, Rhop. Exot. African Lycseliidee, 
pi. xxix, f. 15, 16, p. 141 (1901). 

X Liptena libyssa, Hew., Exot. Butl., Pentila and Liptena, t. 1, f. 
5, 6 (1866). 

254 Mr. H. Druce's Descriptions of 

Iridopsis euprepes, sp. nov. (Plate XI IF, fig. 8.) 

£ . Closely allied to I. exquisita, Smith.* Upper-side : 
black margins more distinctly defined and rather narrower. Under- 
side : primaries with four pale spots beyond the cell, the upper one 
small, the two median quadrate, large and distinct, the lower spot 
rounded and less distinct, below these there is an indication of a fifth 
spot. There are three pale patches at the outer angle, large and 
distinct. Secondaries ; the median band appears wider and more 
broken, and the marginal coloured band containing the metallic 
lunules is wider. 

Expanse If inch. 

ffab. North-west Rhodesia. 

Mr. Cookson only sent one specimen. Although this 
insect is undoubtedly very close to I. exquisita, I believe 
that, judging from analogy in the genus Phytala, it will 
prove to be distinct. 

The species of this genus are very little known and 
seldom seen in collections. We have in our possession a 
$ specimen from Sierra Leone, which is exactly like Mr. 
Grose Smith's figure of I. ansorgei,f and I have no doubt 
that it is the $ of I. incredibilis, Staud., the $ of which 
is figured in Iris 4, t. 1, f. 7, 1891. 

Spindasis hallimon, sp. nov. (Plate XIII, fig. 9.) 

9 . Upper-side. Primaries blackish-brown with distinct orange 
bands formed of quadrate spots. The 1st in, and at the end of the 
cell, consisting of a quadrate spot and a triangular spot below it ; a 
large quadrate spot beyond, joining at the median nervule to an 
irregulaT band consisting of six confluent spots which reach from the 
apex to near the outer angle. The inner margin from the base for 
about two-thirds its length and extending to the lower median 
nervule pale silvery blue. Secondaries pale greyish-brown with the 
under-side bands showing through as darker grey patches ; a deep 
black outer marginal line. Anal angle largely deep orange, contain- 
ing a small black spot and two small patches of metallic scales. 
( iilise of both wings distinctly and evenly dee]) orange, except at the 
anal angle where it is deep black. The Tail on the lower median 

* I. exquisita, Grose Smith, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 353 (1898), Rhop. 
Exot. African Lycsenidae, pi. xxviii, f. 12, 13 (1901). 

t I. ansorgei, Grose Smith, id. p. 354, Rhop. Exot. id. f. 10, 11. 

some new species of Diurnal Zejridoptera. 255 

nervule is black, tipped with white, that on the submedian nervures 
being orange tipped witli black. Under-side : Both wings pale yellow 
with dark orange red-bordered bands, which incline to rounded 
spots, thickly lined interiorly with metallic scales. At the base of 
the fore-wing is a bright orange costal dash. There is a marginal 
narrow red line and two submarginal more prominent red lines to 
both wings. 

A rather large marginal black spot at the anal angle below the 
submedian nervule and a smaller one crowned with metallic scales 
in the submedian interspace. Head dark orange without any 
black markings. Thorax and abdomen blackish above, pale yellow 
below ; abdomen ringed with whitish. 

Legs pale yellow; palpi pale yellow below, darker above with 
black tips. 

Expanse 1 /',, inch. 

Hah. North-west Rhodesia, January 1903. 

A very beautiful and distinct species, not nearly allied 
to any that I can find described, but perhaps nearest to S. 
hiimcyeri* Devvitz. Mr. Cookson sent four specimens, 
all females.f 

Erikssonia coolcsoni, sp. nov. (Plate XIII, tig. 4.) 

<$ . Allied to Erikssoma acrseina, Trimen. j Upper-side uniform 
reddish-brown. Primaries with the costa (except at the base, which 
is reddish-brown) increasingly broadly black for about three-fourths 
its length when it becomes suddenly narrow and joins the broad evenly 
black outer margin. An elongate black spotat the end of the cell. Cilia 
deep black. Secondaries with a gradually increasing outer marginal 
.black band, commencing beyond the middle of the costa and be- 
coming narrow and broken about the region of the median nervure, 

* Spindasis homeyeri, Dewitz, D. E. Z., 30, p. 429, t. 2, f. 5, 5a, 
5b, 5c. 

f Since the above description was written, Professor Poulton has 
sent me for examination a g captured at Rabai, 14 miles N.W. of 
Mombasa on June 18th, 1903, by Rev. K. S'Aubyn Rogers, ami 
presented by him to the Oxford Museum. It differs from the $ on 
the upper-side by the orange bands on the primaries being narrower 
and rather less conspicuous and by the hind-wing being suffused 
with rich purple from the subcostal to the submedian nervure ; in 
this respect somewhat resembling sp hula sin uatalensis, Westw., which 
has the inner margin of the fore-wing also broadly suffused. On the 
under-side it is identical with the ? • 

+ Erikssonia acrseina, Trimen, P. Z. S., 1891, p. 92, PL IX, f. 18, 
19, 20. 

256 Mr. H. Druce's Descriptions of 

and continuing narrowly to the anal angle where there is a black 
line placed obliquely just above it. The cilia is black, whitish at 
the base between the nervules. Under-side : Primaries rich orange, 
paler along the inner margin ; black spots arranged as in E. aerseina 
with an additional black spot below the cell placed below the central 
cell spot. The outer margin is broadly paler, bordered inwardly 
with a black line, heavily covered with metallic silver scales and 
divided by the black nervules. Cilia black. Secondaries : Ground 
colour pale buff with the black spots large and distinct, the basal 
area suffused with bright carmine, and a bright carmine band placed 
between the ultra-median row of black spots and the sub-marginal 
black line. Outer margin and metallic scaling as in primaries. 

Legs reddish-orange ; palpi orange below, black above. Antenna? 
black ; brownish at the extreme tip. Head black, yellow between 
the eyes. Abdomen deep orange-red above with a row of black 
spots ; sides deep black with white spots ; under-surface clothed 
with more or less orange hairs. 

Expanse 1 T V inches. 

Hab. North-west Rhodesia. 

Although doubtless allied to E. acrxina this insect 
appears to have many points of distinction, notably the 
broad black outer marginal border to the fore- wing above; 
the deep black cilia; and the carmine on the under- 
surface of the hind-wings. It is also a larger insect. 

Cooksonia, gen. nov. 

Allied to Erikssonia,* Trimen, from which it differs in the fore- 
wing by the 4th subcostal nervule being emitted nearer to the base 
and by the subcostal nervure reaching the maTgin further below 
the apex ; and in the hind-wing the stalk of the submedian 
nervure is much shorter. The antennce are longer and when viewed 
from above appear to be but slightly thickened at the extremities, 
but when examined from the side they present a broadly spatulate 
club, in this respect entirely differing from Erikssonia.'f The palpi 
which are not clothed with thick scales to anything like the 
same extent have the terminal joint less than half as long ; almost 

* Erikssonia, Trimen, P. Z. S., 1891, p. 91. 

t This may possibly be due to pressure in packing the specimen, 
which, however, shows no signs of flattening as regards the abdomen 
or thorax, and is in very perfect condition. 

some new species of Diurnal Lepidoptera. 257 

Type. Coolcsonia trimeni, sp. nov. 

I have compared this genus to Dr. R. Trimen's Erilcs- 
sonia, but it presents important differences which may 
prove more remarkable when the male sex is examined. 
I dedicate it to Mr. Cookson, its discoverer. 

Coolcsonia trimeni, sp. nov. (Plate XIII, fig. 3.) 

$ . Upper-side. Orange-ochreous, suffused with reddish-ochreous, 
deepening in colour towards the bases, brightest in the fore-wing. 

Primaries : Costal margin narrow and evenly black, outer margin 
rather more broadly black ; apical third pure white, inwardly 
bordered with a rather broad black band, comparatively straight and 
even on its inner edge, and much suffused and irregular on its outer 
edge, reaching from the costa to the outer margin, where it is 
broadest ; the nervules crossing this white apex being distinctly 
black and being more decidedly conspicuous as they recede from the 
apex. A large black spot at the end of the cell and a smaller black 
spot beyond the middle of the cell placed near to but apart from its 
upper wall. 

Secondaries : With a black border, commencing very narrowly be- 
yond the middle of the costal margin, gradually and evenly widening 
towards the apex whence it becomes broken and though thickening 
at the extremities of the median nervules is very narrow along the 
inner margin and disappears before the base is reached. A distinct 
black spot at the end of the cell placed well above the median 

Under-side. Primaries brownish-ochreous, reddish in the cell ; a 
distinct black spot at the end of the cell. The apical third consists 
of a series of five narrowly black-bordered greyish conical spots placed 
between the nervures, each one containing at its marginal base an 
indistinct ochreous patch. The outer margin has a linear black 

Secondaries pearly-grey, with the inter-nervular spaces more or 
less suffused with reddish-brown scales which are most conspicuous 
just beyond the middle. The basal half contains about twelve large 
black irregular white-ringed spots, several of which, close to the 
base are confluent, and a median row of irregular black dots. The 
outer margin is bordered with a linear black band ; beyond which 
are two rows of angular black markings placed between the 
nervules, the outer row enclosing ochreous patches, the inner pale 

Head black, with two white spots behind the bases of the antenna 1 
and two white streaks between the eyes. 

258 Mr. II. Druce's Descriptions of 

The upper part and the sides of the abdomen are ochreolls, but on 
the under-side of each segment there is a large distinct, white, black- 
margined spot. There are also white spots on the under-side of the 
thorax. The legs are black with yellow tufts at the base. 

Antenna? black ; the shafts minutely spotted with white on the 

Expanse 2} inch. 

Hab. North-east Rhodesia. October 1903. 

On the under-side this insect has a remarkable Aert&inc 
appearance, but although the upper-side has a general 
likeness to that group I know of no species of the genus 
Acrma which has the large white apex to the fore-wing. 

Ly<'<vnesthcs anadema, sp. nov. (Plate XIII, fig. 6.) 

£ . Allied to L. lasti* Smith and Kirby, but smaller. Upper-side : 
dark purple with indistinct black marginal spots between the lower 
median nervules on hind-wing. Under-side : ground colour rather 
deeper in tone with the whitish chain-like bands less inclined to 
break up into spots and with their enclosed spaces scarcely darker 
than the surrounding ground colour. The red spots on the hind- 
wing, with the exception of the one below the costal nervure near 
the base, which is entirely absent, are dark, clearly defined, and con- 
spicuous. The black, yellow-crowned marginal spot placed between 
the lower median nervules is smaller, as is the orange anal-angular 
streak. Thorax, abdomen, head and legs as in L. lasti. Cilia on 
upper-side pale brown, whitish towards tip. 

Expanse 1| inch. 

Hab. North-west Rhodesia. 

Can be distinguished by the smaller size and by the 
absence of the red basal spot on hind-wings below. 

It is also allied to L. hohleyi,f Neave, but that species 
had a red basal spot and also a red cellular spot in hind- 

Catochrysops pampolis, sp. nov. (Plate XIII, fig. 11.) 

£ . Upper-side : pale opalescent bluish brown with a linear brown 
margin and brown nervules to both wings ; a slightly darker brown 
patch at the end of the cell of the fore-wing, containing a still darker 
streak. A medium-sized round black spot close to the margin of the 

* L. lasti, Smith and Kirby, Ehop. Exot., 27. Afr. Lye, p. 109, 
t. 24, f. 1, 2, 1894. 

t L. hobleyi, Neave, Nov. Zool., v. xi, p. 339, 1904. 

some new species of Diurnal Lepidoptera. 259 

hind-wing, placed between .the two lower median nervules. Cilia 
white, indistinctly darker at the extremities of the nervules. Under- 
side : ground colour of both wings pure white with broad blotches. 
Primaries ; a large quadrate blotch at the end of the cell ; costal margin 
pale brown ; an ultra-median brown band composed of confluent 
quadrate spots, semi-circular in form, reaching from the subcostal 
nervure, where it is widest, to lower median interspace where it is 
narrowed ; beyond this a rather narrow brown band of confluent 
inter-nervular patches, followed by a somewhat paler and narrower 
brown band reaching only to the lower median nervules, and beyond 
this a clearly denned, narrow, marginal line. Cilia white ; dusky at 
the ends of the nervules. Secondaries : costal margin pale brown ; 
two large black spots close to the margin, one about the middle, one 
half-way between this and the base ; a triangular black spot at the 
base of the cell, and two more along the anal margin ; a large irregular 
dark brown blotch, with several smaller blotches more or less 
attached to it, occupying the central area, and a double submarginal 
brown band more inclined to become fused towards the anal angle. 
Close to the margin between the lower median nervules is a large 
oval orange spot centered by a black spot which is crowned exteriorly 
by rich metallic-blue scales. In the submedian interspace, close to 
the submedian nervure is an orange streak bordered on either side 
by a small black spot ; cilia white, brownish at the extremities of 
the nervules. 

Head, thorax and abdomen brownish-grey above, white beneath. 
Legs white ; palpi white, with black tips. Antenna? black, white 

A short linear brown tail on the lower median nervule. 

$ . Upper-side paler and brighter blue than $ , fore-wing with 
apex and outer margin broadly pale brown ; hind-wing with an 
ultramedian, semicircular, irregular whitish band. Under-side : the 
white areas more extensive than in g , causing the brown blotches to 
appear more distinct ; the costal margin and the basal area are more 
broadly pale brown and the black spots appear white ringed. 

Expanse g liV inch, <j? lyxr inch. 

Hob. North-west Rhodesia, November 1903. 
Not very closely allied to any species that I can find 

Gatochrysops shotios, sp. nov. (Plate XIII, fig. 12.) 

£ . Upper-side uniform dark olivaceus-brown, primaries with a 
darker streak at the end of the cell. Cilia slightly paler brown. 
Underside : ground colour olivaceus-brown, but slightly paler than 

260 Mr. H. Druce's Descriptions of 

upper-surface, with sordid white-ringed spots and markings. Prim- 
aries : a large spot at the end of the cell ; an ultramedian hand of six 
chain-like spots running almost in a straight line from the subcostal 
nervure to the submedian nervure, the two lower links being placed 
slightly nearer to the base, then two submarginal rows of pale 
sagittate lunules and a pale marginal line. Secondaries : two 
distinct black spots on the costal margin, another about the middle 
of the cell, and two more on the anal margin, one about the middle, 
the other near the base. A. large sordid white-ringed brown spot 
near the end of the cell, then an irregular, much broken band con- 
sisting of sordidwhite-ringed spots, commencing below the black spot 
near the middle of the costal margin and reaching to the submedian 
nervure ; beyond this band are two rows of sagittate pale markings 
and a pale marginal line as in the primaries. A deep black spot, 
bordered outwardly with rich metallic scales and broadly crowned 
and partially surrounded by rich orange, is placed between the lower 
median nervules close to the base. Cilia of both wings brown. 

Abdomen brown above, paler below ; legs brown ; head brown, 
eyes white-ringed. Palpi white, with black tips. 

5 . Differs only from the £ on the upper-side by having a large, 
black, orange-crowned spot on the hind-wing near the margin, placed 
between the lower median nervules. On the under-side of the fore- 
wing there is a minute dot above the subcostal nervure at the end 
of the chain-like band. The orange-crowned spot on hind-wing is 
more conspicuous and there are traces of orange scales near the anal 

Expanse ^ 1| inch, $ If inch. 

Hah. North-west Rhodesia, October and November 

This species, which at first sight appears of a general 
type, is not very closely allied to any with which I am 

Gyclopides coohsoni, sp. nov. (Plate XIII, fig. 10.) 

Allied to Gyclopides formosus, Butl.* Upper-side blackish-brown 
with bright yellow spots. Primaries : the basal third and the inner 
margin thickly dusted with yellow scales. A minute spot about the 
middle of the costa, and a rather larger one in the cell, below it. An 
ultra-median band, consisting of various sized irregular spots, reaching 
from the costa to the inner margin, the spot next to the costal spot 

* Cyclopides formosus, Butl., P. Z. S., 1893, p. 670, pi. lx, f. 8. 

some new species of Diurnal Zepidoptera. 261 

being placed right beyond the band, nearer to the outer margin. 
Secondaries : a semicircular median band consisting of three large 
irregular spots, beyond which, is a submarginal row of six (sometimes 
seven) smaller spots. Cilia of fore-wing black ; of hind-wing black, 
but bright yellow at apex and anal angle. Under-side. Primaries : 
costal margin yellow, divided just beyond the cell ; a broad yellow 
streak and a spot in the cell. The band of irregular spots as on 
upper-surface is present with the addition of a large spot in the 
interspace below the costal spot. Yellow marginal internervular 
radiations and spots as in G. formosus, but more pronounced. 
Secondaries much as in C. formosus, but the dark yellow spots deeper 
in tone and larger. 

Antennae, legs, palpi and head much as in G. formosus. 

Expanse l& inch. 

Hob. North-west Rhodesia, December 1903. 

One specimen which I take to be a £ has a submarginal 
series of about eight minute yellow clashes on the upper- 
side of the fore-wing, and on several other specimens I 
can detect traces of some of these markings. 

The hind tibiae have the two pairs of spurs, the upper 
pair being smallest. 

Mr. Cookson procured a good series of this species, 
which appears to be quite distinct from any hitherto 

262 Explanation of Plate. 

Explanation of Plate XIII. 

Fig. 1. Mycalesis cooksoni, sp. n., p. 251. 

2. „ haroldi, sp. n., p. 252. 

3. Cooksonia trimeni, sp. n., p. 257. 

4. Erikssonia cooksoni, sp. n., p. 255. 

5. Liptena homeyeri, Dewitz, p. 252. 

6. Lycsenesthes anadema, sp. n., p. 258. 

7. Liptena eukrines, sp. n., p. 253. 
8.. Iridopsis euprepes, sp. n., p. 254. 
9. Sjyindasis kallimon, sp. n., p. 254. 

10. Cydopides cooksoni, sp. n., p. 260. 

11. Gatoch/rysops pampolis, sp. n., p. 258. 

12. „ skotios, sp. n., p. 259. 

( 26:3 ) 

XV. Pseudacrasa poggei and Limnas chrysippus; the 
numerical proportion of mimic to model. By 
Horace A. Byatt, B.A., F.E.S. With a note by 
Professor E. B. Poulton, D.Sc, M.A., F.R.S., etc. 

[Read April 5th, 1905.] 

Plate XIV. 

These butterflies were found among a collection of some 
1200 specimens given to me by Pere Guilleme of the 
White Fathers' Mission to Central Africa, under whose 
direction they were collected at his station at Kayambi, 
in Awemba country, N.E. Rhodesia, near the sources of 
the Congo, locally called the Chambezi, between October 
1898 and January 1899. 

His system was to send out a number of native school- 
boys — his " gamins," as he called them — each armed with 
a net and a book, and orders to capture anything and 
everything that came in their way, placing their captures 
between the leaves of the book for safe carrying home. 

He particularly mentions that he told his boys to take 
" des specimens aussi varies que possible ; " and that they 
would do this literally I know from my own experience of 
natives, for I have found them generally unable to dis- 
criminate between species, and when sent out by me on 
similar occasions they have returned with large numbers 
of the insect most in evidence at the moment, and a pro- 
portionally smaller number of others. It is, therefore, 
allowable to suppose that the whole lot which came into 
my possession gives a very fair idea indeed of the numerical 
strength of the several species found in the locality. 

On opening the papers and examining the specimens — 
which have suffered a good deal from the damp and 
neglect of seven years — it was found that roughly ODe- 
third of the whole collection consisted of Limnas chrysippus, 
L., and its mimics; and among these latter were seventeen 
specimens of Pseudacrsea poggei, Dewitz, — many of them 
in a fair state of preservation, though, with the rest, they 
show signs of being unduly pressed between the pages of 
the book, and are somewhat dulled in colour by damp. 



Mr. Horace A. Byatt on 

It is due to the suggestion of Professor Poulton that 
this would be an excellent opportunity to ascertain what 
numerical relation the Pseudacrsea bears to its model 
chrysippns that this paper has been hastily prepared in 
the Hope Department at Oxford before my return to 
Central Africa. 

The country in which Kayambi is situated does not 
differ greatly from the rest of the plateau to the W. 
of Lake Nyassa and N.E. Rhodesia. Large stretches 
of undulating plains, covered with thin scrubby bush 
or dense tall grass, are intersected at intervals of 5-20 miles 
by streams and rivers. In the latter months of the year, 
when these insects were mostly collected, these plains 
are bare, dry, and dusty, grass and bush being burnt up 
by the annual bush-fires: and only along the streams is any 
verdure found. Pere Guilleme describes the soil as fertile 
along the course of the rivers, but elsewhere the district 
is generally poor and sandy, and for this reason sparsely 
inhabited, and he remarks on bush-fires being the cause 
of the general scarcity of insect-life except along the 
water-courses, where the vegetation is untouched by fires, 
and where forest-giants, trailing creepers, and tree-ferns 

The altitude of Kayambi is about 3950 ft. above sea- 
level; and its position roughly 20' S. and 31° 50' E., 
some two clays' march from File, and three from Abercoin, 
on the Nyassa-Tanganyika plateau. 

The respective numbers and species in the collection 
were worked out in the Hope Department and are stated 
in tabular form below : — 


Limnas chrysippns 

do. do. var. dorippus 

Pseudacrxa poggei 
Hypolimnas misippus . 

„ „ $ var. inaria 
















Total number in group 441 

From this table it will be seen that Pseudacnva poggei 
is by no means so rare as has been hitherto supposed ; 
its proportion to L. chrysippus is no less than 472 per 
cent. The doripjncs, KL, or Jclugii, But!., form of chrysippus 

Pscudacrtea poggei and Limnas chrysippus. 205 

is found, but in this whole series of seventeen specimens 
of poggei no individual shows any resemblance to dorippus : 
it is purely a mimic of chrysippus and shows no approach 
to dimorphism. This is explainable on the ground that it 
is found only where chrysippus is the largely predominant 
form, and, so far as is known, it does not occur in, or has 
not yet reached, the parts where dorippus is relatively 
abundant — that is, the desert strip along the E. Coast, 
extending in the E. African Protectorate inland at least to 
the shores of Victoria Nyanza. In this respect it com- 
pares in an interesting manner with misippus ^, of which 
the inaria form, mimicking dorippus, is found all over 
Africa (Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1902, pp. 473-484): and 
also with Acrssa cncedon, L., var. daira, G. and S., which 
is only frequent in localities where its type dorippus is 
predominant (1. c. pp. 473-484). 

This occurrence in considerable numbers of what has 
hitherto been regarded as the rarest species of Pscudacr&a 
supports the hypothesis that the mimics of this group are 
Mullerian rather than Batesian. This has already been 
argued for H. misippus (cf. Rep. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci. — 
Detroit, 1897 ; and Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1902, pp. 480 
and 483, with references) as well as for the genus Pscuda- 
crma and for A. cncedon (pp. 480, etc.). The fact that 
the latter species, belonging to a protected and much- 
mimicked subfamily, is far more coincident geographically 
with the corresponding forms of its model II misippus 
% is obviously a powerful argument in favour of the 
Mullerian interpretation. 

Note by Professor E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. 

It is deeply interesting to compare the details of the 
mimetic resemblance borne by Pseudacrsea poggei to 
Limnas chrysippus with those of the other great Nympha- 
line mimic — Hypolimnas misippus $. Almost all the 
points in the following statement can be verified by 
means of the half-tone reproductions of the three species 
on the accompanying Plate XIV. It is to be observed, 
however, that Fig. 1 represents a £ chrysippus with five 
wings, a second smaller left hind-wing concealing the 
central portion of the normal hind-wing of the same side. 

2()6 Mr. Horace A. Byatt on 

As this rare monstrosity was found among the large 
number of specimens tabulated by Mr. H. A. Byatt it 
was thought well to select it for representation, inasmuch 
as the teratological interest is simply an additional 
advantage which in no way interferes with the bionomic 
interest of the plate. 

The subapical white bar on the fore-wing of chrysippus 
is prolonged downwards and outwards with a slight in- 
ward trend by means of a few small marginal spots and a 
local intensification of the white elements in the fringe. 
This character is very persistent, and is traceable in the 
dorippus form when the band itself has, except for its 
costal end, disappeared (compare Fig. 4 with 1). A similar 
effect is produced in the $ misippus (Fig. 2) by the 
position of the last or fifth spot of the band, by a local 
strengthening of the two rows of whitish hind-marginal 
lunules, and by the white elements of the fringe. The 
three narrow interrupted white lines which are thus 
formed parallel with the hind-margin, persist in the 
inaria form when the band itself is only faintly trace- 
able (compare Fig. 5 with 2). In both chrysippus and 
misippus, it is obvious, especially in the latter, that this 
prominent subapical marking is in large part prolonged by 
the local strengthening or the local persistence of elements 
which are not part of the bar itself, but belong to the 
category of marginal markings. In this respect Pseuda- 
crxa poggei (Fig. 3) stands in considerable contrast with 
the other two members of the group; for its bar is 
prolonged — and much more fully prolonged than in the 
other species — by elements Avhich have the appearance of 
continuity with the bar itself. If these elements are 
marginal markings as in clirysippus and misippus they 
have been far more subordinated to the subapical bar 
than in these species. The local strengthening of white 
elements in the fringe is also somewhat less marked, and 
plays a less important part in poggei than in the others. 
As regards the few minute spots at the extreme apex 
of the fore-wing of chrysipptcs, mimetic resemblance is 
more honoured in the breach by poggei than in the too 
emphasized observance by misippus £ — to say nothing of 
the very different position of the marking in model and 

In spite of all these differences in detail, the two 
mimics are by no means unlike; and in general effect 

Pscudacrxa poggei and Limnas chrysippus. 267 

each of them resembles the other more closely than it 
resembles the model. 

The internal contour of the black hind-marginal border 
of both wings is prolonged inwards along the veins, produc- 
ing a festooned appearance in poggci (Fig. 3) and, to a far 
smaller degree, in the model (Fig. 1). In the ^ misip>pus 
(Fig. 2) this feature is almost wanting. Apart from the 
contour, the narrow black border of the hind -wings 
of poggci more closely resembles the model than the 
broader more interrupted and less sharply outlined border 
of the % mi&ippns. At the same time, the two mimics 
resemble each other in this character more fully than 
either of them resembles the model, which is widely 
separated by the row of distinct white spots, which 
however are very variable, and not infrequently barely 
traceable. On the under-side of both wings the border 
of misippus (Fig. 2a) reproduces the black and white 
effect of the model (Fig. la), far better than poggci (Fig. 
3a), in which the white marginal elements are confined 
to the fringe. On the other hand, in the lighter tint of 
the veins of the hind-wing under-side and in the colour 
and texture of the ground-colour, poggei is by far the 
better mimic of the two, while misippus is equally superior 
in the tint of the apical area of the fore-wing under-side 
beyond the bar. As regards the black discal spots of 
the hind-wing under-side poggei is the closer mimic. The 
development and shifting outwards of the peripheral spots 
is an evident special modification, in the direction of the 
model, of a characteristic feature of the genus Psendacriea. 
The two small spots nearest to the centre of the wing 
(see Fig. 3«) were only seen in a single specimen out of 
the seventeen. They indicate the existence of material 
which may be developed into a still closer likeness to the 
Danaine model. — E. B. P. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1905. — PART II. (JULY) 18 

268 Explanation of Plate. 

Explanation of Plate XIV. 

All the figures are two-thirds of the natural size. 
Limnas chrysippus with its two chief mimics, from the sources of 
the Congo. 

Fig. 1. Limnas chrysippus, $ , upper-side. The specimen possesses 
a second smaller hind-wing on the left side. 
la. Limnas chrysippus, $ , under-side. 

2. Hypolimnas misippus, 9 , upper-side. 
2a. „ „ 9 » under-side. 

3. Pseudacnea poggei, upper-side. 
3a. „ „ under-side. 

4. Limnas chrysippus, form dorippus (Klugii), £ , upper-side. 

5. Hypolimnas misippus, $ form inaria, upper-side. 

July 15th, 1905, 

( 269 ) 

XVI. A monograph of the genus Ogyris. By George T. 
Bethune-Baker, F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

[Read April 5th, 1905.] 

Plate XV. 

This genus was established and described by Doubleday 
and West wood in their Gen. Diurn. Lep. II, p. 472, 1850, 
where they figured the $ of 0. dbrota and used this species 
int heir description of the family. It is a well-marked 
genus, and as a consequence later authors have had no 
difficulty in their descriptions of new species, all having 
been described under the one genus. Hewitson described 
and figured his several species in his Exotic Butterflies, vol. 
I, and his Spec. Cat. Lye. B. M. ; whilst in his 111. Diurn. 
Lep. Lycsenidge, he again refers to the group and sinks his 
orontas under his idmo. The Feklers also use the genus 
in the descriptions of their two species, whilst all later 
authors have likewise used it. 

The genus is confined to the Australian sub-region, all 
the species but one being found on that continent 
(Australia) : one species has been recorded from Kangaroo 
Island as well, whilst one is confined to New Guinea. All 
the species are beautiful in. colour, whilst several rival the 
Morphos in the brilliancy of their blues. 

I am indebted to Mr. G. A. Waterhouse of Sydney for 
very many particulars relative to the life histories of the 
species and also for the loan of a large number of specimens. 
Mr. F. P. Dodd has also furnished me with many interest- 
ing facts about 0. zosin'e, Hew., and hcivitsoni, Waterh., 
whilst Mr. R. E. Turner and Mr. H. H. Druce and Mr. 
Tepper have kindly lent me specimens of 0. xnonc, 
Waterh., 0. barnardi, Miskin, and 0. hahmaturia Tepper. 

The ova are either nearly spherical, or somewhat com- 
pressed at each end of the axis, whilst some are strongly 
reticulated. The larvse, so far as is yet known, are all 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1905. — PART III. (OCT.) 19 

270 Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker on 

Loranthus feeders, and all feed either at dusk or at night 
all are attended by ants of various species, some apparently 
by different species in different neighbourhoods, whilst Mr. 
Dodd informs me that 0. zosinc ($ genoveva) is attended by 
two species of Camponotus and also by the small black ant. 
He adds also that both it, orates, Hew., and havitsoni, 
Waterhouse, emit sounds when in the pupa state and when 
accompanied by ants ; if however the ants are taken away 
the pupae remain silent— whilst if a pupa be found 
unattended by ants, it is an almost certain indication that 
it is dead ; the sound is described as a distinct ticking, 
occasionally accompanied by a soft humming. The pupae, 
of which I have several before me, are of the usual Lycsenid 
shape, and are found under stones or under loose bark, 
fastened at the anal extremity and supported by a girdle 
of silk around the middle, and generally assimilating in 
colour with their surroundings. 

The species of the parasitic genus Loranthus, on which 
the larvse feed, generally grow high up on the tallest trees, 
and as a consequence the perfect insect Hies high and is a 
strong flier ; this fact possibly accounts for the scarcity of 
the group in collections generally. The species are 
probably on the increase, as Mr. Waterhouse informs me 
that he now breeds ianthis in a spot over which during his 
younger days he collected for years, and of which he knew 
every inch of the ground, and during this time he never 
saw a single specimen of this genus ; this is however what 
might be expected, for it appears quite certain that the 
larvae and pupse are protected by the ants, in which case 
they would be immune from a certain class of enemies, and 
we might therefore look for the various species to increase 
in numbers. 

The various species form themselves into two obvious 
sections, the females of which have a pale spot in the 
primaries, or are without that spot ; and in like manner 
they fall into sub-sections also; the whole being closely 
verified by the form of the genitalia of the males, descrip- 
tions of which I append in the form of a table, though in 
a few species that have been lent me I am unable to do 

The tegumen of the whole of the Lycxnidie is furnished 
with a pair of hooks at the lower extremities of the lateral 
lobes, these I have designated by the term " Falces " 
(falx, a reaping-hook). 

The genus Ogyris. 



A. Upper-side generally purple ; $ with pale spot on the 

a. Sexes nearly the same colour. 

a 1. Termen broadly brown, strongly 
arched .... 

a 2. Termen quite narrow, nearly 
straight ..... 

a 3. Smaller, lighter purple, termen 
narrowly brown, pattern of 
secondaries beneath nearly 

a 4. Like 3, but termen broadly 
brown, broader at apex and 
tornus ..... 

Sexes dissimilar in colour. 

b 1. Dull brownish-purple, termen 
broadly brown at apex tapering 
to tornus, anal angle of second- 
aries produced into a short 
broad tail .... 

b 2. Brighter purple, termen nearly 

uniform in width . 
b 3. Rich purple, larger in size with 

very large females . 

b 4. Very dark velvety-purple (almost 
brown) with long tail, slightly 
spatulate, pattern below strongly 
spotted, no metallic markings 
in the cell of primaries . 

b 5. Smaller, very deep velvety-blue, 
termen black very broad, pale 
large subovate lemon spot in 
primaries .... 

b 6. Brilliant metallic-blue with broad 
black costa and termen ; $ 
primaries bright orange, with 
broad borders .... 











272 Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker on 

B. 2. without a pale spot on the primaries. 

a. 9 with no red spot beneath in the 


b. Both sexes dark purple. 

a 1. Purple area very small, nearly the 

same in both sexes . . olane. 

a 2. Purple area brighter extending 

up to termen in £ . . . barnardi. 

c. Both sexes brilliant metallic-blue. 

a 1. Discal band of primaries beneath 

not fractured .... orcetes. 

d. Brilliant metallic-blue ; ? with red 

in the primaries beneath, 
a 1. Discal band of primaries beneath 

fractured hewitsoni. 

a 2. Smaller, deeper blue, with pale 
metallic-blue spots in cell 
beneath ..... hcwitsoni-meridionalis. 

a 3. Primaries with very broad black 
apex and termen, and very dark 
under-surface .... amaryllis. 

a 4. Brilliant silvery-blue with costa 
and apex broadly black, be- 
neath very pale grey, with 
pattern small and isolated . senone. 

See Tables, pages 290, 291. 

Ogyris, Doubleday, Westwood and Hewitson. 

Ogijris, D. W. and H., Gen. Diurn., Lep. II, p. 472 


Primaries broad, with costa slightly arched ; apex subacute, some- 
times produced ; termen sometimes slightly excavated below the 
apex, or nearly straight, or slightly convex ; inner margin straight. 
Neuration, vein 1 waved, vein 2 arising beyond the middle of the 
cell, 3 from nearer the lower angle of cell than from 2, 4 from the 
lower angle, 5 from above the middle of the discocellulars, 6 from 
the upper angle, 7 absent, 8 from directly behind the upper angle 
of the cell, 9 from about midway between the end of the cell and 
the apex of the wing, or from nearer the apex, 10 and 11 with bases 

The genus Ogyris. 273 

equi-distant from each other and the upper angle of cell, 11 short, 
12 short never as long as the cell. Secondaries broad, sometimes 
with a short broad spatulate tail at the end of vein 2, sometimes 
with a short tail at end of vein 1 b, or with termen crenulate — $ 
sometimes with a short tail at the end of vein 4, with two internal 
veins — vein 2 rising from just below the middle of the cell, 3 from 
near the lower angle, 4 from the lower angle, 5 from the middle of 
the discocellulars, G from the upper angle of cell. Palpi curved, 
with middle segment long, end segment very short and slightly 

The genus was created for the reception of two species 
0. abrota, D. W. and H., and 0. idmo, Hew., the diagnosis 
being evidently made from the former species. It is 
nearly related both in structure and pattern of wings to 
the genus Arhnpala, Feld.; both genera are arboreal, rarely 
coming down to the ground, and when disturbed from 
their resting place, they will frequently return to it 
after the lapse of a little time ; this, however, is a habit 
well known to occur in other genera also. 

Ogyris Waterhouseri, spec. nov. 

<-£. Both wings very dull brownish -purple, almost greasy look- 
ing. Primaries with a broad even brown costa and a broad termen 
likewise of even width. Secondaries with a broad dark brown costa, 
and a broad brown termen of uniform width. Fringes white broadly 
intersected with brown at the veins. Under-side. Primaries brown, 
with three increasing cell spots, the first two divided by an obscure 
bluish-white line, beyond the third a short broad oblique pale grey 
stripe, beyond which is the catenulated, very irregular, dark brown 
stripe, slightly curved extending from the costa to very near the 
termen at vein 2 ; the apical area up to this stripe is densety 
irrorated with whitish-grey fine scales. Secondaries, brown, finely 
irrorated with brownish-grey, the three basal spots are confluent, 
in the median row of three spots the two upper ones touch, the 
second occupying the central part of the cell is large, the third on 
the inner margin is isolated, the third row is very irregular, first 
spot on the costa subreniform, the second spot very large, touching 
the exterior edge of spot 1, <-shaped on its exterior margin, a large 
spot beyond the cell touching the inner edge of spot 2, the fourth 
spot angled with the third and receding inwards, the fifth spot 
again angled internally confluent with spot 4, the posterior row of 
four spots touches the exterior edge of the second large spot in the 

274 Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker on 

previous row, and each spot is angled externally but is rounded in- 
ternally, the upper three touch each other, the fourth being isolated on 
the inner margin, the subterminal row is obscure consisting of little 
more than an indefinite stripe. 

5 . Both wings brigbtish-purple with a blackish spot at the end of 
the cell, that on the primaries being much larger than the one on the 
secondaries. Primaries with a broad brown costa and termen and a 
small (comparatively) lemon-coloured spot' beyond the black spot 
terminating the cell ; secondaries with a very broad brown costa and 
a broad brown somewhat irregular termen. Underside primaries 
as in the male, but the divisions between the cell spots are pale 
blue and the lemon spot shows through. Secondaries as in the 
male but greyer, the pattern therefore shows more distinctly and 
the spots in the median area are more confluent. 

Expanse $ 53, ? 52-53 mm. 

Hah. Victoria. 

This species is distinct from 0. idmo, Hew., to which it 
is very nearly allied, the shape of the wings in the $ is 
quite different, the costa of the primaries is more curved, 
and the termen is distinctly produced outwards between 
veins 2 and 5 ; in idmo the termen is nearly straight, 
receding from near the apex to the tornus, the shape and 
width of the brown costa and termen are very different, 
and below the posterior catenulated stripe is different in 
position and shape whilst the under-side of the secondaries 
differs considerably in pattern also. 

Ogyris idmo, Hew. 

0. idmo, Hew. Cat. Lye. B. M., p. 2, pi. I, figs. 3, 4, 1862. 
111. Diurn. Lep. Lye, p. 2, 1863 ; id. Kirby, Cat. D. L., 
p. 425, 1871 ; id. Semper, Journ. Mus. God., p. 55, Heft 
14, 1878; id. Miskin. Proc. Lin. Soc. N.S.W., p. 24, 
1890 ; id. idem. Ann. Queensl. Mus., p. 72, 1891 ; id. And. 
and Spry. Vict. Butt., p. 104, 1894; id, Waterhouse, 
P. L. S., N.S.W., p. 248, 1903; id. idem. Mem., N.S.W. 
Nat. Club, p. 29, 1903 ; 0. orontas, Hew., Cat. Lye, B. M., 
p. 2, pi. I, figs. 8 and 9, 1862. 

£. Both wings dull brownish-purple or purplish-brown, in 
certain lights the purple has an almost red lustre. Primaries with a 
very narrow almost linear-brown termen. Secondaries with costa 
brown to vein 7, termen very narrowly brown. Under-side, both 
wings brown finely irrorated with pale grey. Primaries with three 

The genus Ogyris. 275 

increasing cell spots, edged with pale blue or blue and white lines ; 
beyond the third spot, which is very large, is a broad fascia of 
greyish-white scales, followed by the posterior catenulated stripe 
from the costa to vein 1, the spots on the costa being large and 
tapering rapidly to the third spot, the least trace of a subterminal 
line. Secondaries more thickly covered with pale grey irrorations, 
the basal spots are obscure and only indicated by the very fine 
darker encircling lines, the median row of three spots irregular 
that in the cell very obscure ; the third series of spots is very con- 
fluent, the one on the costa being isolated and the rest all confluent ; 
the posterior row of four or five spots is irregular and fractured, 
the first and second below vein 6 being confluent and touching the 
previous series, together they form a reniform spot, spots 3 and 4 are 
projected outwards, detached from 1 and 2, but touching each other, 
spot 5 shifted inwards and isolated. 

$ . Both wings brown with a dull purplish lustre over a portion 
of the wings. Primaries with the purplish lustre over half the cell 
and extending broadly for two-thirds of the inner margin, a dark 
large spot at the end of the cell followed by a larger lemon cream- 
coloured spot. Secondaries with the purplish lustre over three- 
fourths of the wing leaving merely a very broad brown border to the 
costa and termen. Under-surface similar to the male but in the 
primaries the pale cream spot shows through, and in the secondaries 
the pattern is much more distinct. 
Expanse £ 52-57, $ 57-60 mm. 

The distribution of this species issomewhat uncertain, 
but I believe that it is confined to Western Australia, 
and that the species found in South Australia and Victoria 
will all prove to be halmaturia and waterhottscri, B. B. 
I have seen no true idmo from either of these localities. 
I have before me now Hewitson's type specimen of orontas 
and it is identical with idmo. I have pointed out the 
differences between these species, and I would further state 
that I regard Tepper's species as distinct from otanes,¥e\d., 
both of which types are now before me. 

Ogyris otanes, Feld. 

Otpjris otanes, Felder Reise. Nov. Lep. II, p. 217, taf. 28, 
fig. 1-3, 18G5; id. Kirby, Cat. D. L., p. 425, 1871; id. 
Semper, Journ. Mus. God. p. 55, Heft 14. 1878 ; id. Miskin. 
P. L. S., N.S.W., Ser. 2, V, p. 23, 1890 ; id. idem. Ann. 
Queensl. Mus. No. 1, p. 71, 1891 ; id. Waterh. (in parte) 

276 Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker on 

P. L. S., N. S.W., p. 249, 1903 ; id. idem. Mem. N.S.W. Nat. 
Club, No. 1, p. 29, 1903. 

<$ . Both wings dull reddish brown purple, primaries with the 
brown termen narrow straight and of uniform width. Secondaries 
with the costa and apical area very broadly brown, the latter taper- 
ing into the wide brown termen, the tail at the tornus is somewhat 
developed, but not sufficiently as to be called a tail. Under-side. 
Both wings pale brownish, primaries with two obscure spots in the 
cell, finely divided by bluish white lines, followed by a large black- 
ish patch with an irregular pale bluish pupil. The posterior 
catenulated stripe is composed of five irregular dark spots palely 
edged, followed by an obscure trace of a sixth shifted inwards. 
There is no trace of any subterminal or terminal line. Secondaries with 
pattern very obscure, the basal series of spots is barely discernible, in 
the median series the costal spot is very large, that in the cell much 
smaller and irregular, that on the inner margin smaller still, the 
series at the end of the cell is confluent irregular extending from the 
costa to the inner margin, the second spot (from the costa) being very 
large and touching the posterior series which is composed of a pair 
of confluent spots followed by a second pair of confluent spots shifted 
outwards, beyond which is an isolated spot shifted well inwards. 

$ . Both wings brighter purplish, primaries with the wing beyond 
the cell and above vein 3 brown. A darker patch at the end of the 
cell followed by a pale lemon-coloured smallish patch. Secondaries 
with the costa above vein 6 brown and a broad brown termen. 
Under-side like the male but irrorated with grey so that the pattern 
is more distinct and the jDale spot shows through in the primaries. 

Expanse g 45, $? 48 mm. 

Through the kindness of Mr. Rothschild I have Felder's 
types before me and am therefore enabled to compare 
them with specimens sent me from South Australia. 

The shape of the insect is that obtaining in idmo, Hew., 
the apex of the primaries being somewhat acute and the 
termen straight ; the colour also is nearest to that species, 
but is paler and somewhat brighter, it is however smaller 
and the under-side pattern is quite diverse. Mr. Water- 
house has kindly sent me for examination two specimens 
from Kangaroo Island with a query as to whether they 
are Felder's insect, but after a very careful comparison I 
believe them to be distinct, and they are the form named 
by Tepper halmaturia. I have now before me the type of 
this species as well as Felder's type (I must here express 

The genus Ogyris. 277 

my best thanks to Mr. Tepper for the loan of it), and I 
consider that they are distinct forms ; more material may 
prove them to be sub-species, but they differ sufficiently to 
warrant them being named. The locality for otancs will 
therefore be South Australia only. 

Ogyris halmatupja, Tepper. 

0. lialmaturia, Tepper Com. Ins. S. Aust. II, p. 12, 
1890. 0. otanes, Feld., Waterh., P. L. S., N.S.W., p. 
249, 1903 (part); id. idem, (part) Mem. N.S.W. Nat. Club, 
p. 29, No. 1. 

£ . Both wings brighter purplish. Primaries with the termen 
broadly brown, broadest at the apex and tornus, the purplish area 
terminating in an even curve from the costa to the inner margin. 
Secondaries with the purple area almost confined to the cell and 
about two-thirds beyond it. Under-surface like otanes, Feld., but 
much greyer. In the primaries the eatenulated posterior stripe is 
curved, not straight as in Felder's species. In the secondaries the 
pattern is more obscure and there is a broadish indefinite band of 
darker shading outside the posterior stripe which is more marked in 
the female than in the male. 

$ . Like the male in all respects except that the colour is brighter 
and there is the pale spot on the primaries. 

Expanse <$ 46, $ 50 mm. 

The types from Kangaroo Island are in the S. Australian 
Museum. Mr. Waterhouse also has specimens from the 
same locality. 

This species may be distinguished from otanes, Feld., by 
the marked arched and broad termen to the primaries, by 
the broad brown termen in the secondaries, and by the 
shape of the wings, the termen being arched and the 
apex rounded. 

It is very desirable that a trip should be made to 
Kangaroo Island and also to the localities in South 
Australia from Cape Willoughby to the south-west corner. 

The species frequents broken country, thinly studded 
with Melaleuca shrubs, between which, Mr. Tepper tells 
me, they sailed in couples but were very wary and difficult 
to approach. It is however much to be wished that a 
good series of both these closely-allied species could be 
obtained, so that we could see whether the distinctions are 

278 Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker on 

Ogyris meeki, Rotlis. 

0. meeki, Roths. Nov. Zool. VII, p. 274, pi. V, fig. 1, 

The female of this species is as yet unknown ; we may 
expect it to have three tails and to have a pale spot on the 
primaries ; the male is the largest of the genus and the 
only species that has fully developed tails ; the outline of 
wings is different to all others inasmuch as the costa of 
the primaries is more strongly arched and the apex 
produced, with the termen slightly excavated below it, 
thus giving it a very distinctive appearance from the rest 
of its allies ; it may also be recognized by the uniform deep 
purplish tone of its upper-side which is quite different from 
the colour of any other species of the genus. 

Ogyris zosine, Hew. 

0. zosine, Hew., Exot. Butt., I, pi. I, figs. 3, 4, $ , 1853. 
id. Kirby, Cat. D. L., p. 423 (1871). id. Semper, Journ. 
Mus. Godef. Heft 14, p. 55, 1878. id. Hew., Cat. Lye. 
B. M., pi. I, fig. 7, $ (nee $), 1862. id. idem. 111. Dium. 
Lep., p. 2, 1863. id. Miskin, Ann. Queensl. Mus., No. 1, 
p. 71, 1891. 0. genoveva, Hew., Exot. Butt. I, pi. I, figs. 
5, 6, $, 1S53. id. Semper, Journ. Mus. Godef. Heft 14, 
p. 55, 1878. id. Hew., Cat. Lye, B. M., p. 3, 1862. id. 111. 
Diurn. Lep., p. 2, 1863. id. Staud., Exot. Schmett. taf 96, 
1888. id. Miskin, P. L. S., N. S.W., p. 23, 1890. id. Miskin, 
Ann. Queensl. Mus., No. 1, p. 71, 1891. id. Waterh., P. L. S., 
N. S.W., p. 245, 1903. id. idem. Mem. N. S.W. Nat. Club, 
p. 29, 1903. 

This species is probably the best known of the genus, 
and is apparently becoming a dominant species ; there are 
already three distinct local races in different parts of the 
country, that in the south being the brightest of all, 
whilst the type form obtaining in Townsville and its 
neighbourhood is the most sombre in colouring. 

It has hitherto been known in all collections with which 
I am acquainted as 0. genoveva, Hew. It is difficult to 
discover how this has arisen, because Hewitson described 
zosine (I.e.) previously, and also figured it previously on 
the same plate. It is perhaps commoner in Queensland 
than elsewhere. The $ is dimorphic. I have therefore 
retained the name genoveva for the pale blue ^ as described 

The genus Ogyris. 279 

by Hewitson. There are however two other easily recog- 
nizable forms obtaining in other localities in Australia, the 
one from Coomooboolaroo, N. Queensland, and the other 
from Brisbane ; these appear to be good constant local 
races, so I have no hesitation in naming them. Mr. 
Waterhouse tells me that he has taken this species feed- 
ing on Lovanthvs linophyllus, Feu., at the Richmond 
River, and on L. rclasiroides, Sieb., at Sydney. The egg is 
plain, spherical, flattened at the top, and is usually laid on 
the mistletoe stem near its origin with its host. The 
young larva? are uniformly light brown (F. P. Dodd), and 
subonisciform ; when full grown, however, they become less 
woodlouse-like, as they then measure from 25 to 32 mm., 
but when in motion they are considerably longer ; in colour 
they are dirty cream colour to ochreous yellow above, and 
purplish below, with black spiracles, this being the form 
that is found in North Queensland ; those found in the 
South however differ, and are, according to Waterhouse, 
brownish-red above and yellowish below. They hide in 
the cracks of the bark of the host tree or in holes in the 
mistletoe during the day, or beneath the surface of the 
earth, coming out at dusk and feeding at night, at which 
time I am informed the ants associated with them are 
likewise on the move ; the species of ants that Dodd has 
found them with most commonly is sEcophylla vircseens, 
but several other species also associate with them. They 
evidently protect the larva?, and have been observed to 
milk them ; in one instance an ant was observed to 
approach a larva and wave its antennae over its terminal 
segments, and then to lightly touch it with its fore-leg, 
when a small globule of liquid was emitted from a small 
retractible nipple-like organ on the dorsum which was at 
once sucked up by the ant. The process was then repeated 
on the other side, there being two of these organs, oue on 
each side of the dorsum ; this happened two or three times, 
and the larva seemed quite composed and in no way 
incommoded by the incident. I possess larva? in spirit 
both from Queensland and from Sydney, and the form 
from Sydney is darker and more highly coloured than that 
from the North. The pupa, some of which I have before 
me, is very dark brown, almost blackish, of the usual 
Lycsenid form ; it attaches itself by its terminal segments 
to the under-side of stones or loose bark and spins a girdle 
of silk across its back about the end of the wing cases and 

280 Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker on 

so undergoes its transformation, and is quite undisturbed 
and unmolested by its ant hosts. 

Mr. Waterhouse tells me that the form found at the 
Richmond River (N.S.W.) is distinctly smaller than that 
found both to the North and to the South of that locality, 
he says also that he never sees males on the wing until 
about 2 p.m. in the day, when they fly high (about thirty 
feet) around the Eucalyptus trees, and are very difficult to 
catch ; the females are very rarely seen on the wing. 

This year the species has been recorded from South 
Australia, Mr. Lyell having recorded it in the Victorian 
Naturalist, vol. xxi, p. 166 and 167; from Dimboola, 
larvae and pupre were taken in November and December 
last, the perfect insect emerging in the latter month. Mr. 
Lyell and his friend Mr. Fricot were hunting for the larvse 
of 0. idmo, but instead of finding it they discovered 
caterpillars of this species; they confirm the observa- 
tion that it feeds by night, and they also state that it 
pupates at the foot of the tree below the surface of the 
ground. In order to test the action of the attendant ants 
one or two larva? were placed a couple of feet or so away 
from the tree ; they were however soon discovered and 
dragged carefully back to the tree by the ants at a pace 
much more rapid than their own rate ; pupae were likewise 
carried back to the tree. 

Ogyris zosine-duaringa, sub spec. nov. 

Ogyris genoveva, Miskin, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., p. 343, 
pi. xv. 

£ . Both wings brightish purple. Primaries with a broad darker 
but equally bright suffusion across the median area of the wing, the 
brown termen is much narrower than in zosine and of equal width 
from the apex to the tornus. Secondaries with a very narrow brown 
termen, little more than linear. Under-side as in the type but with 
the spots more distinctly outlined and with a velvety clouding near 
the tail at vein 4. 

$. Similar to the female of the form genoveva, Hew., but the blue 
instead of camilean is brilliant greenish-blue much more lustrous 
than in Hewitson's insect. 

Expanse ^ 54-58, $ 56-58 mm. 

This subspecies was taken by Meek at Coomooboolaroo, 
where it appears to be a constant race ; there is a long 

The genus Ogyris. 281 

series of it in the Tring Museum ; it is also the form 
figured by Miskin (1. a). 

Ogyris zosine-magna, sub spec. nov. 

£ . Both wings rich purplish-blue. Primaries with the apical third 
of the costa and the apical half of the termen hoary. Secondaries 
dark brown to vein 6. Tail at vein 4 not developed, the scallop 
being but little longer than that at the end of veins 3 and 5. 

Fringes white, interrupted at the veins, antennae bright chestnut, 
very finely dark on the upper-side, the club being bright orange 
chestnut. Under-side as type species but darker grey. 

9 . Both wings velvety black. Primaries with the basal area to 
about half the cell and half the inner margin brilliant silvery 
lustrous greenish-blue more greenish than in duaringa, and with the 
usual pale spot. Secondaries with the silvery lustrous greenish area 
more reduced extending only to just beyond the cell and tapering in 
an arc to three-fifths of vein 2. Veins 2 and 4 are developed into 
strong broad tails, and vein 3 into a prominent tooth, at each of the 
latter is a lustrous greenish blue spot. Under-side similar to the 
type species but more strongly marked. 

Expanse £ 66, $ 70 mm. 

The types are from Brisbane, and are in my collection. 
Mr. Waterhouse also has it from the same locality. 

Ogyris abrota, Doub. and Hew. 

Ogi/ris abrota, Doubleday and Hew., Gen. Diurn. Lep., 
pi. 75, fig. 8 ?, 1850 ; id. Hew. Exot. Butt. I, pi. I, figs. 1 
and 2 $, 1853; id. idem. Cat. Lye, B. M., p. 2, 1862; id. 
idem. 111. Diurn. Lep. Lye, p. 2, 1863; id. Kirby, Cat. 
D. L., p. 425, 1871 ; id. Semper, Journ. Mus. Godef, Heft 
14, p. 55, 1878 ; id. Miskin, P. L. S., N.S.W., p. 25, 1890 ; 
id. idem. Ann. Queens. Mus., No. 1, p. 72, 1891 ; id. And. 
and Spry., Vict. Butt,, p. 109, 1894; id. Waterh., 
P. L. S., N.S.W., p. 247, 1903 ; id. idem. Mem. N.S.W. 
Nat. Club, p. 28, 1903. 0. damo, Doubld. List. Lep., B. M., 
pt. 2, p. 20. 

This species is recorded from Victoria, New South Wales 
and South Queensland. Anderson and Spry have described 
its metamorphosis, they say that the ova are dull white and 
quite globular and are laid on the inside of loose bark by 

282 Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker on 

the food plant or upon its stems. The larvae feed chiefly 
upon Zoranthus pendidus, and are onisciform, broadened 
and flattened at the anal segments and with a dorsal ridge ; 
the general colour is dark fulvous paler along the ridge 
with a series of oblique (? lateral) stripes ; on the tenth 
segment is a black irregular diamond-shaped patch pupilled 
with greyish-white, the last segment having a dark T- 
shaped mark, the spiracles are white encircled with black, 
the surface generally being rugose and punctated with 
minute bristles, with a subspiracular series of short bristles. 
The larval state is said to last for some months and to be 
delicate and difficult to rear ; ants are always with them, 
and whilst they appear to be free from attacks of insect 
parasites, a fungoid disease at times kills large numbers 
of them. When full grown the larva measures from 20 
to 25 mm. 

Ogyris ianthis, Waterhouse. 

0. ianthis, Waterhouse, P. L. S., N.S.W., pp. 52-54, 
pi. I, figs. 1-4, 1900 ; id. idem, p. 341, 1902; id. p. 247, 
1903; Mem. N.S.W. Nat. Club, No. 1, p. 29, 1903. 

This species can readily be recognized from Water- 
house's description and from its rich orange-chrome- 
coloured female ; it is apparently confined to the neigh- 
bourhood of Sydney. The ova are pale pinkish in colour, 
in shape they are flattened somewhat at the top, and 
reticulated all over. The larva, which hides at some depth 
in ants' nests during the day, does not move until night, and 
feeds on Lorantlvus eclastroides in the dark, always making 
for a dark corner should a light be turned on it ; it is 
pinkish-brown with a much darker dorsal line and paler 
lateral bands, one on each segment ; the under-side is pale 
cream colour. The pupa is reddish-brown of the usual 
shape. I find that the organs on the last segment but one 
through which the fluid so greedily sucked by ants is 
passed are very marked in this species. I have a young 
larva in formalin now in front of me, and I notice that 
these organs (a pair) are situated on each side of the 
dorsum, and consist of a prominent tubercle shagreened all 
over, with a deep orifice in the centre from which the 
retractile tube is everted or withdrawn at will ; when at 
rest the tube is contracted, and is apparently only emitted 
when the larva is induced to do so. 

The genus Ogyris. 283 

Ogyris olane, Hew. 

Ogyris olane, Hew., Cat. Lye, B. M., p. 2, pi. I, figs. 10, 
11, 1862 ; id. 111. Diurn. Lep., p. 2, 1863 ; id. Miskin, 
P. L. S., N.S.W, p. 27, 1890; id. Kirby, Cat. D. L., p. 
425, 1871 ; id. Semper, Journ. Mus. God., Heft 14, p. 55, 
1878; id. Miskin, Ann. Queensl. Mus., No. 1, p. 72, 
1891 ; 0. catharina, Feld. Reise, Nov. Lep. II, p. 218, 

<$ . Both wings darkish-brown. Primaries with a patch of dull 
brownish-purple occupying the area between the median and sub- 
median veins extending slightly into the cell and one-third the 
space beyond below vein 2. Apical area and half down the termen 
paler brown. Secondaries with the purple occupying the cell and 
one-third the space beyond, termen strongly crenulate. 

Fringes white interrupted at the veins. 

Under-side primaries dark brown with the cell spots defined by 
five pale metallic-blue lines, a dark irregular oblique line midway 
between the cell and the apex, beyond which the wing is suffused 
with whitish-grey scales, an obscure subterminal band tapering 
towards the apex extending into the grey area. Secondaries grey 
darker towards the inner marginal and tornal area, spots slightly 
darker defined by fine dark lines. Basal spots small, median series 
large, the first below the costa narrow touching the large spot across 
the cell which is confluent with the one below it, an isolated long 
oblique spot from the costa to the large cell spot just mentioned, 
third series, with the first and second spots confluent, the first 
strongly oblique, the second an inverted /\-shape confluent with the 
two smaller spots below it, posterior series from vein 6, the second 
and third spots confluent shifted outwards, the fourth still outwards 
and slightly darker, fifth and sixth smaller and shifted inwards, a 
trace of a subterminal dark irregular line, lower terminal area 
darkly suffused. 

9 . Like the male but with the purple area very slightly less in 
extent, whilst the secondaries on the under-side have the spots 
larger and darker thus forming a strong contrast with the grey 

Expanse : $ 42-44, $ 44-49 mm. 

Hob. S. Australia, Victoria and N. S. Wales. 

This description is of the form now found in Australia; 
it does not agree with the colour on the upper-side of 
Hewitson's type, which is paler and bright blue, the under- 

284 Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker on 

side agrees, however, fairly closely. I have no doubt that 
the two insects are the same species, but that Hewitson's 
type may have undergone some change (possibly chemical) 
which has effected the difference in colour. In my study 
of the genus Arhopala I became convinced that the blues 
of that genus, hitherto considered so very constant and 
unchangeable in colour, are liable to alteration, this being 
especially so where the colours are apparently aniline, and 
further experience tends to confirm that opinion, though I 
am not prepared to say in what manner the change of 
tone is effected, but it apparently does not affect the scales 

Anderson and Spry describe the ova as of a pearly lustre 
and flattened at the poles ; they are laid on the edges of 
loose bark, or on the stems of Loranthus pendidus and some- 
times on the galls which furnish hiding-places for the 
larvae ; these closely resemble the larvae of 0. abrota, Hew., 
but have a small black patch on the anal plate ; they are 
at times great wanderers, and are strictly nocturnal feeders 
and have to travel long distances from their hiding-places 
to their food, which in the summer months is often scarce, 
as the Loranthus loses most of its leaves then ; they appear 
to be able however to withstand prolonged abstinence 
and yet to undergo safely their metamorphoses, in these 
cases however the imagines are of course smaller than 
usual. The larvae are also greatly subject to parasites, their 
worst enemies being two species of Diptera, one of which 
lays its eggs in its host, whilst in the case of the other fly, 
apparently the larvae is not a parasite, but is furnished 
with pointed mandibles and is said to suck its victims dry. 
This dipterous caterpillar being very active and voracious 
works serious destruction amongst the larvae of olane. 
The pupa is somewhat delicate and suffers from the rays 
of the sun if in too exposed a situation ; it remains about 
a month in this state before emerging as the perfect insect. 

Isolated specimens may be caught throughout the year, 
but October and November, and February and March are, 
according to Anderson and Spry, the months when they 
usually fly, though it is difficult to take, owing to its habit 
of flying around the topmost branches of the gum trees. 

Mr. Spry informs me that he has never once seen this 
caterpillar attended by ants, though he has studied it and 
known it for years, the fact also that it is subject to the 
attacks of parasites no doubt corroborates his observations. 

The genus Ogyris. 285 

Ogyris BARNARDI, Miskin. 

Ogyris larnardi, Miskin, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., p. 27, 
1890 ; id. idem. Ann. Queensl. Mus., No. 1, p. 72, 1891 ; 
id. Waterhouse, idem. p. 248, 1903 ; id. Waterhouse, Mem. 
N.S.W. Nat. Club, p. 28, 1903. 

£ . Both wings dull purple. Primaries with termen narrowly 
brown, slightly broader at the apex. Secondaries with costa some- 
what broadly brown and very narrow brown termen ; termen very 
slightly crenulate. Under-side like olane, Hew., but the primaries 
are paler brown, and in the secondaries the spots are smaller and 
there is no dark suffusion. 

Expanse £ 41-45. 

Dawson River, Peak Downs (Queensland). 

Ogyris orcetes, Hew. 

0. orcetes, Hew., Cat. Lye, B. M., p. 3, pi. I, figs. 12 
and 13, $, 1862 ; id. idem. 111. Diurn. Lep., p. 2, 1863 : 
id. Kirby, Cat. D. L., p. 425, 1871 ; id, Miskin, P. L. S., 
N.S.W., p. 25, 1890 ; id, idem. Ann. Queensl. Mus., I, 
p. 71, 1891 ; id. Waterh. P. L.S., N.S.W., p. 335, pi. XIV, 
Mors. 1 and 2, 1902; id. idem. p. 246, 1903; id. idem. 
Mem. N.S.W. Nat. Club, I, p. 29. 

The only locality of which we are certain at the present 
time is Queensland. Mr. Waterhouse informs me that the 
specimens mentioned by Miskin (1. c.) from W. Australia 
and Victoria are havitsoni, whilst the ^ in the Australian 
Museum is a $ amaryllis. Dodd has bred the species 
plentifully, and he tells me that the full-grown larva? are 
light yellowish-brown faintly tinged with green, and that 
he has always found them among or close to communities 
of ants. The pupa? are dark brown, and are of the usual 
shape; I have specimens now before me, but there is 
nothing worthy of note in them. Dodd says they " tick " 
in the same way as genoveva, only decidedly more slowly 
and not so loudly. 

Ogyris hewitsoni, Waterh. 

O. hewitsoni, Waterh., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., p. 338, 
pi. XIV, f. 5-8, 1902; id, idem. p. 246, 1903; id. idem. 
Mem. N.S.W. Nat. Club, p. 29, 1903 ; 0. amaryllis, And. 
and Spry, p. 102, 1894. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1905. — PART III. (OCT.) 20 

286 Mr. Gr. T. Bethune-Baker on 

The female of this insect is unrecognizable on the upper- 
side from the $ of the oroetes, except that in the present 
species the brilliant blue extends over the upper margin 
of the cell, whilst in Hewitson's species it does not. 
Under-side, like the male, except that the pattern is 
generally more distinct and isolated. In the cell of the 
primaries are two large vermilion red spots edged on each 
side with pale metallic bluish, and with traces of red 
further along the cell. 

This species seems to be the commonest of all the genus 
with the exception possibly of c/enoveva. It has been 
recorded from all the Australian States except Tasmania. 
I am again indebted to that careful observer, F. P. Dodd, 
for information as to the life history. He finds the larvae in 
the same localities as oroetes always among or near ants ; 
when full fed they are grey or greyish-brown, and are 
duller in colour than the other species he has taken ; the 
pupse emit similar sounds, and like the preceding insect 
" tick " more slowly than genoveva. These sounds are not 
continued for any length of time, but a gentle touch or 
a shake will generally set them going again, and when 
one specimen begins others in the vicinity as a rule follow 
its example. Mr. Dodd tells me that each of the three 
caterpillars of this genus that he is acquainted with feed 
at night only. 

Ogyris hewitsoni-meridionalis, sub spec. nov. 

$ . Both wings with the hlue decidedly deeper and less silvery in 
tone. Under-side altogether darker, the cell markings larger and the 
white edgings tinged with hlue. Secondaries browner, with none 
of the strong contrasts that are so conspicuous in heivitsoni ; the 
spots are browner and not so broken up as in Waterhouse's type 

9 . Both wings with the blue of a lilac lustre, not silvery. 
Under-side similar to the type form. 

Expanse $ 40-41, $ 42 mm. 

The Southern form from Victoria is very decidedly less 
brilliant than Waterhouse's species, it is also much smaller. 
I have it from several localities, and as Mr. Waterhouse 
says that these differences are constant, it seems to be 
advisable to name the local race. 

The genus Ogyris. 287 


0. amaryllis Hew., Cat. Lye, B. M., p. 3, pi. I, f. 5 and 
6, ?, 1802 ; id. idem. 111. Diurn. Lep., p. 2, 1863 ; id. Kirby, 
Cat. D. L., p. 425, 1871 ; id, Miskin, P. L. S., N.S.W., p. 
26, 1890; id, idem, Ann. Queensl. Mus., p. 72, 1891; id. 
Waterh., P. L. S., N.S.W., p. 336, pi. XIV, f. 3, 4, 1902 ; 
id, idem, Mem. N.S.W. Nat. Club, p. 29, 1903. 

This species can easily be recognized from its pre- 
decessor by the very broad borders to the primaries and 
by the deeper tone of blue in both wings. 

The range of the species appears to be restricted to the 
neighbourhood of Brisbane (S. Queensland) and the 
Richmond River in New South Wales, from which latter 
locality Waterhouse has bred it. The ova are pinkish 
grey, somewhat flattened with raised reticulations, and are 
laid on the mistletoe knobs. The larvae feed on Loranfhus 
linophyllus, and when young are greenish, but later they 
become dark grey assimilating very closely with the host- 
plant of the Loranthus. 

Ogyris ^none, Waterhouse. 

0. lenone, Waterh. P. L. S., N.S.W., p. 339. pi. XIV, fig. 
9 $, 1902 ; id. idem. p. 246, 1903 ; id. idem. Mem. N.S.W. 
Nat. Club, p. 29, 1903. 

£ . Both wings brilliant lustrous morpho-blue, more brilliant and 
lustrous than in any other of the genus, in certain side lights having 
a metallic mauve lustre. Primaries with the costa broadly blackish 
increasing at the apex, termen narrowly blackish increasing rapidly 
towards the apex, and decreasing slightly towards the tornus. 
Secondaries with the costa broadly dark greyish and termen very finely 
black. Under-side. Both wings pale whitish dove-grey. Primaries 
with three increasing cell spots palely edged, the basal spot pale 
brownish, the second and third deep black with bluish white 
margins ; below each of these latter a black spot, catenulated stripe 
very irregular consisting of seven spots, the first two below the costa 
quite pale, the third blackish and small, fourth slightly larger shifted 
outwards, fifth shifted inwards, sixth very large and ovate inclined 
outwards, seventh oval rather smaller shifted and inclined inwards, 
a trace of a subterminal line. Secondaries rather darker than the 
primaries with three basal spots, the first and third very small 
median series widely isolated, a small darkish spot below the costal 

288 Mr. G. T. Beth une- Baker on 

vein, a larger pale grey spot on the inner margin of the cell with 
two small spots below it (one on each side) followed by another pale 
spot on the inner margin, third series very irregular, a longish 
narrow spot below the costal vein, a pale round one in the angle of 
vein 7, a large irregular one closing the cell below which is an 
indefinite trace of a fourth followed by a larger and more distinct spot 
on the inner margin, posterior catenulated series, irregular and 
somewhat indefinite on its inner margin, the first spot large below 
vein 7, second and third shifted right outwards, fourth and fifth well 
inwards, sixth spot obscure, shifted inwards, an indefinite subter- 
minal slightly dentate stripe, a trace of a brownish spot on the 
slightly developed lobe at the tornus. 

§ . Both wings less lustrous and not quite so pale a blue as the 
male with broader margins. Primaries with a black invading spot 
at the end of the cell and a creamy yellowish costal patch in front of 
the apex. Under-side. Primaries like the male but with all the 
spots larger and darker, and between the cell spots large patches of 
very pale (washed out) orange. Secondaries similar to the male but 
with the spots darker, and a white oblique broken stripe right across 
the wing across the middle of the cell edged by a broad indefinite 
suffusion of golden brownish, termen with a similar suffusion. 
Expanse $ 52, 9 54 mm. 

This species is only recorded from Cooktown ; the 
brilliancy of its upper-side and the paleness of the under- 
side, together with the small and isolated arrangement of 
spots beneath, will enable it to be readily separated from 
any other of the group. 

The genus Ogyris. 







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$92 Explanation of Plate. 

Explanation of Plate XV. 

Fig. 1. 

Ogyris amaryllis, genitalia profile 



„ penis. 



ulanes, genitalia. 



„ penis. 



halmaturia, genitalia. 



„ penis. 



orectes, genitalia. 



„ penis. 



zosine, genitalia. 



„ penis. 



abrota, genitalia. 



„ penis. 



barnardi, genitalia. 



„ penis. 



olane, genitalia. 



,, penis. 



ianthis, genitalia. 



,, penis. 



idmo, genitalia. 



„ penis. 



heicitsoni, genitalia 



„ penis. 

( 293 ) 

XVII. The structure and life history of Psychoda sex- 
punctata, Curtis. By John Alexander Dell, 
B.Sc. Communicated by Prof. L. C. Miall, 
F.RS., F.E.S. 

[Read May 3rd, 1905.] 

Habitat and Mode of Life. 

Psychoda in all stages of growth abounds throughout 
the year at the Leeds Sewage Works, and advantage has 
been taken of this circumstance to investigate more fully 
the life history of the insect. It obtains its food from 
heaps of coke, over which crude sewage is sprayed during 
the purifying process. The life which flourishes on the 
coke-heaps, and especially the bacterial life, effects the 
reduction of the sewage to a harmless liquid. Alga?, 
among which Stigeoclonmm tcnue is conspicuous, find here 
congenial conditions, and supply nutriment to insects of 
more than one kind. Besides Psychoda, a Chironomus and 
a beetle (Platystclhus) occur. A Scolopendra, Mites, and 
Nais have also been observed on the coke-heaps. 

The Psychoda-\&rv& is minute, cylindrical, tapering 
toward the hinder end, and bluntly rounded in front. It 
may attain a length of 7 5 mm. The larva bears no 
locomotor appendages, but moves in a vermiform manner. 
On the fore part of the head are a pair of jaws, probably 
mandibles, which can be extended forwards, or folded 
backwards. By means of these and the recurved labium 
food is crammed into the mouth. The last segment is 
usually bent upwards so as to keep its tip, which bears the 
only functional spiracles, clear of the semi-liquid filth in 
which the rest of the body is usually immersed. The 
pupa? are found together with the larvae in the sewage. 

The fly is small and of grey colour. The female is 4 to 
4*5 mm. long, the male only 2"5 to 3 mm., including the 
wings. The male is further distinguished by the large 
genital appendages, which project from the extremity of 
the abdomen. The wings are longer than the body, which 
they completely cover, and slope when at rest. Both 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1905. — PART III. ( OCT. ) 

294 Mr. J. A. Dell on the Structure 

body and wings are abundantly covered with grey hairs, 
which give the fly at first sight the appearance of a small 
moth, hence the name Psychoda, Round the edges of the 
wings are a few black tufts, and the veins are thickly 
covered with hairs. The hairy surface protects the body 
from accidental wetting. A fresh-killed fly, when pressed 
below the surface of the water, carries down with it so 
large a quantity of air, that on being released, it shoots at 
once to the top and remains floating. The flies may often 
be observed resting on the windows of empty houses, and 
are also abundant in privies, urinals, etc. At the Leeds 
Sewage Works they cluster on the under-side of the pieces 
of coke upon which the sewage is sprayed. They are 
sluggish, and do not readily take to flight. In returning 
from the sewage works to the University I have often 
found that the walk of three or four miles was insufficient 
to dislodge Psychoda flies which had clung to my dress. 
They can, however, run fast, and they are sometimes 
carried far by wind. The fly does not, so far as is known, 
feed at all. 

In copulation the male runs alongside the female, 
stroking her with his antenna?, while the wings, antennas 
and halteres are thrown into spasmodic vibration. The 
large forceps is then extended directly backwards, and the 
abdomen of the male bent round so that the hinder ends 
of the two bodies are brought into apposition. The 
forceps then close upon the body of the female, unless 
they miss, which not infrequently happens, as the male 
fly is unable to see what he is doing. In such a case the 
whole manoeuvre is repeated. The males are apparently 
unable to distinguish which of their companions are 
females, as they very frequently attempt to copulate with 
one another. They have often been seen to die while 
still attached to the female. 

As usual in Nemocera the eggs are deposited in an 
elastic, jelly-like mass. They are irregularly arranged in 
it, and unconnected with one another. The egg-mass 
thus formed is indefinite in shape, and may be fixed to a 
stone or other solid object. The total length of an egg- 
mass may be 1-2 mm., and such an egg-mass commonly 
contains 35-40 eggs. The eggs are small ('2 mm. to *3 
mm. in length) and sausage-shaped ; they are opaque, and 
loaded with yolk-granules. Hatching takes place 10-14 
days after laying, but may possibly be more rapid in a 

and Life History of Psychoda sexpundata. 2§5 

warmer season than that in which 
my observations were made. 

Systematic position of Psychoda 

The long antennas of many similar 
joints, and the slender flexible maxil- 
lary palps, at once place Psychoda 
among the Nemoccra. The absence 
of ocelli, the short and fleshy mouth- 
parts, the bead-like joints of the 
antenna 3 , the prominent genital 
forceps, and the structure of the 
wings characterize the Psychodidae. 
The pattern of the wing-veins suffi- 
ciently indicates the genus Psychoda, 
while the black tufts on the margin 
of the wing distinguish the species 

External features of the Larva 

(Fig. 1). 
The body consists of a head and 
eleven segments. Each of the first 
three segments is imperfectly 
divided into two annuli, and each 
of the remaining ones into three. 
The last segment is the only one 
which is extensively modified. The 
integument is covered with a thick 
layer of chitin, which is in places 
thickened into special protective 
plates. In general there is a thin 
membrane between the adjacent 
segments, and a longitudinal thin 
strip separating the dorsal from the 
ventral armour. The cuticle of a 
larva which has recently shed its 
skin is white and transparent, and 
such larvae can be easily studied 
alive as transparent objects. As 
time goes on, however, the cuticle 
thickens, and a larva which has a 
moult in prospect becomes com- 





Fig. 1 ( x 20). 
Dorsal view of larva. 


Mr. J. A. Doll on the Structure 

pletely brown and opaque. From the middle of each 
segment a pair of lateral setse project, which are more 
or less curved. There are also on all the segments 
except the first and second numerous short, rather blunt 
seta?, arranged in transverse bands ; there are two of these 
bands on the third segment, and three on each of the 
others. In the mid-dorsal line of the ninth and tenth 
segments occur a series of black, oval, shining plates, 
transversely elongated, but not reaching the sides of the 
body. There are usually three on each segment, but they 
are irregular in form and size, and occasionally one is 
found on the eighth segment. The last or eleventh 
segment is smooth and hard, and tapers backwards, though 

Fig. 2 ( x 80). 

Dorsal view of head of larva (to left.) ; ventral view (to right). 

the extreme tip is truncated. The anus opens on its 
under-side, in a recess at the attached end of the segment. 
There are two small appendages arising from the truncated 
terminal surface of this segment. They are short, fringed 
with setse, and somewhat like the corresponding structures 
in the Pcricoma larva, but not so much developed. As in 
Pcricoma, the larva? can hang from the surface-film by 
means of the anal appendages. If depressed beneath the 
surface, the anal appendages do not carry down a bubble 
of air, with which the spiracles communicate, as in the 
Pcricoma larva, though small air bubbles often adhere to 
the seta?. When floating at the surface, the larva, if it is 
able to reach the bottom, can drag itself along by means 

and Life History of Psychoda sexpunctata. 297 

of the mouth-appendages, which are rapidly extended and 
closed, so as to scrape the bottom. 

The head (Fig. 2) is subcorneal, much reduced, and 
partly retractile. It can be withdrawn into the prothorax, 
so that the head is concealed as far forward as the eyes. 
This position is temporarily assumed during crawling, and 
is normal in larvae about to pupate. The head nearly 
resembles that of Pericoma* and Maruina.f In each case 
the mid-dorsal surface is occupied by the roughly triangular 
clypeus, flanked on either side by the large epicranial 
plates, which bear the black, shining, simple eyes, and the 
antennae. The antennae are even more reduced than in 
Pericoma, and are little more than knobs. The forward 
prolongation of the clypeus is the labrum. This is an 
elongated triangular organ ; its apex is turned underneath 
in such a way that the tip lies almost directly beneath its 
junction with the clypeus. A few hairs arise from its 
anterior edges, and on the surface of the apical part, which 
is morphologically dorsal, but actually ventral, there occur 
a large number of backward-directed spines. On each 
side of, and immediately behind the labium is an appen- 
dage, probably the mandible, which is short, and ends 
bluntly. From each appendage arise two large plumose 
setae, one running forward, the other outward. There are 
also two bunches of shorter setae. Immediately behind the 
supposed mandibles is a pair of semi-circular, plate-like 
appendages, which probably represent the maxillae. 
Between them and in the median line is a comb-like 
organ with its teeth projecting forwards. A similar plate 
is common in Nemoceran larvae, and has been identified 
with the submentum.t 

Nervous System of the Larva. 

The nervous system (Fig. 3) consists of the usual cere- 
bral ganglia and the ventral chain. The cerebral ganglia 
are pear-shaped, and from their pointed ends arise a pair 
of nerves, which run forwards into the head. The sub- 
cesophageal ganglia are, as usual, connected with the 
cerebral so as to form a ring round the oesophagus, through 
which runs the dorsal vessel. Behind these is a series of 

* Miall and Walker (1895). f M tiller (1895). 

+ Miall and Hammond (1892 and 1900). 

298 Mr. J. A. Dell on the Structure 

eleven ganglia, not segmentally arranged. The hindmost 
of the chain is small, and close to the one immediately in 
front of it. The first body-segment contains, in addition 
to the first ganglion of the ventral chain, the cerebral and 
sub-oesophageal ganglia, which in most insects lie in the 
head. The shifting of these ganglia into the thorax is no 
doubt explained, as in the case of Chironomus, by the 
reduction of the larval head. The large and complex 
head of the fly cannot be developed within the 
n a small larval head, and its rudiments, besides the 
brain, which it will ultimately enclose, are trans- 
ferred to the much more spacious prothorax.* 

Alimentary Canal of the Larva. 

The alimentary canal resembles that of 
Chironomus f so closely that I shall merely 
describe the points of difference between the 
two. The fore-part of the stomach is separated 
as a cardia, but has no caeca. Between its wall 
and the reflected wall of the oesophagus arises 
a thin chitinous membrane, the " peritrophic 
membrane " of Balbiani.j 

The function of the peritrophic membrane is 
to protect the mesenteric epithelium from 
abrasion by inorganic particles, which the larva 
swallows along with its food. It is apparently 
cast periodically. In a living Psychoda larva 
reversed peristaltic contractions have been 
observed. The digested food has been seen to 
be carried up into the space between the 
peritrophic membrane and the mesenteric 
epithelium by these peristaltic contractions. At 
the hinder end of the mesenteron is a slight 

l 1 IG 3 . 

dilatation, into which open the five Malpighian 
Nerve-cord tubules. Five is an unusual number of tubules 
" among insects, but it is found in Blepharoceridss, 
Culex, and Ptychoptera.§ 
There is a pair of salivary glands situated in the fore- 
part of the thorax. They are roughly bean-shaped, and 
the duct arises from the part corresponding to the hilum 

* Miall and Hammond (1892, 1900). 

+ Miall and Hammond (1900). X Balbiani (1890). 

§ Midler (1895). 

and Life History of Psychoda sexpunctata, 299 

of the bean. They are placed one on each side of the 
alimentary canal, which they partly encircle. The two 
ducts run forward beneath the alimentary canal, and unite 
in the posterior region of the head. The structure of the 
glands is very simple. They are hollow, the wall being 
only one layer of cells thick. The cells are very large, 
and possess very large nuclei, in which by suitable methods 
a distinct chromatic filament and nucleus can be made 
out. I have not been able to detect the elaborate 
nuclear structure of the salivary cells of the Chirononms 
larva.* Outside the cells there is a thin basement- 

Respiratory System of the Larva (Figs. 4-6). 

The respiratory system of the larva is well developed. 
The air is renewed mainly, if not altogether, by means of the 
large posterior spiracles (Fig. G). These are situated at the 
apex of the last segment, close to the bases of the minute 
anal appendages. Each spiracle communicates with a large 
longitudinal trachea. Immediately within the spiracle the 
trachea is slightly dilated into an oval chamber, and the 
centre of this is occupied by an ovoid mass of chitin, attached 
to the walls of the chamber by chitinous threads. The 
whole arrangement forms a kind of loose spongy plug. In 
addition to this pair of large posterior spiracles, there are 
an anterior pair borne by two short processes on the sides 
of the prothorax (Fig. 4). They are not open, and pro- 
bably not functional, since they are always immersed in 
water or mud. Leading into each spiracle is a trachea, 
which, as it passes into the process on which the spiracle 
is borne, gradually becomes spongy and takes on a black 
appearance as seen by the microscope, probably due to 
contained air. 

There are two very large trachese (Fig. 4), each arising 
from one of the posterior spiracles, and running forward 
along the back. They are connected by a series of 
commissures, one of which occurs at the hinder end of 
every segment, except the last. In many cases small, 
forward-directed branches arise from the commissures. 
Some of these are connected with the alimentary canal, 
and on this account the commissures are very slack, 
especially those near the middle of the body. During the 

* Balbiani (1881). 


Mr. J. A. Dell on the Structure 

vermiform movements of the animal 
there is a considerable amount of 
sliding of the alimentary canal and 
body-wall on one another, and a tight 
commissure would be liable to be 
snapped, or to tear the tissues. In 
each segment, besides the commissures, 
there is found a lateral branch running 
downward and forward, and soon 
splitting into three. Of these three 
each posterior branch unites with the 

Fig. 5 ( x 20). 

Anterior part of tracheal system of larva, 
in side view. 

Fro. 4 ( x 20). 
Tracheal system of larva. 

anterior branch of the segment behind, 
thus forming a loop, while the middle 
branch breaks up into branches of 
distribution. In the last segment, 
immediately dorsal to the hinder part 
of the heart, there arise from each 

Fig. 6 ( x 100). 
Posterior spiracles of larvs. 

and Life History of Psychoda sexpunctata . 301 

y \ 

<1 i| V V 

i hi 

Fig. 7 ( x 20). 

Ventral view of pupa (to left) ; side view (to right). 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1905. — PART III. (OCT.) 21 

302 Mr. J. A. Dell on the Structure 

longitudinal trachea a number of small branches, which 
break up into branches of distribution in the neighbour- 
hood of the pericardium. 

Pupation : External Features of the Pupa. 

After reaching its full size, the larva becomes slu<j£jish 
and ceases to feed ; the head becomes retracted, so that the 
part behind the eyes is concealed by the first body- 
segment ; the last larval skin is then shed, and the pupa 
emerges. This takes place while the animal is still buried 
in slime. In a short time the pupa makes its way to the 
surface, where it lies with the respiratory appendages 
exposed. This facilitates respiration, and the escape of 
the fly. 

The pupa (Fig. 7) is, as usual, shorter and thicker than 
the larva. When it first appears it is white, but the 
cuticle soon thickens and turns brown. The head is not 
externally marked off from the rest of the body, but the 
compound eyes of the fly can be seen through the pupal 
skin. From the front of the prothorax arise the two 
respiratory appendages (Prothorakalhorne of De Meijere*). 
They are rather less than one-third of the length of the 
body, and transversely wrinkled. Scattered over their 
surfaces, especially towards the distal end, occur numerous 
transparent circles, which appear to be holes, but are really 
thin spots in the cuticle. A shallow transverse furrow 
separates the prothorax from the mesothorax. The three 
pairs of leg-sheaths are straight, and reach the beginning 
of the third abdominal segment, where the tips of the wing- 
sheaths are also situated. All the exposed abdominal 
segments, except the eighth or last, are protected by 
dorsal and ventral plates, whose hinder margins end in 
rows of backwardly-directed spines. There are also a few 
scattered spines on both dorsal and ventral surfaces. Each 
spine is a pointed process of the body-wall. Its apex bears 
a spike set in a socket. The last segment bears four large 
spines, two terminal and two subterminal. The spines 
assist the pupa to move about in the filth in which it 
is buried, and so keep the respiratory appendages exposed 
to the air. 

* De Meijere (1902). 

and Life History of Psychoda sexpundata. 303 

Tracheal System of the Pupa (Fig. 8). 

The tracheal system of the pupa is closed, the contained 
air being renewed by means of the 
prothoracic respiratory appendages, 
a pair of hollow finger-shaped 
processes, which project forward 
from the prothorax. A tracheal 
extention (Fig. 9) — Hornfilzkammer 
of De Meijere — lies within the 
respiratory appendage. The structure 
of the wall of the pupal respiratory 
appendage is not unlike that of 
Ptychoptcra. In places the tracheal 
extension bulges through the wall 
of the respiratory appendage, giving 

Fig. 9 ( x 40). 
Tracheal extension of pupa. 

Fig. 8 ( x 20). 
Tracheal system of pupa. 

Fig. 10 ( x 100). 
Transverse section of tracheal extension of pupa. 

304 Mr. J. A. Dell on the Structure 

rise to the clear circular spots previously mentioned. 
Except at these places the tracheal extension is separated 
from the wall of the respiratory appendage by a space, in 
which sections show the presence of a tissue, affected by 
ordinary staining re-agents (probably the epithelium which 
secreted the tracheal extension). A transverse section 
shows scattered setae projecting inwards from the wall of 
the tracheal extension (Fig. 10). Traced backwards, the 
tracheal extension passes through the space between the 
body of the fly and the pupal skin, and finally enters the 
body in the fore part of the mesothorax. There are two 
large, longitudinal tracheae (Fig. 8) communicating directly 
with the tracheal extensions just described. They are 
connected by a series of nine commissures, one in the 
mesothorax, two in the metathorax, and one in each ab- 
dominal segment, except the seventh and eighth. There 
is also a series of lateral loops exactly like those of the 
larva. The first, however, which arises in the metathorax, 
runs through two segments ; all the others run from one 
segment to the next. The longitudinal tracheae end in 
tapering extremities in the last segment. 

The tracheal system of the pupa is formed around that 
of the larva, and consequently in a larva about to pupate 
the walls of the tracheae appear double. The longitudinal 
tracheae of a late larva communicate with the pupal respi- 
ratory appendages, which are formed during this stage. 
The respiratory appendages are not modelled on any pre- 
existing larval organ, hence it is not surprising to find that 
the larval trachea, just behind the respiratory appendage, 
comes out through the wall of the pupal tracheae, and 
makes its way to the prothoracic spiracle of the larva. It 
is also continuous with the base of the respiratory append- 
age. This makes a sharp angle with the larval trachea, 
and can be seen through the larval cuticle just in front of 
the larval prothoracic spiracle. Its distal end turns down- 
wards, and almost touches its fellow of the opposite side 
in the mid-ventral line. In the pupa which has just shed 
the larval skin, the respiratory appendages lie close to the 
body, much as they do in the larva ; but when the pupa 
makes its way to the surface of the mud, the respiratory 
appendages stiffen, and stand out clear of the surface. 
Pupae can be easily detected in a sample of sewage, by 
their projecting respiratory appendages. A pupa, when 
kept in a bottle of water, is unable to rise to the surface, 

and Life History of Psychoda sexpunctata. 305 

or to breathe the air dissolved in the water, and dies in a 
few days. 

The Head and its Appendages in the Fly. 

The head is almost vertical. (Figs. 11 and 12.) Seen 
from above it is transversely oval ; the front surface is pear- 
shaped, narrowing downwards to the labrum. The com- 

Fig. 11 ( x 80). 
Head of fly. 

pound eyes are horse-shoe shaped, and nearly meet above. 
They contain comparatively few ommatidia, not more than 
live or six rows in the widest part, and possibly about 
eighty in all. 

Immediately within the lower ends of the horse-shoe- 
shaped compound eyes can be seen in the openings of a 
pair of chitinous tunnels which perforate the head. They 
run through it obliquely, and their openings on the back of 


Mr. J. A. Dell on the Structure 

the head are nearer to one another than the openings on 
the face. The tunnels are not of absolutely uniform 
diameter, though their variations are nowhere very great. 

The antennary muscles, which are the only important 
muscles in the head, are attached close to the hinder 
openings of the chitinous tunnels, which seem to act as 
struts, and prevent the head from yielding when a strain 

Fig. 12. 

Ventral view of mouth- parts of fly (to left) ; maxilla 
in side view (to right). 

is put upon it by the contraction of the antennary muscles. 
Similar structures have been described in Anopheles, 
where a pair of straight chitinous tunnels perforate the 
head, and in Chironomus, where a pair of small openings 
on the face open into a pair of somewhat irregular cham- 
bers, which in turn open to the exterior by a pair of slit-like 
apertures on the back of the head.* 

* Miall and Hammond (1900). 

and Life History of Psychoda sexpimctata. 307 

la the Chironomus fly the antennary muscles are 
attached to the walls of the chitinous invaginations them- 
selves, an interesting point of difference from Psychoda. 
A somewhat similar pair of structures has been described 
in some other insects, notably in Corydalis* 

Each antenna consists of fifteen joints ; of these the 
first is cylindrical, the second globular, and the others 
flask-shaped, with the exception of the last three, which 
are globular. From the globular part of each joint arise 
a number of curved, radiating setse. 

The fly apparently does not feed at all, since no traces 

Fig. 13 ( x 20). 

Side-view of male fly. The wing is extended and cut short ; the legs cut 
short. The lower figure shows the genital armature in plan. 

of food have been observed in its reduced alimentary 
canal, nor has it ever been seen to take in food. The 
mouth-parts (Fig. 12) are somewhat similar in arrange- 
ment to those of Culex, but are very largely atrophied. As 
in most Diptera, there is a roughly conical rostrum, which 
bears an elongated, triangular labrum, behind which is 
the short, bilobed labium. This is fringed with numerous, 
* (1895). 


Mr. J. A. Dell on the Structure 

short, finger-like processes, and its edges are rolled for- 
wards so as to enclose a pair of maxillse. The maxillae 
are short, styliform, and fringed with setce ; near the base 
they give rise to a pair of long, four-jointed maxillary 
palps. The styliform maxilla probably corresponds to the 
lacinia of typical forms ; there does not appear to be any- 
thing to correspond to cardo and stipes. On the front of 
the labium is a minute, triangular hypopharynx or lingua. 

The Thorax of the Fly. 
As usual in Diptera, the thorax of Psychoda (Figs. 

Fig. 14. 

Longitudinal section of thorax of Psychoda (upper fig.) ; ditto of 
Cliironomus (lower fig.). 

13, 14) consists of a small pro thorax, an enormous meso- 
thorax, and a small metathorax. The prothorax is little 
more than a ventral hoop, containing the muscles of the 
first pair of legs. Ventrally and laterally its hinder 
margin is indicated by a suture. Dorsally its boundary 
is uncertain ; it certainly, however, lies in front of the 
first spiracle, 

and Life History of Psychoda seocpunctata. 309 

The relations of the component parts of the mcsothorax 
are peculiar, as will be seen by comparison with the cor- 
responding structures in Chironomus (Fig. 14). In that 
type the dorsal region of the mesothorax consists of a 
large shield-shaped piece, the scutum ; a transverse, semi- 
cylindrical ridge, arching across the back, the scutellum ; 
and behind this a large postscutellum, to which the 
hinder ends of the longitudinal mesothoracic muscles are 

In Psychoda the same parts are found with the following 
points of difference : — 

(1) The scutum extends forwards above the head, so 
that the head and prothorax are depressed to the ventral 
side, and the face looks downwards. 

(2) In Chironomus the post-scutellum has extended 
backwards so far as to obliterate the dorsal part of the 
metathorax. In Psychoda the post-scutellum extends back 
quite as far as in Chironomus, but underlies the metathorax 
and the dorsal part of the first and second abdominal 
segments. It thus appears in longitudinal section as an 
enormous dorsal invagination of the cuticle, running back- 
wards and downwards into the body as far as the hinder 
end of the second abdominal segment. I am informed 
by Mr. T. H. Taylor that a somewhat similar state of 
things is found in Simulium, 

The dorsal part of the metathorax is a narrow strip, 
arching across the back immediately behind the scutellum. 
At the sides of the metathorax are the club-shaped 
halteres, or rudimentary second pair of wings, and the 
metathoracic spiracles. 

The mesothorax is chiefly occupied by the muscles of 
flight, which are of extraordinary size,- 1 the longitudinal 
muscles, for instance, being half as long as the body. 

There are two pairs of spiracles. The anterior, which is 
mesothoracic,f is formed at the place where the tracheal 
extension from the pupal respiratory appendage enters the 
imaginal body. Just at this point the cuticle of the fly 
thickens into a partial ring, while immediately distal to it 

* Miall and Hammond (1900). 

t Voss (1905, p. 739) concludes from his study of Gryllus 
domcsticus that the thoracic spiracles are probably prothoracic and 
mesothoracic. Miall and Hammond, on the other hand, find that 
they are mesothoracic and metathoracic in Chironomus, while Taylor 
(1902) comes to the same conclusion in his paper on Simulium, 

310 Mr. J. A. Dell on the Structure 

the tracheal extension is thinner than anywhere else, and 
lacks the annular thickenings. This appears to be an 
arrangement for snapping the tracheal extension just at 
the required spot. Whether the pupal tracheae persist as 
those of the adult, or whether all those of the thorax are 
withdrawn through the adult metathoracic spiracle, I am 
unable to say, but in all pupal skins hitherto examined no 
trace of trachea? could be discovered, while the end of the 
tracheal extension always appeared to have been snapped 
across just where it originally entered the imaginal thorax. 
The metathoracic spiracle is a small, circular opening 
immediately below the base of the haltere. 

The Ahdomcn of the Fly and its Appendages (Fig. 13). 

The abdomen consists of eight segments. The first of 
these is only distinguishable dorsally, being ventrally 
obscured by the bases of the metathoracic legs. The 
seventh segment shows some indication of being divided 
into two parts. The last (eighth) segment in the male is 
flattened from above downwards, and slightly bifurcated at 
its hinder end, from which arises a long forceps, reaching 
forwards when at rest as far as the middle of the seventh 
segment. It is composed of two joints, a large basal and 
a small terminal one. From the fore end of the eighth 
segment arises a second forceps, also two-jointed. This runs 
upwards and backwards, and is enclosed by the other. 
There are also two processes arising from the hinder end 
of the seventh segment in the middle line ; one is dorsal 
to the other. They are possibly analogous in function to 
the penis and titillator of a cockroach. 

In conclusion, I desire to express my indebtedness to 
Professor Miall, at whose suggestion the work was first 
taken up, and without whose assistance and encouragement 
it could never have been carried out, and also to Mr. T. H. 
Taylor for much helpful advice and criticism. 

Bibliography of Psyehoda. 

Balbiani, E. G. (1881.) Sur la structure du noyau des 
cellules salivaires chez les larves de Chironomus. 
Zool. Anz. pp. 637-G41 and 662-G66, with figs, in 

(1890.) Etudes anatomiques et histologiques sur 
le tube digestif des Grypbops. Arch. Zool. Exper., 
2 e ser., VIII, pp. 1-82, PI. I-VI. 

and Life History of Psychoda sexpunctata. 311 

Boitche, P. F. (1834.) Naturgeschichte der Insecten, 
Psi/choda phalsenoides, Meig. PI. II, fig. 20-23. 

Curtis,' J. (1823-40.) British Entomology, XVI, p. 745. 

Baton, Bcv. A. B. (1895.) Supplementary notes on Dr. 
Fritz Miiller's paper on a new form of larvae of 
Psychodidse from Brazil. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 
Part IV, p. 489. 

Be Meijere, J. C. H (1902.) Ueber die Prothorakal- 
stigmen der Dipteren-puppen. Zool. Jahrb., XV, 
pp. 623-692, PI. XXXII-XXXV. 

Lccuwenhock, A. (1692.) Figures the wing and antenna 
of PsycJwda. Arcana Naturae Detecta, Ed. Leyden, 
1722, vol. II, 283, and the opposite plate (un- 
numbered), figs. 2, 3, 4. 

Miall, L. C, and A. B. Hammond. (1892.) The develop- 
ment of the head of the Imago of Chironomus. Linn. 
Trans., Zool., 2nd ser., V, pp. 265-279, PI. XXVIII- 

(1900.) The Structure and Life-history of the 
Harlequin fly. 

Miall, L. G, and N. Walker. (1895.) Life-history of 
Pericoma canescens (Psychodidm). Trans. Ent. Soc. 
Lond., pp. 141-153, PI. Ill, IV. 

Midler, Dr. Fritz. (1895.) Contribution towards the 
history of a new form of larvae of Psychodidse from 
Brazil. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., p. 479-481, PI. 
X, XI. 

Osten SacJcen, C. B. (Baron) von. (1895.) Remarks on 
the homologies and differences between the first 
stages of Pericoma, Hal., and those of the new 
Brazilian species. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., p. 483-487. 

Taylor, T. H. (1902.) The Tracheal system of Simuliu m . 
Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., pp. 701-716. 

Voss, F. (1904-5.) Ueber den Thorax von Gryllus 
domesticus. Zeits. fur wiss. Zool., Bd. LXXVIII. 

Waterhouse, G. 0. (1895.) Labium and submentum of 
certain Mandibulate Insects. 

( 313 ) 

XVII T. New African Lasiocampidoe in the British 
Museum. By Chr. Aurivillius, Hon. F.E.S., 
F.M.Z.S., etc. 

[Read June 7th, 1905.] 

Plate XVI. 

In a collection of seventy African Laswcam/pidas kindly sent 
to me for determination by Sir G. F. Hampson, I have 
found some new species described in this paper. Three of 
the species belong to new genera, of which Haplopacha 
and Chondrostcgoidcs are of interest as representing the 
aberrant genus Chondrostcga in the Ethiopian region. 

I have to thank the Entomological Society of London 
for the beautiful figures illustrating my papers. 


(Plate XVI, fig. 3.) 

$ . Ochreous-brown or yellowish-brown ; patagia, mesonotum, 
legs and under-side of abdomen with a distinct violaceous or 
purplish tint ; fore-wing ochreous-brown the basal fourth and four 
transverse sinuous bands violaceous-brown, the outermost band end- 
ing at vein 2, the median space between band 1 and 2 more or less 
suffused with violaceous, outer margin darker than the ground-colour 
between the bands ; hind-wing reddish-brown, broadly yellowish at 
base of inner margin ; under-side of both wings ochraceous, vio- 
laceous-brown at costal margin, fore-wing behind middle with an 
obsolete brownish transverse band. 

Expanse 155 mm. 

Uganda : Hoima (S. G. Tomkins). 

This giant moth is most nearly allied to 0. titan, Ho 11., 
which, however, has a much darker ground-colour without 
violaceous tint and obsolete transverse bands of fore-wing. 


314 Mr. Chr. Aurivillius on New African 

Gastroplak^eis rufescens, n. sp. 
(Plate XVI, fig. 10.) 

$ . Head, thorax, legs and under-side of abdomen pale greyish- 
brown with a pinkish tint ; abdomen above ocbraceous-yellow darker 
at base and without black transverse bands ; fore-wing pale greyish - 
brown with a pinkish tint, two waved brown transverse lines before 
middle and two such lines about middle, an obsolete angulated 
brown submarginal line and a black dot at apex of cell, hind 
border with long grey or blackish hairs and scales ; hind-wing pale 
yellowish broadly suffused with fawn colour at apex and outer 
margin • wings below pale fawn colour, yellowish towards base 
without markings. 

Expanse 97 mm. 

W. Africa : Asaba. 


(Plate XVI, fig. 1.) 

Dark umber-brown, with the patagia yellow ; fore-wing with a 
white dot at end of cell and two yellow patches mottled with 
reddish-brown, one at base of hind margin occupying the base of 
the areas la, lb, 2 and 3, the other beyond the cell between veins 5 
and 6 ; an irregular submarginal series of fuscous spots. 

Expanse 37 mm. 

Riv. Niger : Sapele (F. W. Sampson). 

This species differs from Ps. viola in the more elongate 
hind- wings. Veins 9 and 10 of fore- wing are somewhat 
longer than their common stalk. 

Anadiasa cervina, n. sp. 
(Plate XVI, fig. 5.) 

Fawn colour ; abdomen paler, testaceous. £ . Fore-wing fawn 
colour with three fine, simple, fuscous transverse lines, the first sub- 
basal nearly erect and very indistinct, the second a little behind 
middle, evenly excurved from costa to vein 5, thence incurved to 
middle of hind margin, third line submarginal, uneven and more or 
less dissolved into spots, a small whitish dot at end of cell ; hind- 
wing pale testaceous. ^ differs by the fore-wing being darker and 

Lasiocampidie in the British Museum. 315 

suffused with grey at hind margin and outer margin and by the hind- 
wing being nearly as dark as fore-wing. 
Expanse 33-35 mm. 

Natal : Brit. Museum ; Nyassaland and German 
East Africa : Museum Holmix. 

Nearly allied to A. ("P/a/wrform") distincta, Dist., but 
differing in the simple transverse lines of fore-wing and 
by the median line not being strongly incurved at costal 

Taragama capensis, n. sp. 

(Plate XVI, fig. 11.) 

Abdomen, under-side of thorax and legs greyish-brown ; palpi 
yellowish; head and upper-side of thorax whitish, the latter with 
pale brown patches ; fore-wing fuscous-brown witli two oblique, 
very irregularly sinuated, white transverse lines, inner line from 
middle of costal margin to hind angle of cell and thence following 
the median vein to middle of cell and ending at hind margin near 
base, outer line from costal margin to vein 3 nearly parallel to outer 
margin but forming two distinct projections on inner-side at veins 
5 and 8, from vein 3 running oblkpuely to middle of hind margin 
and forming two lunules, a spot at base in lb, a spot at end of cell 
and a submarginal series of spots yellowish ; hind-wing fuscous with 
transverse white line and a yellow spot at anal angle ; wings below 
fuscous with an irregular transverse submarginal white line and one 
or two yellowish spots near anal angle. 

Expanse 45 mm. 

Cape Colony : Brak Kloof, April ( White). 

Allied to Targama cristata but smaller and also differing 
in the yellow spots and the darker ground-colour of the 

Taragama distinguenda, n. sp. 
(Plate XVI, fig. 13.) 

^ . Body brown, darker on upper-side ; patagia deep castaneous 
brown ; fore-wing dark castaneous brown paler towards outer margin, 
an obsolete blackish dot at end of cell and beyond it two transverse 
blackish-brown lines, the first arched and bent basally at costal margin, 
the second nearly straight running from costal margin just before 
apex to last third of hind margin ; the usual hind marginal area 

31 G Mr. Chr. Aurivillras on Nciv African 

lanceolate slightly curved on fore-side, and terminated by a greyish 
line ; very strongly suffused with blackish except at hind margin ; 
hind-wing and under-side of both wings dark brown with pale veins. 

Expanse 44 mm. 

9 . Body fawn colour with the patagia deep castaneous ; fore- 
wing castaneous, paler behind middle, a very strongly curved trans- 
verse median line and another nearly straight oblique line from 
costal margin jnst before apex to last third of hind margin, an 
obsolete angulate submarginal line, hind marginal area lanceolate, 
fawn colour without silvery streak at front side ; hind-wing and 
under-side of both wings fawn colour. 

Expanse 63-65 mm. 

Natal : Durban, October (G. F. Leigh). A bred male 
and female. Also a female from Manau, Nyassaland, in 
Museum Holmise. 

Very nearly allied to T. grabcri, Dewitz, and perhaps 
only a southern form of that species. The female of 
graberi has the body gre3'ish, the fore-wing fuscous, greyish 
at termen with the second transverse line running exactly 
to apex and bent at vein 8 ; hind-wing and under-side 
greyish, not fawn-coloured. 

T. cuncata, Dist., has the same ground-colour, but is 
easily distinguished by the cuneate form and the silvery 
line at front-side of the hind marginal area of fore-wing. 

The male has a greater resemblance to the male of 
T. sjostcdti, Auriv. 

(Larva dark brown with numerous pale reticulate stria' ; 
the thoracic somites dorsally yellow in front, the abdominal 
somites dorsally yellow 'behind and with ill-defined dia- 
mond-shaped dorsal marks; two fine rather irregular sub- 
dorsal yellowish lines ; the hair on dorsum black, the 
lateral tufts white. — G. F. H.) 

Taragama fusca, n. sp. 
(Plate XVI, fig. 8.) 

cJ. Dark blackish grey; patagia blackish brown; fore-wing 
blackish, along hind margin with a lanceolate dark greyish patch, 
which on its fore-side near base has a silvery angulated line, behind 
middle a slightly curved, nearly parallel 3 mm. broad, blackish 
band, an obsolete irregular curved angulated blackish submarginal 
line ; hind-wing and under-side of both wings dark blackish grey 
without markings. 

Expanse ^ 33, $ 50 mm. 

LasiocampidcV in the British Museum. 


Brit. E. Africa : N dimu (G. S. Bcttori) ; Kikuyu 
(Grawshay) ; Uganda, Kampala {Christy). 

( ^ . Fore-wing more uniform in colour, the patch on 
inner area paler. — G. F. H.) 

The darkest species of Taragama known to me. 

Ocinaropsis, n. sp. 

Eyes hairy. Palpi rather long, porrect, reaching beyond 
the frons ; last joint short, pointed. Antennas, nearly alike 
in both sexes, bipectinate to the apex ; branches much 
longer before middle, suddenly shorter behind middle, hind 
row of branches at base much longer than the front row. 
Legs hairy ; tarsi scaled ; front tibiae unarmed ; spurs of 
hind tibiae wanting. Fore-wing triangular, rather short ; 
outer margin angled at vein 5 ; vein 2 from near base, 3 
nearly from middle of cell, 4 and 5 from angle, 6, 7 and 8 
stalked, 9 and 10 on a very long stalk, 9 running to the 
outer margin well below apex. Hind-wing : costal margin 
nearly straight, lobed at base; outer margin distinctly waved 
with a longer tooth at vein 2 ; vein 2 from behind middle of 
cell, 3 from before angle of cell, 4 and 5 on a short stalk ; 
cell obliquely closed, vein 8 anastomasing with 7 near its 
base and thus forming a small precostal cell, which has no 
accessory veinlets. 

Ocinaropsis obscwra, £ 

Ocinaropsis obscura, n. sp. 

Dark blackish grey ( $ ), or blackish brown (<£), thorax and fore- 
wing with a reddish tint in the male ; fore-wing with very minute 
white point at end of cell and a double submarginal row of obsolescent 
black and yellowish minute dots ; hind-wing paler, blackish at anal 

318 Mr. Chr. Aurivillius on New African 

angle ; terminal tooth of both wings much longer in male than in 

Expanse J 27, ? 33 mm. 

Natal : Durban {Leigh). 

Philotherma sordida, n. sp. 
(PI. XVI, fig. 2.) 

J;. Very pale fawn colour or isabelline ; fore-wing pale fawn 
colour, darker at base and behind discal line, whitish between dis- 
cocellular spot and discal line, a nearly erect slightly waved blackish 
line before middle and behind middle, a distinct oblique nearly 
straight black discal line, which at vein 9 is suddenly bent towards 
costal margin, a submarginal series of small black dots between the 
nervules, a white, black-ringed spot at end of cell; hind-wing pale 
fawn at costal margin, whitish towards inner margin, a fine discal 
black line from costa to vein 6 and a submarginal series of small 
black dots ; under-side of both wings whitish isabelline with a 
submarginal series of black dots on hind-wing, discal transverse line 
wanting or obsolete, brownish. 

Expanse 62-70 mm. 

$ . Differs from the male in both wings being more or less densely 
sprinkled with blackish scales, especially at outer margin and 
behind discal line ; transverse lines more distinct ; discal white 
black-ringed spot of fore-wing wanting ; tarsi black. 

Expanse 96 mm. 

Sierra Leone : (Brit. Mus. and Staudingci-'s Collection); 
Niger : Onitsba (Brit. Mus.). 

Nearly allied to Ph. jacchus, Moschl., and rosa, Druce, 
differing from the latter in the paler ground colour and 
the straight discal line of fore-wing. 

Lechriolepls pulchra, n. sp. 
(Plate XVI, fig. 12.) 

Ochraceous yellow ; head, thorax and fore-coxae densely clothed 
with long reddish brown hairs ; antennae at tip with blackish 
branches ; fore-wing yellow (nearly lemon yellow), base, a transverse 
line before middle and another behind middle, and a submarginal 
irregular row of eight large spots reddish-brown, the discal area 
between the transverse lines except in cell and at costal margin 
largely suffused with reddish-brown, a reddish-brown spot at end of 

Lasioeampidm in the British Museum. 319 

cell and between the discal line and the submarginal row, another 
row of six reddish-brown spots from hind-margin to vein 7 ; veins 
blackish in marginal area ; hind-wing yellow with five reddish- 
brown spots from vein 2 to 7, becoming larger and more distinct 
towards costal margin, veins 4^-7 blackish at termen ; wings below 
yellow with submarginal row of brownish spots. 
Expanse 72 mm. 

Brit. Central Africa : Fwambo. 
Nearly allied to L. varia, Walk., but differing in the 
reddish suffusion of the fore-wing and probably distinct. 

Beralade, Walk. 

The genera Chilcna, Walk. (1855), and Lahca, Wallengr. 
(1805), are not structurally distinct from Beralade. Sena, 
Walk. (18G2), is also probably founded on a species of this 

Some of the species of Beralade are very nearly allied, 
and may perhaps only be colour-varieties. At present we 
know however but little of their variability. The species 
of Beralade are found in dry regions, and the larvae feed 
probably on thorny bushes in the desert. 

I give here a key to the African species known to me, 
including also the new ones described below. 

Key to the African Species. 

.. Tarsi ringed with black. Fore-wing without silvery 
mark at the end of the cell. Fore- wing with (l)-2 
oblique dark stripes, one discal, the other submarginal 
or marginal. 

o. Costa of fore-wing distinctly but 
narrowly ochreous yellow. Palpi 
orange, black or blackish on outer 

*. Body and fore-wing whitish. 

a. Stripes of fore-wing macular, com- 
posed of small streaks on the 
veins, or dentate. Discal stripe 
ending at the apex of vein 9 „ 1. B. perobliqua, Walk. 


Mr. Chr. Aurivillius on New African 

b. Stripes of fore-wing continuous 
and even. 

1. Discal stripe of fore-wing very 

oblique, ending at apex of vein 
8 ; veins of fore-wing white, 
distinctly paler than the 
ground ..... 

2. Discal stripe of fore-wing less 

oblique, ending at apex of fore- 
wing. Veins of fore-wing not 
paler than the ground 

* *. Body and wings fuscous, mouse- 


0. Costa of fore-wing not yellow. Palpi 
not, or only pale orange. Discal 
stripe oblique. 
*. Body and wings milky-white or 
greyish. Outer stripe narrow, 
submarginal .... 

* *. Body and wings dark fuscous. 

Stripes of fore-wing blackish ; 
outer stripe broad marginal, 
composed of large spots 

B. Tarsi not ringed, unicolorous. 
a. Fore-wing with a white or silvery 
mark at end of cell. 
*. Fore-wing reddish-fawn colour, 
with three oblique darker 
stripes. Discocellular white 
mark of fore-wing short and 
straight ..... 

**. Fore- wing greyish or cinereous, 
with only one oblique, nearly 
submarginal stripe. Disco- 
cellular mark angulated. 
a. Discocellular white mark short, 
not produced at hind angle 
to the middle of cell ; ob- 
lique stripe waved and dent- 
ate, not bordered with white . 

2. B. continua, Auriv. 

3. B. obliquata, Klug. 

4. B.fumosa, Dist. 

5. B. wallengreni, Auriv. 

6. B. bettoni, Auriv. 

7. B. prompta, Walk. 

8. B. levenna, Wallengr. 

Lasiocampidie in the British Museum. 


b. Discocellular white mark pro- 
duced at hind angle towards 
the base along the median 
vein nearly to middle of cell ; 
oblique stripe nearly even, 
bordered with white on 
inner side. 

1. Fore-wing more or less 

tinged with fawn ; oblique 
stripe curved towards the 
middle of hind margin. 
Hind-wing without black- 
ish patch at anal angle 

2. Fore-wing brownish-grey or 

greyish ; oblique stripe 
nearly straight. Hind- 
wing with a distinct black- 
ish patch at anal angle 
$. Fore-wing without white mark at 
end of cell. Wings yellowish- 
brown, fore-wing with two, hind- 
wing with one dark transverse 
line ...... 

9. B. donaldsoni, Holl. 

10. B. mavshalli, Auriv.* 

11. B. simplex, Auriv. 

Beralade contintja, n. sp. 

(Plate XVI, fig. 14.) 

Milky-white or greyish-white ; palpi orange, black on outer side ; a 
yellow hair-pencil at base of antenna} ; antennae whitish with yellow 
branches ; fore and middle tibial yellow on inner side ; tarsi orange 
ringed with black ; upper-side of fore-wing whitish ( ^ ) or more 
greyish (5), with the costa narrowly edged with yellow, two even 
and continuous oblique darker stripes, one discal from the hind 
margin before middle to apex of vein 8 (or 9) nearly straight or 
slightly curved, the other submarginal more curved and sometimes 
obsolete ; the areas between subcostal veins usually suffused with 
fuscous especially in the female, a short blackish streak at the root ; 
under-side suffused with dark fuscous, at least in anterior part. 
Hind-wing on both sides whitish (£) or fuscous grey ($). 

Expanse 32-34 mm. 

Machakos {R. 0. Graushay) ; Mtjani (Betton) ; Athi- 
y-mawe {Betton); Takaunga ( Thomas) ; Uganda {Christy). 

* May be a local race of B. Donaldsoni. 

322 Mr. Chr. Aurivillius oil New African 

- Beralade bettoni, n. sp. 
(Plate XVI, fig. 9.) 

Dark fuscous grey, upper-side of thorax somewhat paler ; tarsi 
ringed with black ; fore-wing fuscous, veins paler, a blackish stripe 
in cell, a broad oblique, nearly straight, blackish stripe from apex to 
middle of hind margin, a similar marginal stripe ; hind-wing and 
under-side of both wings dark fuscous, unicolorous. 

Expanse 32 mm. 

Brit. East Africa : Nakuro (0. S. Betton), February. 

Beralade (Chilena) simplex, n. sp. 

(Plate XVI, fig. 6.) 

Bright yellowish brown ; fore-wing with two transverse, slightly 
curved, somewhat oblique and nearly parallel blackish brown lines, 
a minute brown dot at end of cell, cilia brown ; hind-wing with a 
distinct, median, slightly curved, dark brown transverse line ; both 
wings beneath with a transverse median brown line. 

Expanse 27 mm. 

Natal : Durban (Col Bowker). 

Differs from typical Chilena in vein 8 of hind-wing 
anastomosing with vein 7 from its origin. 


(Plate XVI, fig. 4.) 

£ . Yellowish, thorax above darker greyish yellow ; fore-wing 
greyish flesh-colour suffused with fuscous grey, with two nearly 
straight transverse pale lines, one before middle very indistinct, the 
other beyond apex of cell distinct and followed on outer side by a broad 
fuscous grey transverse diffused band ; a very broken submarginal 
fuscous line terminating on inner side the marginal area, which is 
densely suffused with olivaceous grey, no dot at end of cell, the cell, 
darker than the surrounding parts ; hind-wing pale yellowish with 
an obsolescent pale flesh-coloured transverse shade in the middle. 
Wings below ochreous yellow, slightly suffused with brownish or 
fuscous at costal margins. 

Expanse 45 mm. 

Brit. East Africa : N'gong (E. G. Craicsliay). 
Nearly allied to Bombycopsis indccora, Walk., and 
B. venosa, Butl., and somewhat intermediate between 

Lasiocampidie in the British Museum. 323 

these two species. B. conspcrsa is larger than indeeora and 
has a yellowish and not a grey ground-colour ; from vcnosa 
it differs in having the thorax and the fore-wings much 
darker and suffused with grey or fuscous ; the veins are 
not so distinctly yellow as in venosa. 

Olyra rectilineata, n. sp. 

(Plate XVI ; fig. 7.) 

9 . Dark reddish brown ; abdominal segments above with pale 
hind marginal borders ; fore-wing above with two entirely straight 
and erect transverse parallel pale yellowish lines, one before the 
other behind middle, an irregular submarginal series of short 
yellowish erect lines between the veins ; hind-wing with a fine 
yellowish line from costal margin at least to end of cell (sometimes 
obsolete) ; fore-wing below much paler yellowish, reddish brown at 
apex and at termen ; hind-wing below reddish brown with two, in 
the middle very angulate, transverse, pale yellowish lines. 
Expanse 39-40 mm. 

Gazaland : Mt. Chirinda (G. A. K. Marshall), Decem- 
ber. Mashonaland (Bobbie). 

Two females, one in Brit. Museum, one in Museum 

Haplopacha, nov. gen. 

Palpi entirely hidden by long hairs ; frons with slight corneous pro- 
minence. Antennae of male bipectinate to apex ; branches moder- 
ately long. Head, thorax and legs clothed with hairlike scales. 
Fore-legs slender, unarmed ; middle and hind tibice with two apical 
spurs. Abdomen short not reaching beyond tornus. Cell of both 
wings open. Fore-iving short, triangular ; vein 2 from behind middle 
of cell, slightly curved, 3 from slightly nearer to 4 than to 3, 4 and 
5 from hind angle, 6 and 7 stalked, 8 from the long stalk of 9 and 
10, 9 running to termen near apex. Hind-wing short, obtuse ; costal 
margin nearly straight ; vein 2 from middle of cell, 3 nearer to 4, 4 
and 5 from the same point, 7 well separated from 8, 8 anastomosing 
with cell near base, forming a very narrow pre-costal cell, one 
thick, curved accessory veinlet at base. 

A very distinct genus, allied to Chondrostega and Chon- 
drostcgoides, but differing from both in vein 8 of fore-wing 
being emitted from the long stalk of 9 and 10 and vein 8 
of hind- wing not anastomosing from base with the cell, 
but forming a narrow precostal cell. 

324 Mr. Chr. Aurivillius on New African 

Haplopacha gin ere a, n. sp. 

£ . Cinereous grey ; fore-wing with two obsolete transverse fuscous 
lines or shades, a dark dot at end of cell and a submarginal series of 

Haplopacha cinerea, £ \. 

black dots ; hind-wing on both sides and fore-wing below unicolorous 
fuscous grey. Antenna? with the branches yellowish-brown. 
Expanse 26 mm. 

Rhodesia : Sebakwe. 

A single, rather badly damaged specimen. 

Chondrostegoides, nov. gen. 

Palpi very minute. Eyes small, hairy. Antennee bipectinate to 
tip in both sexes, branches rather long in male, shorter in female. 
Frons with a conical corneous prominence, short in male, much 
longer in female. Fore tibiae, normal, unarmed ; middle and hind 
tibiae without spurs. Cell of both wings open. Fore wing with 
costal and hind margins straight, outer margin regularly curved ; 
vein 3 from middle between 2 and 4, 6 and 7 stalked, 8 free from 
middle between 7 and 9 + 10, 9 and 10 stalked both running to 
termen, 11 to apex. Hind-wing with vein 3 from middle between 
2 and 4, 8 entirely anastomosing with cell to middle between 
base and vein 7, two short accessory veinlets at base. 

Nearly allied to Ghondrostcga (Led.) differing, in the 
normal, unarmed tibiae and the winged female. Frons 
with a single conical prominence only. 

Chondrostegoides capensis, n. sp. 

c£. Asliy-grey, fore-wing above, with two white spots at costal 
margin near apex, cilia of both wings chequered with whitish ; 

Lasiocampidm in the British Museum. 


under-side of fore-wing fuscous grey, with three white spots at costal 
margin near apex separated by blackish streaks ; under-side of hind- 
wing white, a spot at base of costa, the cell and the base of the 
areas 2-4 brown ; two angulated blackish lines across the middle, 
inner line indistinct in the cell. 
Expanse 18 mm. 

«r -*,- :;.*- 

Chondrostegoides capensis, £ \. 

$ . Unicolorous, dark grey. Hind- wing below with an obsolescent 
fuscous median band. Abdomen without terminal tuft. 
Expanse 22 mm. 

Cape Colony : Deelfontein, October. 

The male is in beautiful condition, but the female is 
rather rubbed. 

326 Explanation of Plate. 

Explanation of Plate XVI. 

Fig. 1 . 

Pseudometa patagiata. 


Philotherma sordida. 


Gonometa regia. 


Bombycopsis conspersa. 


Anadiasa cervina. 


Beralade simplex. 


Olyra rectilineata. 


Taragama fusca. 


Beralade betloni. 


Gastroplakxis rufescens. 


Taragama capensis. 


Lechriolepis pulch/ra. 


Taragama distinguenda, 


Beralade continua. 

( 327 ) 

XIX. Memoir on the Rhyuchota collected by Dr. Arthur 
Willey, F.R.S., chiefly in Birara (New Britain) 
and Lifu. By G. W. Kirkaldy, F.E.S. 

[Read June 7th, 1905.] 

Plate XVII. 

Although of an extremely interesting character, the 
collection of Bhynchota made by Dr. Willey * is too 
small, and too many of the forms described from neigh- 
bouring localities are as yet insufficiently known to me, 
to render a discussion upon their geographical distribution 
profitable. However, as might have been expected, the 
Rhynchotal fauna of Lifu j>artakes very closely of the 
nature of that of New Caledonia, while that of Birara is 
equally intimately related to the fauna of Papua (or 
New Guinea), at the same time all these are closely inter- 
related. Throughout I have employed the terms Lifu and 
Birara, as it appears expedient to retain the native names 
of such islands wherever these are distinctive, except 
those which are extensively colonized by Europeans, as, 
for example, New Zealand and even New Caledonia. 
Birara (also spelt Berrara) was formerly known as New 
Britain, and it was under this term that the bulk of Dr. 
Willey's researches have been published. The present 
official term, since the acquisition of the group by Germany, 
is Neu Pommern (or New Pomerania). The island of 
Murua, frequently alluded to in the following pages, is 
also known as " VVoodlark " and is termed " Moiou " by 

The chief difficulty in the specific determination of 
this fauna as regards the Bhynchota, is its close relation- 
ship with that of Papua (or New Guinea), the latter being 
as yet very imperfectly known, the latest descriptions 
dating in some cases from Guetin-Meneville's contribution 
to the " Voyage of the Coquille," and Boisduval's 

* This Memoir may be regarded as a supplement to the "Zoolo- 
gical Results based on material . . . collected by Dr. Willey," published 
in five volumes by the Cambridge University Press, 1898-1902. 


328 Mr. G. W. Kirkaldy's Memoir on the 

volumes on the "Voyage of the Astrolabe." The exami- 
nation of large series of Rhynchota from the multitude of 
islands comprising the Bismarck, Solomon, New Hebrides, 
and Loyalty Archipelagoes would be exceedingly interest- 
ing from a distributional point of view. Our principal 
knowledge of these faunas is derived from the works of 
Montrouzier (or Montrousier as he also terms himself), a 
French priest, who resided in New Caledonia and the 
surrounding islands for many years. Dr. Willey has col- 
lected some seventy-six species, falling into sixty-five genera. 
Of these I have described as new five genera, one sub- 
genus, twenty species and one variety, but the principal 
interest of his labours lies in the large proportion of 
immature forms, the consideration of which is reserved 
for a future paper. 

My thanks are due to Mr. W. L. Distant, for kindly 
assistance in the determination of several species, and for 
help with the proofs in my absence from England ; and 
to Dr. D. Sharp for allowing me the opportunity of 
examining so interesting a collection. 

Sub-order HOMOPTERA. 
Family CICADID.E. 

Genus Ukana, Dist. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), xvi, p. 28. 

Dr. Willey has collected fourteen specimens, which I 
have ventured to divide into two species — though somewhat 
doubtingly — neither of which can I refer to Cicada lifuana, 
Montrouzier, though one of them is certainly the Ucana 
lifuana as identified by Distant. 

1. Ueana lifuana, Montr. 

(?) Cicada lifuana, Montr., 1861, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 4, 1, 
p. 70. 

Ueana lifuana, Dist. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), xvi, p. 29. 

Montrouzier says, " Veines de la premiere moitie des 
elytres vert-bleu. Elytres irisees,". . . . which does not 
in the least apply to any of the specimens before me. 
Montrouzier records it from Lifu. 

Rhynchota collected in Birara and Lifu. 329 

2. Ueana harmonia, sp. nov. 

(Plate XVII, fig. 1.) 
(?) Tiliecn (?) lifuana, Dist., 1883, P. Z. S., p. 190. 

Pale luteous, markings on head and pronotum, lateral third of 
scutellum, a W-mark on anterior margin of scutellum, abdomen 
above at base — pale luteo-ferruginous ; posterior margin of pronotum 
pale luteous. Costa, except lateral margin and basal nervures, pale 
luteous ; lateral margins of costa very narrowly, basal cell and 
apical nervures fuscous. Tegmina immaculate. Ocelli yellow. 

g . Rostrum reaching scarcely beyond base of posterior coxae ; 
opercula larger, distinctly reaching well beyond apical margin of 
1st (? 2nd) abdominal segment — genital segment apically narrowed, 
acutangular. Metasternal process, roundly and smoothly tubercular. 

5 . Opercula smaller, not reaching to apical margin of first 
segment. Ultimate segment acute. 

Long. 23 1 mm. Expanse of tegmina 61 mm. 

Lifu (Willey). 

3. Ueana polymnia, sp. nov. 

(Plate XVII, fig. 2.) 

*(?) Tibicen (?) lifuana, Dist., 1, c. 

Darker, the luteous replaced by furruginous on head, pronotum 
and abdomen, except posterior margin of, and longitudinal stripe on, 
pronoti\i, etc. 

£ . Rostrum reaching to apex of posterior coxaa. Opercula smaller, 
not reaching to apical margin of 1st segment. Metasternal tubercle 
smaller, not smooth. Genital segment not apically truncate or 
slightly rounded. 

$ . Opercula as in <$ . 

T. polymnia thus seems to differ — beyond coloration — 
by the longer rostrum, the larger opercula (at least in the 
male), the differently formed metasternal tubercle, and the 
stronger nervures. 

While in some specimens the ulnar nervures are quite 
contiguous close to the base, they are clearly apart in others. 
Distant records " T. lifuana " from New Caledonia. 

Genus BjETURIA, Stal. 

Bmtnria, Stal, 1866, Hem. Afr., IV, p. 9. 

Distributed through the Malayan Archipelago and the 
South Pacific Ocean. 

330 Mr. G. W. Kirkaldy's Memoir on the 

1. B. exhausta, Guerin. 

Cicada cxhausta, Guerin, 1838, Voy. Coquille, p. 181. 
[Plate 10, fig. 6 (1831).] 

Bieturia cxhausta, Distant, Orient. Cic, p. 149. PI. 15, 
fig. 13. 

BiRARA (Willey); also recorded from New Guinea, Amboina, 
Ceram and Buro (Distant); Ternate and Uliasser 

Genus Dundubia. 

DunditMa, Amyot and Serville, 1843, Hemipteres, p. 470. 
Cosmopsaltria, Stal, Hem. Afr., IV, p. 5. 

Distributed throughout Oriental and Australian regions. 

Dundubia obtecta, Fabr. 

Tettif/onia- obtecta, Fabricius, 1803, Syst. Rhyng., p. 35. 
Cosmopsaltria obtecta, Distant, Orient. Cic, p. 67. PI. 5, 
fig. 13. 

BiRARA and I IFU (Willey) ; I have also seen it from 
Ternate, Batchian, Amboina and Aru, and Distant 
further records it from Salawati, Halmahera (or Jilolo), 
Ceram, and Duke of York Island (in the Bismarck 
Archipelago, I presume) ; Obi (Breddin). 


Genus Clovia. 

Clovia, Stal, 1866, Hemipt. Afr., IV, p. 68. 

Distributed over the Ethiopian, Oriental and Australian 

Clovia birarensis, sp. nov. 

(Plate XVIT, fig. 3.) 

Closely allied to G. separata, Walker, but differing in pattern, 
which seems constant. 

Shining black, whole surface covered with short yellowish pilosity, 
more thickly on the vertex. The posterior margin of vertex and a 
slightly rounded stripe connecting the intero-apical ocular angles ; 

Bhynchota collected in Birara and Irifu. 331 

a sub -anterior stripe across pronotum (not reaching lateral margin); 
a stripe reaching from posterior angle of scutellum across clavus and 
e orium, narrowing outwardly and not quite reaching externo lateral 
margins of eorium ; a slightly curved stripe from externo lateral 
margins of eorium — a little posterior to the stripe last described — 
almost to apex of tegmina (roughly at right angles to the clavo-corial 
stripe) ; a' stripe (broadening posteriorly) from postero lateral angle 
of mesopleura, running sublaterally beneath the eyes and round the 
antero-lateral margin of the frons, bright yellow. Lateral mar- 
gins of posterior third of tegmina exteriorly, and posterior half in- 
ternally, brownish hyaline ; abdomen above and connexivum beneath 
dark brownish ; wings brownish hyaline. Frons, clypeus, rostrum, 
anterior legs and intermediate and posterior tibia?, abdomen more 
or less, ferruginous. Sterna, coxre, posterior femora, pale yellow. 
Spines and tarsi black. Genoe, except the yellowish parts, black ; 
a sublateral stripe on mesopleura interior to the yellow, and apex of 
rostrum black. Head slightly declivous. Frons much swollen, 
rostrum reacting to apex of mesocoxee. Ocelli very slightly nearer 
to one another than to the eyes. Pronotum and tegmina strongly 
and closely punctured, the former somewhat convex, nearly twice 
as long as the head. Tegmina rounded laterally, apically sub- 
rotundately acute. 

£ . Genital plate long. 

5 . Valves five or six times as long as the last abdominal segment. 

Long. 12-12| mm. Breadth across pronotum 4 mm. ; across 
tegmina 5J mm. 

Hob. Birara (Willey). 

Var, The scutellum may be either partly or entirely 

Clovia dryas, sp. nov. 

Pale ferruginous. Vertex and pronotum with similar markings 
to G. birarensis, but apical margin of vertex (to eyes) also pale 
yellowish. Anterior margin of scutellum pallid. Tegmina similarly 
marked to G. birarensis except that the clavo-corial stripe practically 
reaches the extero-lateral margin, the apical stripe is straighter, and 
these marks are clouded exteriorly with dark brownish, instead of 
being clear-cut as in G. birarensis. Beneath paler ferruginous, the 
yellow stripe in G. birarensis only faintly indicated here. Anterior 
tibiae and all the tarsi blackish. Head with eyes wider than the 
pronotum ; head and pronotum not or scarcely convex. Surface of 
frons much flatter than in the other species. Pronotum striate- 
punctate, very slightly longer than vertex. Ocelli a little closer 

332 Mr. G. W. Kirkaldy's Memoir on the 

together than to the eyes. Tegmina more parallel-sided, striate- 

Long. \Q\ mm. Width 3 mm. 

Hob. Birara (Willey). 

Genus Aufidus, St&l. 

Aufidus, St&l, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1863, p. 594. 

Aufidus Hyperion, sp. nov. 
(Plate XVII, fig. 4.) 
Allied to A. tripars (Walker). 

Head, thorax and basal third of tegmina, ventral surface, legs, 
abdomen, etc., stramineous. Base of frons proper, extreme apex of 
vertex, a small spot enclosing each of the ocelli, eyes, tarsi 
apically, exterior margin of anterior tibia 3 ., black. Apical two-thirds 
of tegmina (except lateral margin of their basal two-thirds) blackish 
fumate. Posterior margin of pronotum widely (except postero- 
lateral angle) and pallid parts of tegmina, suffused with sanguineous. 
Abdomen above, femora and posterior tibiae more or less sanguineous. 
Tegmina and pronotum posteriorly yellowish pilose ; head and pro- 
notum anteriorly blackish pilose. Frons swollen, medianly flattened 
and sulcate ; rostrum apically black, reaching a little beyond the 
base of intermediate coxa?. 

Long. 10j mm. to apex of tegmina. Breadth 3 mm. 

Hab. Birara (Willey). 

The abdomens of the two specimens (1 $ 1 $) are 
unfortunately a little distorted by alcohol. 


Genus Tettigonia, Geoffr. 

Teltigonia, Geoffroy, 1762, Histoire abregee, I, p. 429. 
Tettigonidcs (part), Signoret, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1853, 
p. 13. 

The most satisfactory arrangement of this huge genus 
or collection of genera yet made is that by E. D. Ball, but 
it only applies, unfortunately, to North American 
forms. So little is known of the Asiatic and Australian 

Rhynchota collected in Birara and Lifu. 333 

species that I have preferred to describe fully, as a 
Tettigonia the following interesting form, which appears 
to be so far unknown. Tettigonia in its wide sense is 
practically cosmopolitan. 

T. willeyi, sp. n. 

Head, thorax, and abdominal sternites, rostrum and legs, testaceous, 
abdominal tergites a little darker. A black elongate spot on each 
side of the middle line of the head, at the junction of frons and 
vertex almost meeting in the middle and extending laterally as far 
as the antennal ledges ; also a black spot immediately posterior to 
each ocellus reaching from thence almost to the base of the vertex. 
Apical margin of pronotum medianly black, also a number of 
blackish-brown spots on the anterior quarter of pronotum ; scutellum 
with a sublateral longitudinal black stripe on each side. Tegmina 
dark purplish brown, interior fourth of membrane hyaline, more or 
less fumate. Wings purplish brown, fumate. Anterior intermediate 
tarsi more or less fuscoUs, anterior tibial bristles black. Abdomen 
above medianly blackish. Head triangular, sub-convex, apically 
acutangular ; vertex and pronotum forming an obtuse angle at their 
junction. Seen laterally, the head from base of eye to apex of vertex 
is distinctly longer than the pronotum ; the antennal socket is 
protected by a somewhat strong ledge, part of which is distinctly 
visible from above, interrupting the curve of the head. Ocelli large, 
about twice as far apart from one another as from the nearest eye. 
Base of vertex roundly emarginate, carinately margined through its 
entire breadth. Frons slightly swollen, the surface flattened, some- 
what obsoletely granulate. Anterior tibise not (or exceedingly 
slightly) dilated, not sulcate. First segment of posterior tarsi longer 
than the other two together. Head and eyes scarcely so wide as the 
base of pronotum. Vertex between the eyes two-thirds wider than 
the eyes together. Pronotum quadrilateral, anterior margin rounded, 
posterior margin slightly obtusangularly emarginate. Pronotum 
obsoletely impressed transversely at its anterior third ; strong and 
finely punctured (on posterior two-thirds at least). Elytra extending 
far beyond apex of abdomen, apically rounded. 

£ . Male plates much longer than the idtimate abdominal segment, 
apically angular, the extero-lateral margins rotundate basally, 
obliquely subtruncate apically, provided with short bristles basally 
near the lateral margins. Pygofers dark, more than twice as long as 
the plates, bristly. 

$. Ultimate abdominal segment bisinuate apically, valves about 
four times as long as the preceding, bristly. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1905. — PART III. (OCT.) 23 

334 Mr. G. W. Kirkaldy's Memoir on the 

Long 8 - 4 mm. to apex of abdomen, 9 - 8 to apex of tegmina, width 
across pronotum 2*3 mm. 

Hah. Birara ( Willey). 

Thalattoscopus, gen. no v. 
(Plate XVII, fig. 5.) 

Very similar to Bythoscopus, Germ. ( = Macropsis, Auctt.), but 
frons, clypeus and genco anastomosed or only obsoletely sutured off. 
Postmargin of eyes beneath, emarginate. Apical margin of head 
widely rounded. Ocelli distant about two and a half times as far 
from each other as from the eyes. Vertex very short, seven or eight 
times as wide between the eyes as long, about twice as wide as the 
eyes together, acutely margined basally. Antennal ledge truncate. 
Pronotum and scutellum very distinctly transversely striated, 
pronotum at base slightly wider than the eyes, lateral margin 
somewhat rounded. 

T. DRYAS, sp. nov. 

(Plate XVII, fig. 5.) 

Above pale luteous, beneath testaceous. Eyes reddish -brown. 
Apical margin of vertex widely rounded, rostrum slightly passing 
anterior coxae. Anterior and intermediate femora incrassate, posterior 
femora a little dilated, tibia? subobliquely flattened, sulcate beneath. 
First segment of posterior tarsi equal to the other two together. 
Tegmina reaching well beyond apex of abdomen. 

J . Valves four times as long as preceding segment, exteriorly 
subrotundate, five-eighths longer than maximum width, each valve 
apically subacute, covered sparsely with short, pale luteous, bristles. 

Long. 10h mm. to apex of tegmina, 9 to apex of abdomen, width 
3| mm. across base of pronotum. 

Hah. Birara ( Willey). 

Family FULGORID^. 
Genus Phyllyphanta, Am. Serv. 

Phyllyphanta, Amyot and Serville, 1843, Hemipteres, p. 

523. Melichar, 1902, Ann. Hofmus. Wien, XVII, 

p. 54. 
Cromna, Walker, 1857, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., I, p. 85. 

Distributed over the Southern Oriental Region and 
Malayan Isles. 

Bhynchota collected in Birara and Lifu. 335 


Allied to P. producta (Spinola), but smaller and differs as 
follows : — 

Apparently immaculate. Frons distinctly carinate along the 
middle. Pronotum and scutellnm distinctly 3-carinate. Tegmina 
narrower, intero-apical angle somewhat obtuse — not strongly acute as 
in P. producta (Spin.) and P. dubia (Kirby). 

Preserved in alcohol and not in good condition. 

Long. 7 mm. (exclusive tegmina) ; 1H mm. (with tegmina) ; 
expanse about 23h mm. 

Hob. Birara ( Willey). 

Genus Euricania, Melichar. 

Euricania, Melichar, 1899, Ann. Hof. Wien, XIII, p. 255. 

Distributed over the Oriental region up to Japan and 
over the Pacific Islands. 

E. splendida, Fabr. 

Flata splendida, Fabr., 1803, Syst. Rhyng. p. 50. 

Bicania splendida, Guerin, 1838, Voy. Coquille, p. 191, 

[PI. 10, fig. 10 (1831)]. 
Euricania splendida, Melichar, 1899, Ann. Hofmus. XIII, 

p. 262 (PL 10, fig. 8). 

Hob. Birara (Willey), two examples without the white 
tegrainal spots; also recorded from New Guinea, Dorei, 
Triton Bay, Kimgunan, Meisol, Key and Sula (Melichar). 

Genus Tarundia, Stal. 

Tarundia, Stal, 1859, Berlin Ent. Zeit. Ill, p. 325; 
Melichar, 1899, Ann. Hofmus. Wien, XIII, p. 265. 

Distributed over South Africa, the smaller Mascarene 
Islands, New Guinea, the Solomons Islands. 

T. glaucescens, Melichar. 

Tarundia glaucescens, Melichar, 1899, Ann. Hofm. Wien, 
XIII, p. 267. 

Hab. Birara (Willey), also recorded from New Guinea. 

Hajar, gen. nov. 

Allied to Tarundia, Stal, and Pochazina, Melichar, but dis- 
tinguished by the basal cell emitting four nerves and by a different 
disposition of basal nerves. 

336 Mr. G. W. Kirkaldy's Memoir on the 

Frons not narrower than long, lateral margins of clypeus not 
carinate, laterally rounded, subperpendicular. Tegmina wide tri- 
lateral. The two claval nerves uniting at the middle of the clavus ; 
six or seven tranverse nerves in clavus ; great claval nerve uniting 
with the claval margin at the apex of the clavus. Radial and sub- 
radial veins springing at the same point from the basal cell, both 
running subparallel as far as stigma. Costal membrane much wider 
than costal area, slightly arched exteriorly, several of the costal 
nervures furcate. Longitudinal nerves in corium somewhat far 
apart, few transverse nervures. Those always simple. Interior 
ulnar nerve arising out of the basal cell at the opposite apical angle 
to the exterior ulnar nerve. 

Hajar fornicatus, sp. nov. 

Tale luteo-testaceous (greenish 1). Abdomen with some black 
spots dorsally ; a few of the transverse corial nerves fumate. Tegmina 
a little longer than wide, apically rounded. Vertex a little produced, 
truncate apically, lateral margins carinate, at right angles to apical 
margin, posterior margin excavated, pronotum short, but strongly 
carinate medianly longitudinally. Scutellum tricarinate the lateral 
keels meeting the middle keel apically at an acute angle. Frons 
obscurely carinate longitudinally, strongly carinate laterally and 
apically. Posterior tibice with two spines. 

Long. 5 - 2 mm. to apex abdomen ; expanse tegmina 18 mm. 

Hob. Birara ( Willcy), 1 $ damaged by alcohol. 

Peggioga, gen. nov. 

Allied to Dictyophara, Germ., but differs by the acutangularly 
emarginate bases of head and pronotum, the numerous transverse 
nervures in the very narrow costal membrane, and the less reticulate 
apical third of tegmina. Frons tricarnate, clypeus very short, 
strongly tricarinate, posterior tibise, 3-spinose. Anterior femora 

Peggioga Formosa, sp. n. 
(Plate XVII, fig. 6.) 

Stramineous (greenish ?) ; apex of head black, median line of the 
various keels of the head, pronotum, scutellum, and elytral nervures, 
more or less pale ferruginous. Stigma, intero-apical margin of 
tegmina, exterior half of the transverse series of nerves leading from 
the stigma, and the nerves in the costal membrane (and the nerves 

Rhynchota collected in Birara and Lifu. 337 

in the dark apical part aforementioned) blackish-brown or blackish. 
Apex of femora and base of posterior tibiae very narrowly blackish. 
Abdomen above more or less blackish. 

Vertex subfiliform, apex snbrotnndate-truncate, 2J times as 
long as width of head including eyes — more than twice as long 
as scutellum — slightly compressed medianly, as wide between the 
eyes as the length of an eye (as seen from above), one-third wider 
than the eyes together. Posterolateral margin of pronotum truncate, 
at right angles to the insect's longitudinal plane ; at its meeting with 
the convex lateral margins of scutellum, it abruptly turns forward at 
an obtuse angle, the two sides almost meeting at a right angle when 
they abruptly turn forward again acuminately ; between the postero- 
lateral angle and the apex of pronotum it is medianly and strongly 
elevately carinate. The upper lateral margins are roundly sinuate 
and do not quite reach the base, the lower lateral margins commence 
carinately close to the eyes and reach the posterolateral angle 
acuminately. Lateral part of scutellum between lateral margins and 
the exterior keels is strongly punctured. Interior (great) claval 
nerve meets the commisural vein almost at the same place as it 
meets the claval sutural vein, forming a very long narrow cell. 
Basal cell elongate gives off three nervures, the radial and subradial 
arising at the same spot and proceeding somewhat divergingly to the 
transverse veins, a little before which the radial forks ; the ulnar 
nerve arises at the opposite apical angle of the cell and continues 
to the transverse veins, forking a little before them. All the apical 
veins are furcate, sometimes reuniting ; all the veins are shortly, 
somewhat sparsely, pilose. Rostrum reaches the base of posterior 

Long, to apex of abdomen 13 mm., to apex tegmina 17 mm., 
expanse tegmina 24| mm. 

Hob. Lifu (Willey). 

Family CAPSID^. 

Imogen, gen. nov. 

Elongate. Head vertical, shining, polished, smooth, logitudinally 
impressed near the base. Eyes shortly pedicillate and very promi- 
nent, nearly twice as broad in profile as high, posterior margin 
sinuate. Antennae inserted close to the inner angle of the eye, first 
segment a trifle shorter than the profile-width of the eye. Second 
incrassate towards the base, third segment very slender. Pronotum 

338 Mr. G. W. Kirkaldy's Memoir on the 

smooth, shining, and polished, deeply impressed and constricted in 
the middle, with a distinct annuliform collar, lateral margins of 
anterior lobe rotundate, obtnsangular, not reaching laterally as far 
as the eyes, subtuberculate. Posterior lobe laterally subcarinate> 
straight, widely diverging posteriorly. Scutellum smooth, shining, 
anteriorly depressed. Elytra long, subparallel, clavus and corium 
coarsely and thickly punctured ; cuneus somewhat deeply excised, 
much longer than wide ; membrane with two cells. Femora not 
incrassate ; third segment of posterior tarsi longer than the other 
two together. 

This genus probably belongs to the Gapsaria, but has 
apparently no near relations. 

Imogen Formosa, sp. nov. 

Head above and beneath (except at base of vertex), basal two 
segments of antenna?, posterior half of scutellum, elytra, posterior 
margin of pronotum except medianly, basal two segments of rostrum, 
abdomen above and beneath, sterna more or less, femora, etc. black- 
ish or blackish-violet. Base of vertex, pronotum, anterior half of 
scutellum, propleura, etc., apical two segments of rostrum, yellowish- 
orange ; anterior tibiae, tarsi and third segment of antennae 
pallid yellow. Posterior tibiae and tarsi black annulated with whitish. 
Vertex, between the eyes, about two-sevenths wider than the two eyes 
together. Rostrum reaching to about the middle of the mesosternum. 
Second segment of antennas three times as long as the first which 
is two- fifths longer than the third. 

Long. 5 mm. (to apex of elytra 6 mm.). Breadth 2 mm. 

Hob. Birara ( Willey). 


Genus Mononyx, Laporte. 

Mononyx, Laporte, 1832-3, Essai, p. 16; Montandon, 
1899, Bull. Sci. Bucarest, VIII, nos. 4 and 5, pp. 4 and 5. 

Not found in America, north of Mexico ; or in the 
Palasarctic Region. 

M. mixtus, Montandon. 
Mononyx mixtus, Montand., op. cit. p. 15. 

Bhynchota collected in Birara and Lifu. 339 

Hab. BlRARA ( Willey) ; also recorded by Montandon 
from Australia, Amboina, and New Guinea. 

Enithares, Spinola. 
Enithares, Spin., 1837, Essai, p. 60. 

Distributed over Australian, Ethiopian, and Oriental 
Regions. Also in Brazil. 

Enithares, sp. nov. 

A new species, scarcely in sufficiently good condition to 
characterize, allied to E. abbreviata, Kirby. 
Hab. Birara (Willey). 

Genus Polydidus, Stal. 
Polydidus, Stal, 1858, 0. V. A. F., p. 448. 

A few species distributed over Oriental, Australian, 
and Ethiopian Regions. 

Polydidus armatissimtjs, Stal. 

Polydidus armatissimus, Stal, 1859, 0. V. A. F., p. 376. 

Hab. Birara ( Willey) ; also from India, Ceylon, China, 
and the Philippines. 

Genus Physoderus, Westwood. 

Pkysoderus, Westwood, 18, Journ. Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond., 

1844, p. cxv. 
Epirodera, Westwood, 18, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1847, 

p. 247 ; Leth. and Sev., 1. c, III, p. 96. 

Madagascar, Philippines, and the Indomalayan Islands. 

Physoderus azrael, sp. nov. 
Belongs to Stal's div. a. 

840 Mr. G. W. Kirkaldy's Memoir on the 

Head, pronotum, scutellum (except the produced posterior part), 
membrane, sterna (in great part), dark purple-brown, almost black, 
dull. Scutellum posteriorly, abdomen above, etc., clear luteous. 
Coriaceous part of elytra fulvofuscous. Connexivum blackish, 
spotted with luteous. Abdomen beneath sordid yellowish-brown 
with two sublateral (or submedian) subparallel longitudinal lines 
formed of blackish-brown spots, the spotted connexivum forming a 
third line. Legs pale, sordid yellowish-brown, somewhat obscurely 
annulated with dark brown. Antenna? pallid yellowish-brown. 

Long. 8 mm. 

Hab. Birara (Willcy). 

Genus Darbanus, Am. Serv. 

Darhamis, Am. Serv., 1843, Hemipt., p. 370. 
Euagoras, Leth. Sev., 1. c., Ill, p. 184. 

Distributed over the Oriental and Malayan Islands. 

D. dolosus, Stal. 

Euagoras dolosus (Stal), 18G3, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 
p. 28. 

Hab. Birara {Willcy)-, Ke Island (StdT); Am (Distant). 

Genus Oncocephalus, Klug. 

Oncocephalus, Klug, 1830, Symb. Phip., p. 2, almost world- 
wide in distribution. 

Oncocephalus amen, sp. nov. 

£ . Apparently allied to 0. assimilis, Eeuter, but differing by the 
proportions of the antenna?, pronotum, etc. Elongate, sordid 
testaceous, head with a large black spot on the posterior area, prono- 
tum with three double longitudinal lines which are fainter on the 
posterior area. Scutellum with a pallid irregular central longitudinal 
line. Head, pronotum, and abdomen irregularly marked with black 
laterally. Antenna? pallid, apex of first and of second segments black, 
third and fourth fumate. Apex of the second and third rostral 
segments black. Anterior and intermediate legs pallid, anterior 
femora banded irregularly with brown beneath, anterior and inter- 
mediate tibia? with three blackish rings; intermediate femora apically 
black. Posterior femora brownish-black, a little clouded with 
pallid ; posterior tibia? pallid, with two brownish rings near the 
base. Elytra brownish testaceous, obscurely irrorated with brownish, 
with two large velvety blackish-brown spots, the apical one with 

Rhyncliota collected in Birara and Lifu. 341 

a whitish wedge anteriorly. Head long and narrowed in profile, 
anterior spines not very prominent ; anterior area and first segment 
of antennte subequal in length, the former distinctly longer than the 
posterior area plus the eyes. Second segment of antennso one-third 
longer than the first, 2| longer than the third, and a little more than 
twice as long as the fourth ; first segment glabrous, second slender. 
Eyes beneath strongly convergent, width of eye (as seen from beneath) 
about three times (or more) as wide as the intraocular space. Quia 
not tuberculate. Rostrum incrassate, first segment reaching to 
anterior margin of eye. Eyes very large, occupying almost the entire 
width of the head in profile. Anterior lobe of pronotum destitute 
of discal spines, anterior angle minutely spinose. Pronotum about 
the middle of the lateral margins with a small tubercle, a little 
posterior to this somewhat deeply impressed transversely ; the lateral 
margins of the anterior area are subparallel, of the posterior area 
widely divergent. Posterolateral angles acute, subvertical, not ex- 
tending anteriorly beyond apical margin of posternum. Scutellum 
distinctly recurved posteriorly. Anterior femora, with a single row 
of eleven to twelve small spines inferiorly, trochanters with two or 
three small spines. Posterior tibise slightly pilulose, distinctly 
longer than femora. 
Long. 15 mm. 

Hob. Birara ( Willey). 

Luteva, sp. nov. 

Genus Luteva, Dohrn. 

Luteva, Dohrn., Linn. Ent., XIV, pp. 213 and 242. 

Two or three specimens in indifferent condition from 
Lifu, probably referable to a new species. 

Family GERRID.E. 

Genus Gerris, Fabricius. 

Gerris, Fabr., 1794, Ent. Syst., IV, p. 188. 
Limnomctra, Mayr., 1866, Novara Reise, Hem., p. 174. 

Cosmopolitan ; the subgenus Limnomctra occurs in 
every region except the Palaearctic. 

Gerris, sp. (?). 
Hob. Birara ( Willey). 

342 t Mr. G. W. Kirkaldy's Memoir on the 

Family NEPIDiE. 

Genus Ranatra, Fabricius. 

Ranatra, Fabr., Syst. Rhyng, p. 108. 

Cercotmctus, Amyot and Serville, Hist. Hem., p. 441. 

Practically cosmopolitan. 

Ranatra parmata, Mayr. 

Ranatra (Cercotmetus) parmata, Mayr., Nuvara Reise, p. 
192 ; Fab. V, f. 60. 

Hab. Java, Tjibodas ( Willey). 

Family ARADIDiE. 
Genus Brachyriiynchus, Lap. 
Brachyrhynchus, Laporte, Essai, p. 54. 
Almost world-wide in distribution. 

Brachyrhynchus tagalicus, Stal. 
Arictus tagalicus, Stal., 1870, O. V. A. P., p. 672. 

Hab. Birara ( Willey), also recorded from Philippines, 
Burma, Java and Nias Island. 

Brachyrhynchus membranaceus, Fabr., var. 
Brachyrhynchus orientalis, Laporte. 

Aradus membranaceus, Fabr., 1803, Syst. Rhyng, p. 118. 
Var. Brachyriiynchus orientalis, Lap. 

Hab. Birara ( Willey) ; also recorded from South 
Oriental region, New Guinea, Vanikoro, etc. 

Genus Neuroctenus, Fieber. 

Neuroctenus, Fieber, 1861, Europ. Hem., p. 34. 

Similar distribution to Brachyrhynchus, except the 
Palseavctic Region. 

Neuroctenus, sp. (?). 
Two specimens in indifferent condition ( Willey) 

Bhynchota collected in Birctrci and Lifu. 343 

( = Pyrrhocoridas + Lyyacidiu, Leth. and Sev.) 
Genus Physopelta. 

Physopelta, Ann. Serv., 1843, Hemipteres, p. 271. 
Iphita, Stal, 1870, Sv, Akad. Handl., 9, No. 1, p. 99. 

Distributed through the Oriental, Ethiopian, and 
Australian Regions. 

Physopelta fimbriata, Stal. 

Physopelta fimbriata, Stal, 18G3, Berl. Ent. Zoit., VII, p. 
Hah. Birara (Willey) ; previously recorded from Timor. 


Physopelta famelica, Stal, 1862, Berl. Ent. Zeit., VIT, p. 391. 
(?) Lygaeus woodlarkianus, Montr., 1855, I.e., p. 105. 

Hab. Birara {Willey)] recorded also from Australia, 
New Guinea, Ceram, etc., scarcely distinguishable from 
P. gutta, Burin. 

DYNAMENAIS ; gen. nov. 

Allied to JEschines, but distinguished by the glabrous 
abdomen and prominent eyes ; also allied to Ectatops, Bo., 
distinguished by the form of the head, the much more 
prominent bucculse and the glabrous abdomen. 

Head almost vertical in the front of the eyes, transversely im- 
pressed behind them but not narrowed ; eyes large and very promi- 
nent, shortly stylate, projecting above the surface of the vertex, as 
seen in profile ; base of eyes touching or slightly overlapping 
pronotum. The base of the head between the eyes is also suleulate, 
slightly obtuse angulately emarginate. Pronotum, with a well- 
marked collar, divided from the anterior area by a punctured deeply 
impressed line, anterior area separate from posterior area by a very 
deeply impressed line, also punctured. Lateral margins and prono- 
tum subvertical. The collar and the lateral margins are smooth and 
polished, the rest of the pronotum is dull and sparsely punctured, 
except the posterior margin which is polished and sparsely punctured. 
First segment of antennae longer than second and third together 
and longer than fourth. Bucculse very prominent, acute. First 

344 Mr. G. W. Kirkaldy's Memoir on the 

segment of rostrum readies to the base of head, or at least not 
beyond base of collar. Stink-gland orifices with a short sulcus, 
reaching along half the width of the pleuron, but very distinct ; 
margins curved, callose. Wings with a hamus. Legs unarmed. 
Abdomen glabrous beneath. 

Dynamenais venustus, Walker. 
Eetatops venustus, Walk., 1873, Cat. Hem., VI, p. 17. 

Dull black, marked with yellowish white. Head, except apex ; 
pronotum, except collar, lateral and posterior margins ; scutellum ; 
elytra, except costal margin, and the apical margin of corium — the 
latter widely — and the apical margin of membrane ; antenna), ex- 
cept extreme base of first segment, and basal two-thirds of the fourth ; 
first segment of rostrum ; basal two-thirds of the femora ; apical 
abdomen tergites ; sterna and pleura, the collar and the posterior 
margin of pro- and metapleura excepted ; ambulacra ; basal half of 
abdominal sternites in the middle and one or more of the other 
abdominal sternites entirely ; black more or less dull, except the 
more or less shining abdominal segments, the above exceptions are 
all more or less yellowish-white except the sanguineous abdominal 
tergites. Second, third and fourth rostral segments castaneous- 
brown ; tibiae and tarsi pallid or brownish. The prominent parts 
of the buceulee are ivory-white. Head dull, somewhat obscurely 
rugulose, first segment of antenna} a little more than twice as 
long as the second, and one-sixth longer than the fourth ; second 
one-third longer than third. First rostral segment a trifle longer than 
the second ; the fourth reaching a little beyond the posterior coxa). 
Lateral margins of pronotum sinuate ; posterior margins of pro- and 
metapleura, and the ambulacra smooth, polished, and punctured. 
Elytra, exteriorly at least, punctured. Anterior and intermediate 
femora somewhat incrassate. First segment of each tarsus longer than 
the other two segments together ; third longer than the second. 

Long. $ 7 mm., $ 9 mm. 

Hah. Birara ( Willcy) ; New Guinea ( Walker). 
Genus Dindymus. 
Dindymus, St&l, 1861, O. V. A. F., p. 196. 

Distributed throughout Oriental, Ethiopian and Austra- 
lian Regions. 

Dindymus famosus, Distant. 

Dindymus famosus, Dist., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1901, 
p. 589. 

Hob. Birara {Willcy). 

lllvyncliota collected in Birara and Lifu. 345 


Dysdercus pyrochroa, Boisduval, 1835, Astrolabe Ent. II, p. 
642, PI. XI, fig. 9. 
Hcib. Birara (Willcy), Aru, Moluccas, New Guinea, 
Myso, etc. 

Genus Dysdercus, Serville. 
Dysdercus, Serville, 1835, in Boisduval, Astrolabe, II, p. 64. 

Laporte fixed the type of the genus Astemma in 1833, 
" Essai," p. 38. 

"Le genre Astemma a etc etabli sur la Salda pattieomis 
de Fab." 

Astemma, Kirk., olim. 

Dysdercus sidm, Montrouzier. 

Dijsdccus (sic !) sides, Montr, and Sign., 1861, I.e., p. 68. 

In the Journal Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, I lumped 
together a number of forms under the name " cinyulatus." 
Dr. Breddin has since kindly sent me specimens of cinyu- 
latus and poecilus, and has explained the difference in the 
Wiener. Ent. Zeit. 

I now find among Dr. Willey's captures what I believe 
to be the true sidm. D. cinyulatus is distinguished by the 
shining, polished, immaculate head (except the base 
behind the eyes which is generally very narrowly blackish), 
while poecilus and sidte have dull heads. In both of the 
latter the base of the head beyond the eyes is blackish, 
though generally more largely in sidsa. While in poecilus 
(as in cinyulatus), the tylus is red, in sidsn it is blackish, the 
black colour often encroaching well over the juga, etc.; 
the rostrum is also entirely black (except sometimes the 
extreme apex of the first segment) in sidiu, while in the 
other two, at least the first segment is red. The red 
colour in sidm is also darker and browner. These characters 
seem constant, other colour characters are however un- 
reliable in cinyulatus and poecilus, particularly that of the 
Isevigate anterior transverse band on the pronotum. Sidss 
is perhaps also more strongly punctured. 

Dr. Willey has taken A. sidx at Lifu, the original 
habitat noted by Montrouzier. I have it also in my 
collection from New Hebrides, New Caledonia and Loyalty 
Islands. Stal records it from North and West Australia. 

346 Mr. G. W. Kirkaldy's Memoir on the 

Dysdercus cingulatus, Fabricius. 

Cimcx cingulatus, Fabr. 1775, Syst. Ent., p. 719. 
Dysdercus cingulatus, Kirk., J. Bombay Soc, XIV, p. 301, 
pi. A., figs. 11 and 12 (except some of the synonymy). 

Hah. Birara (Willey). Widely distributed over the 
Australian and Oriental Regions. 

Dysdercus poecilus, Herr Schaff. 

Pyrrhocoris poecilus, Herr Schaff., 1844, Wanz. Ins., VII, 
p. 17, fig. 699 ; Breddin, Wien. Ent, Zeit., XX, p. 84^ 

Hab. Birara ( Willey). A very similar distribution to 
that of cingulatus. 

Genus Ptochiomera, Say. 

Ptochiomera, Say, 1832, Descr. Heteropt. (New Harmony). 
Plociomera, Leth. and Sev., 1. c, II, p. 194. 
Distributed over America ; also Japan, etc. 

Ptochiomera kydippe, sp. nov. 

Belongs to Stal's divisions dd. Covered all over, more 
thickly on head and pronotum, with silvery hair. 

Head, pronotum, scutellum and under-side dull black ; a silvery 
posterolateral spot on anterior lobe of pronotum. Posterior margin 
of pronotum narrowly fulvescent. Elytra pale yellowishd;>rown, 
clouded and punctured with blackisb-brown. Connexivum pallid 
brown. Membrane fumate, irregularly marked with pallid. First 
and fourth antennal segments, more or less blackish, 3rd and 4th 
fulvous. Legs brownish, apical half of femora black. Rostrum 
fulvous, first and fourth segments darker. Stink orifices black. 
Head and eyes wider than anterior margin of pronotum. Fourth 
segment of antennae twice as long as the first, a trifle longer than the 
second, which is a quarter longer than the third. Pronotum somewhat 
deeply impressed transversely, anterior area three-fifths longer than the 
posterior ; lateral margins rounded, lateral margins of posterior area 
widely divergent roundly, base slightly sinuately emarginate. 

Long, to apes of elytra 5 mm. 

Hab. Lifu (Willey). 
Genus Pachymerus, Auctt., olim. 
Pacliymerus, Lep. and Serv., 1895, Encycl., X, p. 322. 
Aphanus, Leth. and Sev., 1. c, II, p. 215 (nee Laporte). 

Distributed throughout the Old World. 

Bhyncliota collected in Birara and Lifu. 347 

I have used the preoccupied name "Pachymerus" be- 
cause I do not know what the correct name of the genus is. 

Pachymerus nereis, sp. nov. 

(Plate XVII, fig. 7.) 

Although the fourth segment of the anterinse is partly 
pallid, this species seems to be a Pachymerus, but I have 
seen only 3 $£. 

Head, first segment of antennae (except extreme apex), extreme 
apex of 2nd segment, the third (except extreme base) and apical 
half of the fourth, disk of anterior lobe of pronotum, two spots (one 
near apex, one near base) on the explanate lateral margin of pro- 
notum, scutellum (except a proportionately long V-mark at posterior 
angle), two spots near and at apex of costal area ; abdomen above 
entire ventral surface (except rostrum, trochanter, $ ovipositor, 
ambulacra and pleural lateral margin and connexivum), black or 
blackish ; the exceptions all pale yellowish-brown except lateral 
margins of pleura which are yellowish-white. Stink princes black. 
Ocelli close to the eyes, first segment of rostrum reaching to base of 
head, 4th to about middle of intermediate coxae. Second and fourth 
segments of antenna? sub-equal, each a trifle more tban twice as long 
as the first, and a quarter longer than the third. Disk of posterior half 
of pronotum, scutellum, elytra, etc., very strongly punctured. Elytra 
pale yellowish-brown, strongly and somewhat closely punctured 
with brownish-black. Clavus triseriate punctured, also with some 
irregular punctures between the two interior rows. Membrane 
pale yellowish-white marbled with pale yellowish-brown. Lateral 
margins of pronotum rounded, sufficiently widely explanate, more 
narrowly posteriorly ; base truncate. Femora unarmed, except a 
spine near apex of anterior pair. 

<j? . Long. 6 mm. 

Hah. Lifu (226a Willey). 
Genus Oxycarenus, Fieber. 
Oxycarenus, Fieber, 1837, Weitenweber's Beitrage, p. 339. 

Distributed throughout the Old World ; occurs also in 

Oxycarenus lifuanus, sp. nov. 

Is intermediate between Stal's divisions b and bb. 

Head, rostrum, antennas, pronotum, scutellum and clavus, black ; 
orificial callosities white, orifices black ; abdomen above black, 
medianly sanguineous. Corium white, with a large black spot in 

348 Mr. G. W. Kirkaldy's Memoir on the 

the middle and a black spot at apical angle of corium. Membrane 
whitish hyaline with a large brownish-black spot. Legs black, 
except posterior tibioe which are white except at base and apex. 
Ambulacra and posterior margin of metapleura white. Abdomen 
beneath sanguineous along some of the sutures covered with stiff 
whitish hairs. Head, pronotum, etc., strongly punctured. Clavus 
punctured in three parallel rows, and there is also a row of black 
punctures dividing the corium from the exocorium. First segment 
of antennae scarcely reaching beyond the head, second segment half 
longer than the first, a trifle longer than the fourth, which is a trifle 
longer than the third. Kostrum reaching well beyond base of 
Long. 3£ mm. 

Hab. LiFU {Willey). 

This may be Macroplax liicluosis, Montr., but that species 
is described as finely granulated, with the clavus whitish 
and the membrane brown. It is also a little larger than 
0. lifuanus. 

Genus Astacops, Boisduval. 

Astacops, Boisduval, 1835, Voy. Astrolabe, II, p. 637. 
Australia and the Malayan Archipelago. 

Astacops dorycus, Boisduval. 
Astacops dorycus, Boisd., 1. c, p. C38, pi. xi, fig. 16. 

Hab. BlRARA ( Willey)) also from New Guinea and Mysol. 

Astacops, sp. nov. 

Hab. LiFU {Willey). 

This is most probably a good species, but I have re- 
frained from describing it, as it belongs to a difficult group 
largely characterized by colour- markings, and there is but 
a single specimen before me. 

Genus Stalagmostethtjs, Stal. 

Stalagmostethus, Stal, 1868, Svensk. Vetens. and Akad. 
Handl., 7, No. 11, p. 72. 

Sub-genus Spilostethus, Stal, op. cit. = Lygacus, Auctt. 
nee Fabr. 

Bhynchota collected in Birara and Lifu. 34'J 

S. familiaris, Fabr., var. hospes, Fabr. 

Cimcx familiaris, Fabricius, 1781, Spec. Ins., II, p. 363. 
Var. Lygaeus hospes, Fabr., 1794, Ent. Syst., IV, p. 150. 
= L. squalidus, Montrouzier, 1861, A. S. E. F., 4, 1, p. 66. 

Hob. Lifu {Montrouzier and Willey); Brisbane (my 
coll.) ; New Caledonia, Philippines, Malacca, China, India, 
Africa, Europe. 

Genus Oncopeltus, Stal. 

Oncopeltus, Stal, 1868, Svensk., Vetensk., Akad. Handl., 7, 
No. 11, p. 75. 

Oncopeltus dispar, Walker, var. 

(?) Lygaeus bicinctus, Montrouzier, 1861, A. S. E. F., p. 67. 
Lygaeus dispar, Walker, 1872, Cat., V, p. 60. 

„ „ (Willey, 332 n.) ; Moluccas, Borneo, etc. 

Differs from the type by the pallid (sanguineous ?) 
femora. The description of L. bicinctus from New Cale- 
donia agrees with this, but the size (7 mm.) is much too 

Genus Geocoris willeyi, sp. nov. 

(Plate XVII, fig. 8.) 
Allied to G. fiaviceps. 

Head, anterior and lateral margins of pronotum, posterior angle 
of scutellum, first and apical two-thirds of third segments of 
antennae, rostrum, legs, etc., pale yellow-testaceous. Rest of antennae 
blackish or blackish-brown. Rest of pronotum, scutellum, elytra, 
abdomen, etc., bluish-black. Eyes red. Basal two-thirds of 
membrane fumate, apical third hyaline, colourless. Connexivum 
flavous, spotted with black. Head straight between antennae and 
eyes, shortly triangularly prominent in the middle, unpunctate ; 
with the eyes wider than pronotum. Fourth antennal segment 
fusiform, a little longer than the third, which is a little longer than 
the second and twice as long as the first. The pronotum has a single 
row of punctures near the anterior margin, not nearly reaching to 
the lateral margin, basal two-thirds of pronotum and the entire 
scutellum somewhat superficially and irregularly punctured ; lateral 
margins of pronotum smooth, straight and sub-parallel. Clavus 
TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1905. — PART III. (OCT.) 24 

350 Mr. G. W. Kirkaldy's Memoir on the 

with two rows of parallel punctures, interior naif of corium not (or 
superficially) punctured, exterior half more strongly punctured. 
Long. 5'4 mm. to apex of elytra ; breadth across eyes 2-5 mm. 

Hob. BlRARA ( Willcy). 

Family LYGAEIDjE, Kirk. 
(= Coreid.e, Auctt.) 
Genus Leptocoris, Halm. 

leptocoris, Halm., 1833, Wanz. lust., I, p. 200. 
Scrinetha, Spiuola, 1837, Essai, p. 247. 

Widely distributed through the Oriental, Australian, 
Ethiopian and Nearctic regions. 

Leptocoris rufomarginatus, Fabricius. 

Lygacm ruformarginatus, Fabr., 1794, Ent. Syst., IV, 
p. 152. 

Hal. Birara (Willcy); Philippines (Stal). 

Genus Myodocha, Latreille. 

Myodoeha, Latr., 1807, Gen. Crust. Ins., III. 
Lcptocorisa, Latr., 1825, Fam. Nat., p. 421. 

Almost world-wide in distribution except the Pakearctic 

Myodocha burmeisteri, Montr. 

Leptocorisa burmeisteri, Montrouzier, 1865, Ann. Soc. Linn. 
Lyon., XI, p. 227. 

Hah. Birara ( Willcy). Described from New Caledonia ; 
" Se trouve a Kanaka dans les champs, sur les gramin^es, 
au milieu des herbes " (Montrouzier). 

Probably two species contained in Willey's captures, but 
the species of this genus are not very well characterized. 

Genus Riptortus, Stal. 

Riptorlus, Stal, 1859, O.V. A.F., p. 460. 

Distributed over the Oriental, Ethiopian and Australian 
regions, also Japan. 

Bhynchota collected in Birara and Lifu. 351 

Allied to B. rdbustus, Dallas. 

Head, beneath, juga, base of vertex, pronotum, scutellum, extreme 
base of elytra, first, second and apical two-thirds of 3rd segment of 
antennae, rostrum, sterna and pleura (except as below), coxae, 
trochanters, and posterior femora, a broad median longitudinal 
black hand on abdomen below, spots on the apical segments of con- 
nexivum above, etc., black or blackish-brown, the posterior femora 
beneath very polished. Tylus, base of third antennal segment, 
abdomen above, and laterally below, a broad almost continuous, very 
smooth, stripe from apex of head to base of metanotum, reddish. 
Apical segment of antennae, anterior and intermediate tibia?, and all 
the tarsi, a somewhat indefinite pale ochreous. Posterior tibiae 
blackish laterally, reddish above and below. Elytra pale ochreo- 
fulvous, membrane yellowish-brown hyaline. Pronotal spines, 
acuminate, prominent ; pronotum minutely granulate with black. 
Rostrum reaching to nearly base, fine at sternum. Posterior femora 
with three or four larger spines and a number of smaller ones. 
Fourth antennal longer than the first and second together, second 
and third subequal. 

Long. Vlh mm., lat. 4 mm. 

Hah. Birara {Willey). 


Biptortus atricomis, Stal, 1873, Sv. Vet. Ak Handl., 11, 
No. 2, p. 94. 

A specimen from Lifu {Willey) is placed here with 
some little diffidence. B. atricomis was described from 
Australia and Java. 

Genus Cletus, Stal. 

Cletus, Stal, Eugenies Resa, Hem., p. 236. 
Beniseomus, Spinola, in Signoret, 1861, Ann. Soc. Ent. 
France, 4, 1, p. 66 [nov. syn.]. 

Distributed over Oriental, Ethiopian, and Australian 
regions, also from North America. 

Cletus amyoti, Montrouzier. 

Gonoccrus amyoti, Montr., 1861, 1. c, p. 66. 
Hob. Lifu (Montrouzier and Willey), 

o52 Mr. G. W. Kirkaldy's Memoir on the 

Genus Leptoglossus, Guerin. 

Leptoglossus, Guerin, 1838, Voy. Coquille, p. 174. 

Widely distributed over the Ethiopiau, Oriental and 
Australian regions (including the Pacific Isles), America, 
and the Canary Isles. 

L. MEMBRANACEUS, Fabricius. 

(?) Cimcx australis, Fabr., 1775, Syst. Ent., p. 708. 
Cimex mcmbranaccus, Fabr., 1781, Spec. Ins., II, p. 351. 
Anisoscclis {Lygacus) bidcntatus, Montr., 1855, 1. c, p. 101. 

Solomons Islands, Guodalcanar( Willcy, June 11, 1897); 
also from Woodlark, New Caledonia and San Cristoval, 
North Australia, Philippines, Africa, India, Ceylon, Canary 
Isles, etc. Willey's examples are typical mcmbranaccus ; 
L. australis, which is doubtfully distinct, is from Tahiti. 
" Vit sur les Cucurhitacees. On le trouve aussi sur certains 
acacias " (Montrouzier). 

Genus Mictis, Leach. 

Mictis, 1814, Leach, Zool. Misc., I, p. 92. 
Oriental, Australian, and Ethiopian regions. 

Mictis PROFANU.S, Fabricius. 

Lygacus prof anus, Fabricius, 1803, Syst. Rhyng., p. 211. 
Ntematopus prof anus, Montr., 1855, I.e., p. 102. 

Hob. LlFU (Willcy); also from Australia, Woodlark, 
New Caledonia, Viti, Samoa, San Cristoval, etc. " Vit 
sur les mimosa " (Montrouzier). 

Genus Ppjocnemicoms, Costa. 

Priocnemicoris, Costa, 1863, Rend. Acad. Napol., II, p. 253. 
New Guinea and neighbouring islands. 

Pkiocnemicoris albithorax, Boisd., var. patricius, nov. 

I have not been able to examine P. albithorax, Boisd., 
1835 (= flaviccps, Guerin, 1838), and am therefore unable 
to differentiate this form specifically. It differs from the 
typical form, as figured by Boisduval and Guerin, by the 
unicolorous pronotum. 

Head, rostrum, entire ventral surface (except the exterolateral 
margins of the pleura,), connexival tergites, legs (except posterior 

Rhynchota collected in Birara and Lifu, 353 

femora, etc.) olivaceo-testaceous. Eyes, ocelli, antennas, etc., dark 
reddish-brown ; 4th segment of antennae fulvous. Pronotum, 
scutelluni, exterolateral margins of the pleura, clavus, coriam, and 
abdomen above metallic shining green. Posterior femora (except 
at the base) and base of posterior tibiae shining greenish-black. 
Membrane irridescent dark olivaceous, tinged with purple. There is 
a pale luteous band on the pleura interior to the lateral metallic 
margin, and a sublateral pale luteous spot on each abdominal tergite. 
Rostrum reaching to the middle of the mesosternum, which is 
channelled so far. Fourth segment of antennae about one-half 
longer than the first, which is one-sixth longer than the second, 
which is one-half longer than the third. Pronotum transversely 
striolate, anteriorly obsoletely callose, sulcate medio-! ongitudinally. 
Clavus and corium strongly and finely punctured. Each abdominal 
segment posterolateral^ minutely spined. 

<J . 6th (?) abdominal tergite very slightly rotundately emarginate ; 
posterior femora somewhat incrassate, with one larger, median, and 
three to five smaller spines, near the apex. 

9 . 6th (?) abdominal tergite roundly emarginate ; posterior 
femora much less emarginate, lacking the median larger spine. 

Long. 19 mm., lat. 5 1 — 5§ mm. 

Hob. Birara {Willey). The typical form is from New 

Genus Ptern [stria, Stal. 

Ptemistria, Stal, 1873, Svensk. Vetensk. Akail. Handl , p. 
Australia, New Guinea, Birara, and Aru. 

Pternistria, sp. 

Specimens from Birara ( Willey) closely agreeing with 
the description and figure of macromcra (Gudrin), which, 
however, is unknown to me. The latter has been recorded 
from New Guinea and Aru. 

Family CIMICIDiE. 
Genus Megymenum, Laporte. 

Megymenum, Lap., 1833, Essai, p. 52. 
Mcgah/mcnum, Burmeister, Handb. Ent., II, p. 349 (note), 
Distributed throughout the Australian and Oriental 
regions up to Japan. 

354 Mr. G. W. Kirkaldy's Memoir on the 

M. affine, Boisduval. 

Megymcnum affine, Boisd., 1835, Voy. Astrolabe, II, p. 633, 
PI. 11, f. 12; Montrouzier, 1855, 1. c, p. 101. 

M. montrouzicri, Leth. and Sev., 1893, Cat. Hem., I, 
p. 239. 

Thes§ two names appear to belong to the same form. 
Stal says of the Montrouzierian, " a M. affine, Boisd., vix 
differt," though the former is in his division " cc" and the 
latter in " c." Dr. Willey collected specimens from Birara. 
It has also been recorded from Moiou {Montrouzier) and 
New Guinea. 

Genus Agapophyta, Laporte. 
Agapophyta, Lap., 1833, Essai, p. 03. 
The genus contains one species. 

Agapophyta bipunctata, Boisduval. 

Agapophyta hipunctata, Guerin, 1838, Voy. Coquille, p. 1G8. 
[PI. 11, f. 5 (1831), not f. 15, as say Leth. and Sev.] 

Hob. Birara ( Willey) ; also from Australia, Tasmania, 
New Guinea, Woodlark Island, Havre Carteret, Burn and 
Sarawatte Islands, Moluccas, etc. 

" Vit en troupe sur une espece d'acacia a Woodlark " 

Genus Catacanthtjs, Spinola. 

Catacanthus, Spinola, 1837, Essai Hemipt., p. 325. 

Distributed from India and Ceylon to Toga and from 
Australia to Japan. 

C. punctum, Fabricius. 

Gimcx nigripes, Subzev., 1776, Gesch. Ins., p. 96, PI. 10, 

fig. 9 (uec Fabr.). 
C. punctum, Fabricius, 1787, Mant, Ins., II, p. 291. 
C. carrensi, Le Guillou, 1841, Rev. Zool., p. 262. 
Pentatoma tricolor, Montrouzier, 1855, 1. c, p. 96. 
Catacanthus nigripes, Leth. and Sev., 1893, Cat. I, p. 163. 

Hah. Birara (Willey; typical punctum); Woodlark, 
Art, Australia, Philippines, Java, etc. 

Bhynchota collected in Birara and Lifu. 355 

Genus Agonoscelis, Spinola. 

Agonoscelis, Spinola, 1837, Essai, p. 327. 

Widely distributed over Ethiopian, Oriental and Aus- 
tralian Regions. 

Agonoscelis rutilus, Fabricius. 

Gimcx rutilus, Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Ent., p. 714 

Hab. Biraba {Willey); also recorded from Australia, 
Moluccas, Java, Celebes, Batchian, Banda, etc. 

Genus Plautia, Stal. 

Plautia, Stal, 1864, Hem. Afric, I, p. 191. 

Distributed similarly to the foregoing genus. 

Plautia brunnipennis, Montrouzier. 
Fentatoma brunnipennis, Montr., 1861, 1. c, p. 63. 

Hab. Birara ( Willey) ; Lifu (Stal) ; New Caledonia 

A very variable species. In one specimen the posterior 
half of the pronotum is black and there is a large black 
spot towards the posterior angle of the scutellum. The 
corium may be immaculate or heavily spotted with black. 
Venter usually immaculate, but in the example first 
mentioned, there are three black spots on each segment. 
Differs from P. fimbriatus, Fabr., by the absence of the 
black thread-line on the lateral margins of the pronotum ; 
scarcely separable from P. afflnis, Dallas, from Australia, 
except that the pronotum is more coarsely punctured in 
the present species. 

Genus Antestia, Stal. 
Antestia, Stal, 1855, O. V. A. F., p. 54. 
Similar distribution to the foregoing. 

Antestia chambereti, Le Guillon. 

Strachia chambereti, Le Guillon, 1841, Rev. Zool., p. 262. 

Hab. Birara ( Willey) ; also from New Guinea, Wood- 
lark, and Waigiu. 

356 Mr. G. W. Kirkaldy's Memoir on the 

Genus Stenozygum, Fieber. 

Stenozygum, Fieber, 1861, Europ. Hem., p. 345. 

Oriental, Ethiopian and Australian regions, also South- 
eastern Palsearctic. 

1. Stenozygum erythraspis, Boisduval. 

Pentatoma erythraspis, Boisd., 1835, Voy. Astrolabe, pt. 2, 
p. 629, PI. 11, fig. 8. 

Hab. BiRARA {Willey); also recorded from Moluccas, 
Ceram, Batchian, Halmahera, Carteret, Ke and New 

Genus Vitellus, Stal. 

Vitellus, Stal, 1865, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 4, 5, p. 170. 

Distributed over Australia and the Malayan and Pacific 


Vitellus pungens, Montrouzier. 

Rliync.ocoris pungens, Montr., 1861, 1. c, p. 66. 
Vitellus pungens, Stal, 1865, 1. c, p. 172. 

Hab. Birara {Willey) ; one ex. measuring 16 mm. long ; 
Woodlark {Montrouzier). 

Genus Zangis, Stal. 

Zangis, Stal, 1867, O. V. A. F., p. 514. 

Distributed over Australian, Ethiopian and Oriental 

Zangis montrouzieri, Leth. and Sev. 

RJiaphygaster sulcatum, Montr., 1861, 1. c, p. 65. 
Zangis montrouzieri, Leth. and Sev., 1893, 1. c, p. 170. 

Doubtfully distinct from Z. sulcatum (Montr.), Stal. 

Hab. Birara ( Willey) ; New Caledonia {Stal) ; Lifu 

Genus Cuspicona, Dallas. 
Cuspicona, Dallas, 1851, List., p. 296. 
Oriental and Australian regions. 

Rhynchota collected in Birara and Lifu. 357 


Pentatoma viride, (p.) Montrouzier, 1855, 1. c, p. 98. 
Guspicona viride, (p.) Montrouzier and Signoret, 1861, 1. c, 

p. 65. 
C. laminata, Stal, 1876, Svensk. Akad. Hand]., 11, No. 2, 

p. 102. 

Hab. Lifu {Willey and Montrouzier); Woodlark 
{Montrouzier), and New Caledonia (Stal). 

Genus Eurinome, Stal. 
Eurinome, Stal, 1867, O. V. A. F., p. 516. 
New Caledonia, Lifu and the Philippines. 

Eurinome basiventris, Signoret. 

Pentatoma inconspicua, Montrouzier, 1858, 1. c, p. 249 (nee 

P. basiventris, Signoret, 1861, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, p. 63. 

Hal. LlFU ( Willey) ; Balade " commune dans les herbes, 
a terre sous les vegetaux en decomposition " (Montrouzier). 

Genus Coctoteris, Stal. 

Coctoteris, Stal, 1858, O. V. A. F., p. 435. 
Goccoteris, Leth. and Sev., 1893, 1. c, I, p. 100. 

New Guinea, Birara and Woodlark. 

Coctoteris exiguus, Distant. 
Coctoteris exiguus, Distant, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 

A very variable species, the ground-colour ranging from 
pale greenish-cinereous to a fine rosy hue. 

Hab. Birara ( Willey) ; New Guinea (Distant). 
Genus Eysarcoris, Hahn. 
Eysarcoris, Hahn, 1834. 

Universally distributed. 

Eysarcoris megaspiloides, Tryon. 

Hab. Birara ( Willey) ; originally described from New 

358 Mr. G. W. Kirkaldy's Memoir on the 

Genus Adrisa, Am. Serv. 

Adrisa, Amyot and Serville, 1843, Hemipteres, p. 89. 
Geobia, Montrouzier, 1858, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon., p. 245. 

" Vit to uj ours a terre sous les plantes, les vegetaux en 
decomposition, et repand une odeur tres fetide" (M.). 

Adrisa willeyi, sp. nov. 

Differs from tlie other Australo-Polynesian species by its more 
elongate and parallel-sided form ; from A. similis, Signoret by the 
presternum being only obsoletely punctured, different ostiolary 
structure, also the tylus not at all surpassed by the juga and the 
elytra reaching far beyond apex of abdomen ; from A. numcensis, 
Montrouzier by the longer membrane, more feebly punctured 
pronotum and different ostiolary structure. Black (somewhat dull), 
lateral margin of pronotum very narrowly fulvous, posterolateral 
angles yellowish. Elytra strongly punctured with black, clavus 
internally and the nervures of the corium, castaneous ; exterior one- 
third of corium and apical margin of the same narrowly, yellowish. 
Membrane yellowish hyaline, mottled with pale brown. Basal two 
segments of antennas, rostrum, and anterior tibiae, fulvous ; third 
segment of rostrum fumate, fourth segment, intermediate and 
posterior tibia? and all the tarsi, yellowish ; coxa}, femora, entire 
ventral surface and tibial spines, black. Head smooth, somewhat 
irregularly and obsoletely striolate. Pronotum somewhat feebly 
punctured, except on the smooth anteromedian area. Scutellum 
similarly punctured, more strongly and regularly at the sides. 
Elytra strongly and closely punctured, more strongly so at the base ; 
apical margin of corium sinuate. Membrane reaching well beyond 
apex of abdomen. Second segment of antenna? 3J times as 
long as the first, and one-third longer than the third which is 
equal to the fourth. Second and third segments of rostrum sub- 
equal, each two-fifths longer than fourth. Anterior femora incrassate. 

Long. 11 £-1 2 \ mm. (to apex of elytra), lat. 6-6f mm. across widest 
part of elytra. 

Hob. Lifu ( Willcy, 226a, 212b, 319). 

Geotomus, Mulsant and Rey. 

Geotomus, M. and R. 1866, Punaises Pentat., p. 34. 

Signoret, 1883, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, p. 33. 
Almost world-wide. 

Ehynchota collected in Birara and Lifn. 359 

Geotomus pygm^eus, Dallas. 

Cydnus pygmxus, Dallas, 1851; List, p. 129. 
Geotomus pygnuvus, Signoret, 1883, 1. c, p. 51, PI. 3, fig. 

Rah. LiFU (Willcy); described under eleven names; 
from India to New Caledonia and the Hawaiian 

Geotomus, sp. ? 

Probably a new sp. but I have inadequate material 
before me. 

Genus Chrysocoris. 

Chrysocoris, Hahn, 1834, Wanz, Inst., II, p. 38. 

Distributed over the Oriental and Australian regions. 

Chrysocoris sexmaculata, Leach. 

Scutcllcra sexmaculata, Leach, 1815, Zool. Misc., II, p. 36, 

S. arrogans, Montr., 1858, 1. c, 2, V, p. 258. 
S. grandis, Montr., Ann. Soc. Ent. France (1861), p. 60 

(nee Thunberg). 
Chrysocoris (Eucorysiis) sexmaculatus, Stal, Svensk. Akad. 

Handl., p. 19. 

Hob. Lifu (290a Willcy) ; also recorded from New 
Caledonia, Art, etc. 

Genus Philia, Schiodte. 

Philia, Schiodte, 1842, Kroyer's Nat. Tidsskr., IV, p. 279. 
Distributed over Oriental Islands and Australian region. 

Philia femorata, Walker, var. aureocincta, Walker. 

Callidca aureocincta, Walker, 1867, Cat. Hem. Het., I, 
p. 41. 

Hob. Birara (Septr., Willcy); the variety is recorded 
from New Guinea ; the species is also recorded from 
Moluccas and Ceram. The placing of aureocincta as a var. 
of fe?norata is on Distant's authority. 

360 Mr. G. W. Kirkaldy's Memoir on the 

Philia leucocyanea, Montrouzier. 

Scutellcra leucocyanea, Montr., 1855, 1. c, p. 95. 
Philia leucocyanea, Still, 1868, Svensk. Vetensk. Akad. 
Handl., 7, No. 11, p. 10. 

Differs from Montrouzier's description by the pronotum 
being of the general ground-colour, with the anterior and 
posterior margins metallic (green or blue). Femora usually 
crimson. Posterior angle of scutellum always blackish. 

Hob. LlFU and BiRARA (Willey); also recorded from 
Murua, Solomons and Duke of York's Island. One 
example from Lifu has the scutellum largely clouded 
with blackish, and several specimens from Birara have a 
nebulous blackish median line down the scutellum. 

Var. EBENINA, J. Martin. 

.Philia ebenina, J '. Martin, 1898, Bull. Soc.Ent. France, p. 226. 
P. leucocyanea, var. ebenina, Distant. 

Hob. Birara (Paris Mus. and Willey). 

One specimen lias four yellowish-brown spots on the 
scutellum ; the anterior lateral margins of the pronotum 
are also yellowish-brown. It would perhaps be more 
correct to state the ground-colour as yellowish-brown, with 
blackish-brown markings. 

Genus Tectocoris, Hahn. 

Tectocoris, Hahn, 1834, Wanz. Inst., II, p. 33. 

This genus contains one species only. 

Tectocoris lineola, Fabricius. 

Cimex lineola, Fabr., 1781, Spec. Inst., II, p. 340. 
Tectocoris lineola, Leth. and Sev., 1893, Cat. Hem., I, p. 19. 
Scutellcra banksii, Montrouzier, 1855, Ann. Soc. Afric. 

Lyon (2), VII, p. 92, and 1858, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon 

(2), V, p. 243. 
Tectocoris banksii, Montrouzier, 1861, Ann. Soc. Ent. 

France, p. 60. 

The synonymy of this variable species is given by 
Lethierry and Severin, the variations are described at length 
by Montrouzier, Still (1873, Svensk. Vet. Akand Handl., 
11, No. 2, p. 11), and Vollenhoven (1863, Essai Faune Ent. 
Archip. Indo-neerl., I, p. 7). Dr. Willey has collected two 

Bhynchota collected in Birara and Lifu. 361 

examples, (a) allied to var. tongtv, Boisduval; bluish, a 
small median spot on the pronotum anteriorly, a spot near 
each anterolateral angle of pronotum, anterior margin 
presternum, base of abdomen and incisures of abdominal 
sternites (also apparently part of beneath abdominal 
tergites) sanguineous. (/3) very near typical hanhsii, 
Montrouzier (which is not var. hanhsii, Donovan, but is 
near diopkthalmics, Thunberg). Pale luteous above, testa- 
ceous below ; lateral margins of tylus, vertex behind the 
eyes, two anterior submedian wedge-shaped spots on 
pronotum — brownish-black with a suspicion of metallic 
green. Connexivum (except extero-lateral margin 
narrowly), antennce, a sublateral spot on each pleuron, 
apex of femora, the tibiae and tarsi metallic green. 

Hob. Lifu (No. 319, Willcy); extended over the whole 
of Malaysia from Java eastward, Australia, Polynesia, etc. 
(Woodlark) ; Isle of Pines, New Caledonia, Art, Isles to 
the north of New Caledonia, etc., on Hibiscus tillaceus 
{Montrouzier); "Elle vit a Woodlark en troupes, depose 
un tres-grand nombre d'eeufs en forme de bardlet, 
d'abord blancs, et prenant une teinte de plus en plus 
rougeatre a mesure qu'ils approchent du temps de 
l'eclosion " (Montrouzier). 

Genus Cantao, Am. Serv. 

Cantao, Amyot and Serville, 1843, Hist. Nat. Hem., p. 29. 

Distributed over the Oriental region up to Formosa and 
to Australia and Polynesia. 

1. Cantao variabilis, Montrouzier. 

Scutellera variabilis, Montr., 1855, 1. c, (2) VII, p. 93 [not 

(2) I, as in Leth. and Sev. Cat.] 
Cantao variabilis, Stal, 1873, Svensk. Akad. Handl., p. 10, 

11, No. 2. 

Hob. Birara ( Willcy) ; Moiou {Montrouzier). 

This is a very variable species. 

Montrouzier in speaking of the Scutcllcrinx of Oceania 
(I, p. 91), says : " Les mceurs de ces Scutelleres sont 
interessantes. Plusieurs d'elles deposent leurs ceufs sous 
le revers des feuilles pour les mettre a l'abas de la 
pluie, les coudrent de leur corps, et quand ils sont eclos, 
conduisent leurs petits et les protegent jusqu'a ce qu'ils 

362 Mr. G. W. Kirkaldy's Memoir on the Bhynchota. 

aient acquis leurs ailes. On voit leur nombreuse famille 
les suivre le long des arbres et se presser vers elles au 
moindre danger. Plusieurs aussi sont parees des plus 
vives couleurs, et je n'ai encore rencontre cbez aucune 

l'odeur f^tide que laissent dchapper les Pentatomes 

Quant aux lieux ou on les trouve, ils varient selon l'cspece. 
II est des ScutelUres comme ma S. mctallica ( = Philia 
senator, Fabr.,) var., qui vivent sur les buissons exposes au 
soleil. D'autres, comme ma S. splcndida (= Gallipliara 
billiardicns, Fabr.), cboisissent les lieux ombrages ou. 
croit une espece de myrtacee. La S. banksii ( = Tectocoris 
lincola, Auctt.) aime beaucoup les endroits ou croissent les 
ketmies a feuilles de tilleul." 

Genus Coptosoma, Laporte. 
Coptosoma, Lap., 1832-3, Essai, p. 73. 
Distributed tlirougbout the Old World. 

Coptosoma sph^erula, Germar. 

Coptosoma sphterula, Germ., 1839, Zeitscbr., Ent. I, p. 25. 

Hah. Birara (Willey). 

Described under thirteen names, from India, Siam, Java, 
Ceylon, China, Celebes, Sula, Borneo, Papua, etc. 

Genus Brachyplatys, Boisduval. 

Brachyplatys, Boisd., 1835, Voy. Astrolade, Ent. II, p. 627. 
Platycephala, Lap., 1832-3, Essai, p. 74. 
Plataspis, Hope Cat., 1837, I, p. 16. 

Similar distribution to Cop>tosoma except that it does not 
enter the Palsearctic region. 

Brachyplatys pusillus, Try on. 

Brachyplatys pusillns, Tryon, 1892, Ann. Mus., Queensland, 
p. 13. 

Hob. Birara (Willey); New Guinea (Tryon). 

Kindly identified by Mr. Distant. 

Explanation of Plate. 363 

Explanation of Plate XVII. 

Fig. 1. Ueana harmonia. 

2. ,, polymnia. 

3. Glovia birarensis. 

4. Aufidus hyperion. 

5. Thalattoscopus dryas. 

6. Peggioga formosa. 

7. Pachymerus nereis. 

8. Geocoris willeyi. 

October 4th, 1905. 

( 365 ) 

XX. The Blind Coleoptcra of Australia and Tasmania. 
By Arthur M. Lea, F.E.S., Government Ento- 
mologist, Tasmania. 

[Read October 5th, 1905. j 

Blind Coleoptera in Australia are principally to be taken 
under stones, or at the roots of beach-growing plants. In 
other parts of the world many species have been taken in 
caves, but so far no one has so taken them in Australia, 
although they have been specially searched for on several 
occasions. I have myself searched for them without 
success in caves in Western Australia, New South Wales, 
and Tasmania. The total number of blind species 
(including one now first described) recorded from Aus- 
tralia and Tasmania is but eight (four from Tasmania, 
two from New South Wales, and two from Western 
Australia, a number probably far short of the total to be 
obtained by diligent searching. All the species are of 
small size with, as elsewhere, the body apterons and elytra 
soldered together. 

Following are given notes on all the known species. 



In company with Messrs. H. J. Carter and E. Ferguson 
at Otford, my brother (Mr. A. H. T. Lea) at Watson's Bay 
near Sydney and Mr. R. Helms, also at Watson's Bay, I 
have recently (April 1905) taken specimens of this inter- 
esting little species. The original locality was Wollongong, 
but the late Rev. R. L. King also took the species at 
Parramatta and Mr. H. W. Cox has taken it at the Lane 
Cove River. It is thus fairly widely distributed, and that 

* Steganomma porcatum, Macl., was recorded (P. L. S., N.S.W., 
1904, p. 60) as blind, but it really has eyes, although these are small 
and very difficult to find. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1905. — PART IV. (DEC.) 25 

366 Mr. A. M. Lea on the Blind Coleoptera 

it has not been taken more frequently must be put down 
to its small size and to its habit of clinging to the under 
surface of deeply buried stones, which in the ordinary 
way would seldom be turned over in the search for insects. 
We found it necessary in searching for it to kneel on the 
ground and closely examine every inch of the surface of 
the stones turned over, as the insects, although fairly 
active when in motion, are not always ready to move, and 
their minute size and dingy colour render them very incon- 
spicuous. The stones favoured by them are nearly always 
of fairly large size and are always deeply buried in damp 
(but not wet) places, and it generally takes two men to 
turn them over. 

The upper surface is clothed in sparse short pale 
pubescence, but this is almost invisible, except from the 
sides. The original figure is not a very good one. 

Some specimens taken at Watson's Bay appear to 
represent a variety, as they differ from normal specimens 
(in the company of which they were taken) in being 
decidedly larger (much smaller than macleayi, however), 
darker in colour, more parallel-sided, the cephalic impres- 
sions less marked and the median line of the prothorax 
more distinct. 

Illaphanus macleayi, n. sp. 

Pale testaceous, appendages still paler. Clothed with short and 
very sparse pubescence • a long seta on each side of the prothorax 
towards both apex and at base ; head with two setse on each side 
behind antenna;. 

Head slightly longer than wide, obtusely longitudinally impressed 
on each side of middle, sides from antenna; to base gently curved. 
Antenna; extending to hind coxae, two basal joints stout, first almost 
as long as second and third combined, second distinctly longer and 
stouter than third, third to tenth more or less head-like, eleventh 
slightly wider and about twice the length of tenth. Prothorax dis- 
tinctly wider than head, not much wider than long, apex incurved to 
its middle, sides rounded in front and slightly incurved to base, base 
strongly bisinuate ; median line narrow and distinct ; impunctate. 
Elytra distinctly wider than prothorax, more than twice as long as 
wide, not quite covering tip of abdomen, sides gently diminishing in 
width to base and rather more noticeably to apex, margins finely 
channelled throughout, densely but obscurely punctate. Mesosternal 
epimera wide. Legs strong ; front tibiae strongly dilated and deeply 

of Australia and Tasmania. 367 

notched towards apex, the others slightly dilated and not notched ; 
tarsi rather short. Length 1J to 2 mm. 

Hob. N. S. Wales, Otford. (H. J. Carter and A. M. 

The male differs from the female * in being smaller, 
with stouter legs, longer antennae, and wider front tarsi. 
The two specimens described were taken under small but 
deeply buried stones in a small gully near the Otford 
railway station. The pubescence can only be seen dis- 
tinctly from the sides; the setae are also by no means 

Readily distinguished from I. stcphensi by its much 
greater size, and by the absence of the strong elytral striae 
so noticeable in that species. Other differences are that 
in stephensi the prothorax at its widest is very little wider 
than the head or narrower than the elytra, and that its 
apex is considerably wider than its base and its sides with 
less sinuous outlines. 


Anommatus 12-steiatus, Mull. 

This minute British species I have taken at the roots of 
grass in Hobart. Specimens must be common, although 
seldom seen, as I obtained nineteen living specimens and 
fragments of many others by the use of sieves. The plan 
adopted was to break up the earth for about three inches 
from the surface, this was then thrown into water and 
stirred about ; every thing that floated was picked out, 
dried, and afterwards put through sieves, the rubbish that 
came through the finest sieves being gone over on white 
paper in the ordinary way. The specimens would often 
remain for minutes together without moving, and even 
when they did move would walk at a very slow rate. 

Phycochus graniceps, Broun. 

In Hobart, obtained at the roots of plants (usually the 
bracken fern) growing close to the sea-beach. I have seen 

* The type female has been returned to Mr. Carter. 

368 Mr. A. M. Lea on the Blind Coleoptcra. 

very few living specimens, but many dead ones. Mr. J. J. 
Walker (who first took it at Hobart, in June 1901) informs 
me that in New Zealand he obtained many specimens under 
old logs partially buried in the sand of sea-beaches. 

Phycochus sulcipennis, Lea. 

Obtained at Hobart in company with the preceding 
species, than which it is rather more numerous. 


Halorhynchus geniculatus, Lea. 

Numerous specimens of this species were obtained at 
the roots of a small species of salt-bush (Atriplex) growing 
just above high-water mark on the outer beach at Gerald- 
ton (Champion Bay). They remained quite motionless 
for a considerable time after being exposed. 

Halorhynchus ccecus, Woll. 

I repeatedly searched for this species at Cottesloe and 
other beaches close to Fremantle (the original locality) but 
never found more than two specimens; these were taken 
at the roots of a species of spinifex grass. 

Tasmanica myrmecophila, Lea. 

The type specimen of this species was obtained in 
Hobart under a stone in the nest of an ant. No other 
specimen has been recorded, although the species has been 
repeatedly searched for; but there is a minute specimen 
in the Australian Museum (from the late Rev. R. L. King's 
collection, without locality label, but probably taken about 
Parramatta) which may belong to the species. The 
specimen in question is old and dirty, but I could see no 
eyes in its head, and from memory it struck me as 
probably being T. myrmccopMla. 

( 369 ) 

XXI. On a Collection of Butterflies made in Marocco, in 
1900-01-02. By E. G. B. Meade- Waldo. (Com- 
municated by H. J. Elwes, F.R.S., etc.) 

[Read October 18th, 1905.] 

Plates XVIII, XIX. 

Though the butterflies of the neighbourhood of Tangier 
and of some other points on the coast of Morocco have been 
collected by the late Mr. J. H. Leech and Mr. J. J. Walker, 
yet no really important collection has been made in this 
little-explored country. The following collection was made 
during an eighteen months' residence in Marocco. Col- 
lecting at and in the neighbourhood of Tangier, viz. within 
20 miles, and on a long excursion which started from Tan- 
gier on May 8th, 1901, and lasted until August 21st. W T e 
went by way of Busharin to Rabat, thence by Fedulla, and 
striking inland over the central plains to Beni Meskin, 
crossed the Quad Moorbey, Oom-er-rebia of the maps, and 
went eastward, spending some time at a tiny tent village 
on the desert called Oolad Lasara. Throughout the central 
plains the heat was great, often reaching 116° in the shade, 
with hot nights, and owing to this, and also to a previous 
visitation of locusts which had consumed almost all vegeta- 
tion, nothing much could be done except on the banks of 
the river. From here we went slowly south to Marrakesh 
(Marocco City), and then into the Great Atlas, which we 
entered at Agurgur ; from here we went, first southward 
until we struck the valley of the Quad Nyfys, which we 
followed until we got to the watershed above Tsigidir-el- 
bur, then retracing a short way struck westward until we 
reached the " Amsmiz." Here we encamped for some time 
at a Berber village called Sould Jedid, which was delight- 
fully situated about 6,000 feet up, and with most pleasant 
inhabitants. The mountains here only rise to about 9,000 
feet and are to a considerable extent covered with damp 
forest on their northern slopes ; this forest consists largely 
of Arar (Callitris quadrivahis), Prickly Oak, Holly, Laurus- 
tinus, Arbutus, etc. We did not come to Pine (Pinus 
halepcnsis) until we reached the Imentalla valley a day's 
journey further on. After spending some days collecting 
in this neighbourhood, we started light, with only a little 

370 Mr. E. G. B. Meade-Waldo on a 

food, our mules and one pack mule, up a lateral valley so 
as to get nearer to a great peak, which the natives called 
Tizi Gourza, but which according to Thompson's map must 
be Jebel Ogdimt. We bivouacked at the last hamlet at 
the top of this valley, a place called Imi Ouern. This 
place, which appeared to be "the end of all things," would 
have been splendid for a prolonged stay, but no food 
could be procured, shooting was not safe, and we were a 
very small party. It was most beautifully situated and 
appeared to be highly productive in butterflies and moths. 
We ascended the mountain and made a most interesting 
collection of butterflies; from here we returned to Imen- 
talla, and by slow stages worked our way northward and 
westward by way of Anzoot and Tafegar to Mogador, which 
we reached on August 21st. In the early spring of 1902 I 
paid a visit to the forest of Marmora, the only tract of 
primaeval forest in the north of Marocco. It lies between 
the Seboo and Bou-reg-reg, east of Rabat. It is entirely 
unexplored, and would probably be very productive, it is 
however populated only by bandits, and anything like 
shooting or collecting is almost impossible. However, I 
managed to collect a considerable number of moths, and a 
few butterflies. The primary object of these excursions 
were ornithological, but I collected both butterflies and 
moths all the time, and paid special attention to the high 
mountain species. An analysis of this list will show how 
very few species there are in these remote regions that are 
not also to be found in the Mediterranean region, and that 
these mountains have developed comparatively few Alpine 

I was accompanied on both these excursions by M. Henri 
Vaucher of Tangier, as taxidermist and interpreter. M. 
H. Vaucher is a Swiss gentleman who has lived most of 
his life in Marocco, is an enthusiastic naturalist himself, 
and such success as attended these expeditions is almost 
entirely due to his great tact and intimate knowledge of 
how to treat the extremely difficult inhabitants of this 
fascinating country. It is to Mr. H. J. Elwes that I must 
tender my thanks for the trouble he has taken in going 
over the collection of butterflies and in assisting me with 
naming those that are new, and to Sir George Hampson 
for going through and naming the moths.* 

* The remarks by Mr. Elwes are in brackets signed "H. J. E." 

Collection of Butterflies made in Maroeeo, 1900-2. 871 

1. Papilio podalirius, L. and var. fcisthamelii, Dup. 
March 12th, 1901, bred, fed on Cherry. 

Tangier, March 22nd, 1901. Amsmiz, June 27th, 1901. 
Imentalla, 5,500 feet, July 9th, 1901. 

Is universally distributed, and on the wing the whole 
summer, very fond of the tops of low mountains of about 
5,000 ft. elevation, where it may be seen in numbers on 
the leeward side during the heat of the day. The larva 
feeds on Cherry. Both P. podalirius and var. feisthamelii 
occur at Tangier in March. 

2. P. machaon, L. 

Tangier, January 19th, 1901. Just emerged. Amsmiz, 
June 27th, 1901. Tangier, August 29th, 1901. Forest 
of Marmora, March 28th, 1902. 

On the wing at intervals from January until September. 

3. Thais rumina, L. 

Tangier, February 27th, 1901. Tangier, April 3rd, 
1901. Tangier, March 9th, 1901. Tangier, March 19th, 
1901 (var. cantencri, Hey.). 

This variety is not very uncommon late in the season, 
and only occurs as far as I could see in the $. The perfect 
insect is only on the wing from the end of February until 
the beginning of April. Feeds on Aristolochia bcetica. 

4. Pieris hrassicx, L. 

Only taken at Tangier in all months from December to 
August. I did not see it on the wing in the summer 
anywhere in the central plains. 

Tangier, January 17th, 1900, December 25th, 1900; 
August 26th, 1901 ; January 17th, 1902. 

[" The specimens are large but do not approach var. 
cheiranthi, Htibn., and the seasonal differences are slight. 

"The form known as var. wollastoni, Butler, from Madeira 
closely resembles some of these." — H. J. U.] 

5. Pieris rapiv, L. 

On the wing all the year round in the north. I did not 
see it in the Great Atlas, but throughout the plains 
wherever there was moisture diminutive forms were 
ubiquitous in summer. 

Tangier, March 13th, 1901. Klatsa, May 13th, 1901. 
Sam, August 27th, 1901. 

372 Mr. E. G. B. Meade- Waldo on a 

6. Pieris daplidice, L. 

Universal in summer, taken only in the Atlas from 6,500 
to 9,000 ft. in July in the central plains. I saw many 
diminutive individuals. 

Wad Moorbey, June 16th, 1901. Sould Jedid, July 3rd, 

1901. Tsauritz Entsagauz, 9,000 feet, July 13th, 1901. 

7. Euchloc bclemia, Esp. 

Extremely abundant and universal, and on the wing 
almost the whole year. I did not see many in the height 
of the summer. 

Tangier, December 8th, 1900; March 13th, 1902. 

8. Eucliloe eupheno, Esp., and var. ^ androgyne, Leech. 

(Plate XIX, fig. 7, var. $ androgyne.) 

Extremely abundant and universal during March and 
April in the north of Marocco. I saw very few in the 
forest of Marmora, and the only one, a £, which I caught, 
is an androgyne. 

Tangier, March 9th, 1901. Tangier, April 15th, 1901. 
Hawara, May 4th, 1901. Forest of Marmora, March 28th, 

1902, £, var. androgyne, Leech. 

9. Teracolus daira, Klug., var. no una, Luc. 

(Plate XIX, fig. 8, f, 9, ?.) 

I only saw this species at Agurgur, where it was abund- 
ant in a damp wood at an elevation of about 3,500 ft. 
I saw one torn specimen near Tsigidir-el-Bor about 
30 miles south. 

Agurgur, June 24th, 1901. Tsigidir-el-Bor, June 
25th, 1901. 

10. Colias cdusa, L. 

On the wing practically all the year. Extremely abund- 
ant in summer, var. hclicc, Hiibn., not uncommon. I took 
one specimen with one forewing, helice, the other normal. 
Very variable. 

Tangier, December and January. Interior, May and 

11. Goncpleryx rhamni, L. 

Is common in the north of Marocco, a very large 
form. I did not see any in the south ; it is on the wing at 
intervals during the winter and spring, and again in the 

Collection of Butterflies made in Maroeco, 1900-2. 373 

late summer ; both it and the next species teed on Rhamnus 

Tangier, March 22nd, 1901. Tangier, December 23rd, 

12. Goncpteryx cleopatra, L. 

Is commoner, and more widely distributed than the last. 
I saw it throughout the country. 

Tangier, January 1st, 1901. Fedulla, May 28th, 1901. 
Moorbey, June 5th, 1901. Sould Jedid, 6,500 feet, July 

13. Gharaxcs jasius, L. 

Locally common, somewhat of a mountain species, but 
the males travel long distances ; frequents fig-trees when 
the fruit is ripe and becomes stupefied. A few on the 
wing in April and May, and common in August and 
September. Some specimens are very large. 

Tangier, August 16th, 1901, September 15th. 1901. 

14. Pyrantels atalanta, L. 

On the wing nearly all the year. 

Tangier, Feb. 16th, 1901. Tangier, March. Amsmiz, 
June 19th, 1901. Imentalla, 5,500 feet, July 8th, 1901. 

15. Pyramcis card-id, L. 

On the wing all the year, late autumn brood small and 

16. Vanessa c. album, L. 

I saw two or three specimens high up on Tizi Gourza, 
and took one somewhat worn, large pale specimen on July 
11th, at about 12,000 feet. 

[" I am not aware that this has been taken in North 
Africa before."— H. J. P.] 

17. Mclitma didyma, O. 

I did not see this species until I got to Rabat, after that 
I saw it at intervals throughout the country, both in the 
plains and at a considerable height in the mountains. 

Rabat, May 16th. Agurgur, July 6th, 1901. Tsauritz 
Entsagauz, 9,000 feet, July 4th. 

374 Mr. E. G. B. Meade-Waldo on a 

[" This form agrees with the specimens from Kabylia 
and the oasis of Biskra known as var. deserticola, Obth.; 
it does not vary appreciably between the plains and high 
mountains." — H. J. U.] 

18. Argyimis latlionia, L. 

I only saw this in the Atlas, where it was not uncommon. 
Sould Jedid, July 1901. Tsauritz Entsagauz, July 

19. Argynnis pandora, Schiff. 

I only saw two worn specimens in the north of Marocco ; 
it is certainly scarce on the low ground ; it was abundant 
in the Great Atlas, and I saw it at an elevation of over 
12,000 feet. 

Sould Jedid, July 2nd, 1901. Tizi Gourza, July 11th, 

20. Mclanargia incs, Hoffm. 

I only saw it at one spot on the leeward side of a stony 
peak, everywhere else the following was abundant. 
Tsauritz Entsagauz, July 6th, 1901. 

21. Mckvnargia lucasi, Ramb. 

Abundant in the Great Atlas, most frequent in the 

Tsauritz Entsagauz, July 4th. Irncntalla, July 8th, 
1901. Sould Jedid, July 2nd. 

A very large and pale form was taken in the central 
plains in June, and also on the high table-land above 
Agurgur, on June 23rd. 

22. Satyrus hriscis, L. 

Locally common high up in the Atlas, but not on the 
highest tops. 

Tizi Gourza, July 11th, 1901, about 9,000 feet. 

[" Very variable, and large, under-side of hind-wing 
very strongly marked." — //. J. U.] 

23. Satyrus semelc, L. 

I only saw a few in the mountain woods. 
Imentalla, July 6th, 1901. Tsauritz Entsagauz, July 
4th, 1901. 

Collection of Butterflies made in Marocco, 1900-2. 375 

24. Satyrus mniszechi, H. S., var. maroccana, Meade- 
Waldo, n. var. 

Plate XIX, fig. 3, $, 4, $.) 

With the exception of one individual I only saw this 
insect on one stony slope at the top of one of the peaks 
of Tsauritz Entsagauz. There it is abundant. 

Tsauritz Entsagauz, July 6th and 7th, 1901, 9,000 ft. 

[" The occurrence of a form of this purely eastern group 
so far from any region where any have been previously found 
is very curious, but it may be constantly distinguished 
from the Syrian or Persian forms, by the different form of 
the sexual band on the fore-wing of the $, which instead 
of forming a broad velvety patch of raised scales extend- 
ing almost to the hind margin of the fore-wing, as in the 
Syrian form of the species, is a comparatively narrow 
band. Another point of distinction is in the cilia of the 
hind-wings which are very much less scolloped than in 
mniszechi or in the various forms of S. pelopea. On the 
under-side, though the median bands of the fore-wing are 
better marked than usual, yet the position of all markings 
are identical in Syrian specimens, and I do not therefore 
think it justifiable to treat this as a distinct species." — 
H. J. K] 

25. Satyrus dbd-el-hader, Pier. 

I saw this fine insect commonly on Tizi Gourza, but on 
such bad ground I was only able to take two worn 

Tizi Gourza, July 11th, 1901. 

26. Satyrus aetxa, Esp. 

Was common and only just on the wing in the Great 
Atlas, at from 8,000 to 10,000 ft. mostly on open ground. 
Tsauritz Entsagauz, July 6th, 1901, also on Tizi Gourza. 

27. Pararge mmra, L. 

I only saw a few specimens on Tizi Gourza, and no- 
where else in Marocco. I am not aware that this species 
has been taken previously in North Africa. 

Tizi Gourza, at about 10,000 ft., July 11th, 1901. 

28. Pararge megtera, L. 

Not by any means abundant, but out at intervals 
throughout the year. 

376 Mr. E. G. B. Meade-Waldo on a 

Tangier, December 3rd, 1900. Tsauritz Entsagauz 
July 4th, 9,000 ft. 

29. Epinephile jurtina, L., var. fortmiala, Alph. 

Very generally distributed all through the summer. 
Klatsa, May 14th, 1901. Ras Doura, May 19th, 1901. 
Tsauritz Entsagauz, July 7th. 

30. Epinephile lyeaon, Kiihn, var. mauritanicus, Ober., 
also var. lupin/its, Costa. 

Common in the Atlas woods. Not seen anywhere else. 
Tsauritz Entsagauz, July 6th, 1901. Imentalla, July 
9th, 6,500 ft. 

31. Epinephile ida, Esp. 

Common all the summer and universally distributed. 
Rabat, May 25th, 1901. Tsauritz Entsagauz, July 4th. 
Tangier, Sept. 1901, 

32. Epinephile pasiphae, Esp. 

Very common but local. I did not see it in the south. 
El Mediar, May 11th, 1901. Klatsa, May 13th, 1901. 

33. Cccnonympha arcanioides, Pierr. 

Locally common in the north of Morocco. I did not see 
it in the south. 

Hawara, April 1901. El Mediar, May 12th, 1901. 

34. Camonympha fettigi, Obth. 

I only saw this insect at one spot above Imentalla, 
where however it was abundant. 

Imentalla, 5,500 ft, July 8th and 9th, 1901. 

35. Cccnonymplm pamphilus, L. 

I took typical G. pamphilus, in the plains of the north 
of Morocco in May 1901, also on the downs by the sea 
between Mehedia and Rabat in March 1902. 

In spring in the north of Marocco, where there appears 
to be no summer brood. 

36. Ccenonymplia lyllus, Esp. 

Very numerous south of Rabat, and throughout the 
south of Morocco, ascending the Great Atlas to at least 
10,000 ft. during the summer. 

Collection of Butterflies made in 3farocco, 1900-2. 377 

Imentalla, July 9th, 1901, 5,500 ft. Arasmiz, June 
16th, 1901. 

37. Coinonympha vaueheri, Blachier. Bull. Soc. Ent. 
France, 1905^ p. 213. (C. meade-waldoi, n. sp. Elwes MS.)* 

Plate XIX, fig. 1, 2, 2, ?. 

It was abundant on the more barren stony places near 
the top, but none occurred amongst the broom-covered 
slopes lower down. 

Fairly common on Tsauritz Entsagauz, and very 
abundant on Tizi Gourza up to the top of the mountains. 
Seen nowhere else. Tsauritz Entsagauz, July 6th. Tizi 
Gourza, July 11th, 1901. 

I may incidentally add that the top of Tizi Gourza is 
entirely stone boulders and great slabs of rock for the 
last 500 ft., and on reaching the extreme summit we saw 
a hollow place beneath a great slab, in this were some 
bits of rag held down by stones, and from the top fluttered 
some white rags from a stick jammed in between the 
rocks. It was a holy place, and our susi, Hammoo, the 
only one of our Moors who would accompany us, crept in, 
lay down on his face and prayed. 

[" This is a very distinct species which can be mistaken 
for no other, and on account of the extreme difficulty of 
reaching the place where it was found is likely to remain 
very rare in collections. I do not know with what species 
to compare it, and as the figures will show its characters 
better than any description I will only say that it seems 
to be the most Alpine species found in the Southern 
Atlas, for although Mr. Meade-Waldo saw many other 
insects as high up on the mountain, he never saw this 
butterfly except at a very considerable elevation, certainly 
not below 8,500 ft."— E. J. K] 

38. Thecla ilieis, Esp., var. memritanica, Stgr. 

Abundant everywhere where cork oak and prickly oak 

Busharin, May 16th. Ras Doura, May 18th. Tsauritz 
Entsagauz, 1901. 

* Mr. Meade-Waldo's specimens of tliis new and very interesting 
Satyrid in the Natural History Museum, from which the figures on 
Plate XIX have been drawn, agree in all respects with M. Blachier's 
description of G. vaueheri. and I have therefore adopted this name. 
—J. J. W. 

378 Mr. E. G. B. Meade-Waldo on a 

[" This seems to agree best with the form described by 
Staudinger from North Africa ' minor sultus obscurior fere 
unicolor' but it varies greatly, and some specimens might 
be referred to T. acacite." — H. J. E.~\ 

39. Callo r plirys rubi, L. 

I only saw it in the north of Marocco, where it was 
common in early spring almost everywhere. 

Tangier, March 26th, 1901 ; March 13th, 1902. 

40. Ghrysophanus tlicrsamon, Esp., var. omphale, Klug. 

I only took one worn specimen on the outskirts of 
Marocco City on June 12th. This species has not, as 
far as we know, been previously taken in Africa. 

41. Chrysophamcs alciphron, Rott., var. gordius, Sulz. 

I only saw it in the Atlas, where it did not seem 
common ; it was probably going over, as I only took two 
specimens that were fresh. 

Tizi Gourza, July 11th. Tsauritz Entsagauz, July 6th, 

[" This also has not previously been recorded from North 
Africa; the male has no violet sheen on the upper 
surface."— IT. J. K] 

42. Chrywplianus plilaim, L. 

Common and universal, extremely abundant locally, 
subject to great variation, and is out all the year. 

Tangier, March 10th, 1901. Tangier, Feb. 27th, 1901. 
Marrakesh, June 10th, 1901. 

43. Thcstor mauritamms, Luc. 

Common, but extremely local ; is on the wing for only 
a short time in early spring. 

Tangier, March 11th. Bubana, March 27th. Hawara, 
April 4th, 1901. Larva ,feeds on the pod of a leguminous 

44. Thcstor ballus, Fabr. 

Is as the last, but not quite so local, and is also on the 
wing earlier and a little later. 

Tetuan, January 16th. Tangier, March 6th. Hawara, 
April 4th, 1901. 

Collection of Butterflies made in Marocco, 1900-2 379 

45. Zampides boiticus, L. 

Fairly common and on the wing all the summer. I 
saw a worn specimen in December 1900. 

46. Zampides telicanus, Lang. 

Commoner than the last, and out earlier. 
Tangier, July 13th. Rabat, May 26th. Rehamma, 
June 9th, 1901. 

47- Zampides theophrastus, Fabr. 

I only saw this species south of Ouad Moorbey from 
where it reached the foothills of the Atlas, and was abund- 
ant wherever the Jujube bush (Zizyphus lotus) grew. 

Moorbey, June 6th. Anzoot, July 14th, 190L 

48. Zampides jesous, Guer. 

The distribution the same as the last, but most common 
in the valley of the Ouad Moorbey. 

Moorbey, June 5th. Below Agurgur, June 21st, 1901. 

49. Zycmna lysimon, Htibn. 

I saw a few at Busharin, and it swarmed over some 
pools of water outside Marrakesh. 

Busharin, May 16th. Marrakesh, June 12th. Amsmiz 
June 27th, 1901. 

50. Zycxna baton, Berg., var. abencerrayus > Pier. 

I only saw one specimen below Sould Jedid. 
Amsmiz, June 28th, 1901. 

51. Zy ciena icarus, Rott. 

Fairly universal, but not remarkably common. From 
Tangier in August, and various places up to 9,000 feet. 

Tangier, August 17th. Busharin, May 16th. Sould 
Jedid, July 13th. Imentalla, July 8th, 1901. 

[" Many specimens have spots on the hind margins, and 
might be called var. eclina, Aust., but this var. is evidently 
inconstant." — H. J. Z.] 

52. Z,yctena astrarclic, Bergstr. 

Almost universal at all elevations, and in the plains, 
positively swarming in some woods. 

380 Mr. E. G. B. Meade-Waldo on a 

Bershid, May 30th. Imentalla, July 9th. Ouad 
Moorbey, June 9th. Tangier, April 3rd, 1901. Only 
found in summer, and as usual in hot regions very brown 
below (var. calida, Bell). 

53. Ly ciena hylas, W. V. 

I only saw this butterfly on Tsauritz Entsagauz, and at 
Imentalla, where it was extremely abundant on the top, 
of a low mountain, 5,500 feet. 

Imentalla, July 8th, 1901. 

(Plate XIX, fig. 5, $, 6, ?.) 

[" Var. atlantica, Elwes, n. var. 

" This is quite an unexpected discovery in Marocco, and 
a very interesting one, because though a variety of this 
species occurs in the higher region of the Sierra Nevada, 
and in some places in the mountains of eastern Spain, yet 
the male of this form (nivescens, Kef.) is of a grey-blue 
colour above, whilst the colour of the male of atlantica 
is to my eye like that of typical hylas, though Mr. Meade- 
Waldo sees a difference. 

"Some males have marginal black spots on the hind-wing 
above, and both sexes have the white stripe on hind-wing 
beneath, broad and well marked. All the females have a 
broad band of orange marginal markings on the fore-wings 
which I have never seen so well marked in any European 
hylas!'— H. J. E.] 

54. Cyaniris argiolns, L. 

Appears first in February, and at intervals throughout 
the summer. 

Tangier, February 20th. Amsmiz, June 26th. T an gi er , 
August 28th, 1901. 

55. Adoptea thaumas, Hiibn. 

Tsauritz Entsagauz, 9,000 ft-., June 1901. Common. 

56. Adopzea actzeon, Rott. 

Ras Doura, May 1901. Common. 

57. Adopxa hamsa, Obth. 
Rabat, May 26, 1901. Common. 

58. Parnara zclleri, Led. 

Local and scarce, frequents wet places in woods, flies 
extremely fast. 

Bashasin, May 20th. Tangier, August 30th, 1901. 

Collection of Moths made in Marocco, 1900-2. 381 

59. Parnara nostrodamus, Fab. 

Extremely abundant locally in late summer in open 
stony places. 

Tangier, August 28th, September 2nd, 1901. 

60. Careliarodus alccm, Esp. 

Imentalla, 5,000 ft. July 1901, Common. 

61. Careliarodus althese, Htibn. 

Plains of Marocco, rather scarce. 
Mehedia, May 1901. 

62. Hesperia ali, Obth. 

I only saw a few on low ground. 
Tangier, August 30th, 1901. 

03. Hesperia scrratuhv, Rarnb. 

[" Though I do not profess to know how serrcdidsc can 
with certainty be distinguished from alveus without study- 
ing the genitalia, which in this case I have not done, yet 
these specimens from Imentalla and Agurgur appear to 
me to belong to serratnlte, though according to Staudinger 
onopordi of Ram bur is the form found in Marocco." — H.J.E.~\ 

Moths collected in Marocco. By E. G. B. Meade-Waldo. 


1. Euprepia cribraria, Linn., Syst. Nat., i, p. 507 (1758). 

Forest of Marmora. The variety punetirjera, Frr., L. 
Candida, Cyr. 

March 26th, 1902. Ensar, Kabyla amar, Forest of 

2. Arctia villiea, Linn., Syst. Nat., i, p. 501 (1758). 

All the specimens belong to the form honcivlcai, Freyer. 
Abundant in April at Sharf-at-Akab, Tangier. 

3. Cymbalophorct pudica, Esp., Schmett., iii, p. 177, 
pi. 33, f. 1 (1784). 

Abundant in August and September. The larva, which 
feeds on various grasses, spins a slight cocoon in the 
TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1905. — PART IV. (DEC.) 26 

382 Mr. E. G. B. Meade- Waldo on a 

bottom of thick herbage, but remains in its larval state 
until within about fourteen days of emerging. 

4. Utetheisa pulchetta, Linn., Syst. Nat., i, p. 534 (1758). 

Locally and sporadically very abundant in August and 



5. Chloridca dipsacea, Linn., Syst. Nat., xii, p. 856 (1706). 

Forest of Marmora. 

Very common the end of March. Flying by day, 1902. 

6. Chloridca pcltigcra, Schiff., Wien Verz., p. 89 (1776). 

Distributed throughout the central plains of Marocco. 
June and July, 1901. 

7. Euxoa scgctis, Schiff., Wien Verz., ii, 81, 252, ff. 3. a. 
b. (1776). 

Common at Tangier in spring and autumn. 

8. Euxoa spinifera, Htibn., Samml. Eur. Schmett. Noct, 
f. 389 (1827). 


9. Agrotis ypsilon, Rott., Naturf., ix, p. 141 (1776). 
Tangier, May 1901. 

10. Agrotis comes, Treit., Schmett. Eur., v, 1, p. 254 


Tangier. One specimen. 

11. Agrotis promiba, Linn., Syst. Nat., i, p. 512 (1758). 

The only one seen, September 1901. 
Tangier. Two specimens. 

12. Agrotis c-nigrum, Linn., Syst. Nat., x, p. 516 (1758). 
Bred from dug pupa, March 1902. 

13. Episilia faccta, Treit., Schmett. Eur., x, 2, p. 35 


Very common at Tangier throughout the winter. 

Collection of Moths made in Morocco, 1900-2. 383 

14. Lycophotia margaritosa, Haw., Lep. Brit., p. 218 

(1809). ' 

Bred from dug pupa, March 1902. 


15. Mamestra oleracea, Linn., Syst.- Nat., ed. x, p. 517 


Bred from dug pupa, March 1902. 

16. Mamestra chrysozona, Bork., Eur. Schmett., iv, 
p. 264 (1792). 

Forest of Marmora, Ensar. Forest of Marmora, April 

17. Lcucania l-album, Linn., Syst. Nat., ed. xii, p. 850 

Ensar. Forest of Marmora, April 1902. 

18. Lcucania lorcyi, Dup., Lep. Fr., vii, 1, p. 81, pi. 105, 
f. 7 (1827). 

Central plains, June 1901. 

19. Gloltula pancratii, Cyr., Ent.Neap., pi. 12, f. 4 (1787). 


20. Gucullia cJiamomillcV, Schiff., Wien Verz., p. 73 (1776). 
Very abundant in January and February, 1902. 

21. Gucullia tanaceti, Schiff'., Wien Verz., p. 73 (1776). 

22. Bombycia viminalis, Fabr., Gen. Ins., p. 284 (1777). 

Forest of Marmora. 

Came to light on March 28th, 1902. 

23. Gleophana dejeani, Dup. Lep. Fr., vii, p. 115 (1827). 
Came to light at Sharf-at-Akab, Tangier, April 1901. 

2i. Cleovhana pauli, Staud., Iris., iv, p. 306, pi. 4, f. 4 

(Plate XIX, fig. 11, £.) 
Forest of Marmora, April 27th. Flying by day. 

384 Mr. E. G. B. Meade-Waldo on a 

25. Cleophana difflticns, Stand., Berl. Ent. Zeit. 1870, 
p. 121. 

(Plate XIX, fig. 12, var. maroccana, £.) 

Forest of Marmora, at light March 27th, 1902. The 
variety maroccana. 

26. Mctopoceras felieina, Donz., Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., 1844, 
p. 199, pi. 6, f. 2. 

Forest of Marmora, at light March 27th, 1902. 


27. Brotolomia mdimlosa, Linn., Syst. Nat,, p. 513 (1758). 
Only saw three in Marocco, March 1901. 

28. Euplexia solicri, Boisd., Ind. Meth., Errat.,p. 4 (1829). 
Tangier, September 1901. 

29. Acronyda rumicis, Linn., Syst. Nat., p. 516 (1758). 

30. Acronycta mcgaeephala, Fabr., Mant. Ins., p. 175 

Tangier, September 1901. 

31. Laphyyma cpaadrvpunctata, Fabr., Syst. Eat., p. 594 


32. Amphipijra criopoda, Herr.-Schaf., Eur. Schmett, 
ii, p. 413, f. 596 (1851). 



33. Catocala conversa, Esp., Schmett,, f. 105 (B) 1-2 


Tangier. The variety ayamos, Htibn. 

34. Catocala ohcrthuri, Aust., de. Nat. 1879, p. 85. 
Very common, August and September. Tangier. 

35. Ophiusa tirrhsea, Cram., Pap. Exot., ii, p. 116, 
pi. 172, E (1780). 

Not common, Sharf-al-Akab. Tangier, April 1901. 

36. Ophiusa algira, Linn., Syst. Nat, ed. xii, p. 836 


Collection of Moths made in Marocco, 1900-2. 385 

37. Ophiusa lunaris, Schiff., Wien. Verz., p. 94 (1776). 
Forest of Marmora. March 28th, 1902. 

38. Grammodcs geometrica, Fabr., Syst. Ent., p. 599 (1775). 

39. Grammodcs stolida, Fabr., Syst. Ent., p. 599 (1775). 


40. Plusia gamma, Linn., Syst. Nat., i. p. 513 (1758). 
Abundant everywhere. 


41. Apopcstcs spectrum, Esp., Schmett., iv, p. 131, 
pi. 100, ff. 3, 4 (1786). 

Common at Tangier in summer. These specimens 
were bred from pupa found in May, near Fedulla, on the 
West Coast. The white silk cocoons were abundant, and 
attached to Evphorhia on the sea coast. 


42. Callopistria Icdrcilli, Dup, Lep. Fi\, vii, p. 329, 
pi. 120, f. 2 (1827). 

Taken on Olive, above Amsmiz in the Great Atlas (1901). 

43. Tarachc lucida, Hiibn., Berl. Mag., iii, p. 302 (1767). 

Very common, on the plain near Fedulla in May 1901. 
The variety albicollis, F. 

44. Tarache luctnosa, Esp., Schmett., pi. 88, f. 4 (1786). 

45. Euhlcmma ostrina, Hiibn., Eur. Schmett. Noct., 
f. 399 (1827). 

Tangier, February 1902. 


46. Zanclognatha crinalis, Treit., Schmett. Eur., vii, 
p. 17 (1829). 

Tangier, February 1902. 

386 Mr. E. G. B. Meade- Waldo on a 

47. Hypcna obsitalis, Hiibn., Eur. Schmett. Pvr., 
ff. 164-165 (1827). 


48. Hypcna lividalis, Hiibn., Beitr., ii, 4, pi. 1, E (1827). 
Tangier, December 1901. 


49. Euproctis chrysorrhcea, Linn., Syst. Nat., p. 502 


50. Lymantria dispar, Linn., Syst. Nat., p. 501 (1758). 

51. Lymantria atlantica, Ramb., Faun. And., pi. 15, 
f. 7 (1838). 




52. Achcrontia atropos, Linn., Syst. Nat., i, p. 490 


The only one seen or heard of, September 1901. 


53. Smerinthus populi, Linn., Syst. Nat., p. 489 (1758). 
Tangier. The variety auslauti ab. incarnata. 


54. Deilcphila lineata, Fabr., Syst. Ent., p. 541 (1779). 

April and May, flying by day as well as in evening. 

55. Clucrocampa cehrio, Linn., Syst. Nat., i, p. 491 

Very common. Tangier in September, comes to Plum- 
bago at sunset. 

Collection of Moths made in Marocco, 1900-2. 387 


5G. Macroglossa stellatarum, Linn., Syst. Nat., i, p. 493 

Very abundant everywhere. 


57. Dicranura ciiiula, Linn., Syst. Nat., i, p. 499 (1758). 
Tangier, 1901. 

Saw many old cocoons on Aspen and Willow, but only 
two containing living pupae, from one of which this species 

58. Phalera bucephala, Linn., Syst, Nat,, p. 508 (1758). 
Tangier. The variety buc&phalina. 



59. Opisthogrcvptis luteolata, Linn., Syst, Nat., p. 525 


GO. Mnrranlhis pennicjeraria, Hiibn., Eur. Schmett., 
Geom., f. 3G3 (1827). 

Akba Hamra. The variety chrysitaria, H. G. 

61. Aspilates oclirearia, Rossi., Mant., ii, p. 53, pi. 7, 

N (1794). 

Forest of Marmora. Metradia. Ras Doura. 
Abundant; a day -flyer. March 1902. 

G2. Amygdaloptera testaria, Fabr., Ent. Syst., p. 143 

Forest of Marmora. 

Abundant ; a day-flyer. March 1902. 

G3. Fidonia famula, Esp„ Schmett., iv, pi. 10G, f. 4 

Forest of Marmora. In extraordinary abundance. 
March 1902. 

388 Mr. E. G. B. Meade-Waldo on a 

64. Thamnonoma gesticularia, Hiibn., Eur. Schmett. 
Geom., ff. 472-3 (1827). 

The only specimen seen. February 1902. Tangier. 

65. Thamnonoma semicanaria, Fit., Beitr., 78, 2, 1, 
p. 145 (1833). 

Tangier, Bubana. March 1901. 

66. Selidosema ericetaria, Vill. Linn., Ent., ii, p. 329, 
pi. 6, f. 9 (1789). 


67. Gnophos asperaria, Hiibn., Eur. Schmett., Geom., 
f. 484 (1827). 

Tangier. March 1902. 

68. Boarmia (1) gemmaria, Brahm., Ins. Kal., ii, p. 255 

More uniform above, and more fulvous below, than the 
typical form. 
The only one seen March 1902. Tangier. 

69. Boarmia abictaria, Goeze, Beitr. iii, 3, p. 439 (1781). 
Forest of Marmora. March 27th, 1902. 

70. Boarmia abruptaria, Thnb., Diss. Ent., iv, p. 59, 
pi. iv, f. 8 (1792). 

Very common in winter at Tangier. 

71. Boarmia atlanticaria, Stand., Stett. Ent. Zeit., 1859, 
p. 218. 

Onty one taken, March 1902. Tangier. 


72. Slerrha sacraria, Linn., Syst. Nat., ed. xii, p. 863 


73. Anaitis plagiata, Linn., Syst. Nat., i, p. 526 (1858). 
Common at Tangier in winter. 

Collection of Moths made in Marocco, 1900-2. 389 

74. Cidaria malvata, Rmbr., Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., 1832, 
p. 43, pi. 2, f. 5. 

Tangier. October 1901, only one seen. 

75. Cidaria sitcrata, Hlibn., Berl. Mag., iv, p. 522 (1769). 

Tangier, February 4th, 1902. Given me by Lord 

76. Cidaria basochesiata, Dup., Lep. Fr., viii, 1, p. 559, 
pi. 210, f. 5 (1831). 

Tangier. February 2nd, 1902. Given me by Lord 

77. Ewpithecia oblongata, Tlmb., Diss. Ent., i, p. 14, 
f. 12 (1784). 

Near Tangier, at Ain Zeitun. February 1902. Common. 


78. Pscvdoterpna coronillaria, Hiibn., Eur. Schmett., 
Geom, ff. 479-482 (1827). 

Near Tangier, at Ain Zeitun. February 1902. 


79. Modostrophia sicanaria, Zell., Stett. Ent. Zeit., 1852, 
p. 180. 

Atlas Mountains, Imentalla. 5,000 feet. July 9th, 1901. 

80. Ephyra pitptillaria, Hiibn., Eur. Schmett., Geom., f. 
69 (1827). ' 

Bred from larva. March 1901. 

81. Acidalia perpusillaria, Ev., Bull. Mosc, 1847, iii, 
p. 82, pi. 6, f. 7. 

Given me by Lord Walsingham, February 1902. 

82. Acidalia clongaria, Rmbr., Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., 1833, 
38, pi. 2, f. 20. 

Tangier. March 1901. 

83. Acidalia subsericeata, Haw., Lep. Brit., p. 352 (1809). 
Forest of Marmora. March 1902. 

390 Mr. E. G. B. Meade-Waldo on a 


84. Taragama vepanda, Hiibn., Eur. Schmett., Bomb., 
ff. 274-5 (1827). 

The larva of this species may be found in all stages of 
growth all the year round, with perhaps the exception of 
the months of August and September ; it varies remark- 
ably in colouring, individuals being found in all shades of 
grey and brown to black Avith violet dots. It will feed on 
almost anything, but a prickly broom, Genista tricuspidata, 
appears its favourite food plant ; it is very abundant in the 
neighbourhood of Tangier, and I also saw it at Tetuan and 

85. Pachygastria trifolii, Schiff., Wien Verz., p. 57 

The same remarks practically apply to this larva, which 
may be found universally in numbers all the year round. 
It is much more abundant than the last, and varies greatly 
in colour ; it will feed on almost anything. 

86. Macrothyl acia rubi, Linn., Syst. Nat., ed. x, p. 498 

Subsp. digramma, Meade-Waldo, subsp. n. 

(Plate XIX, fig. 10, $.) 

Deep red-brown: antennas ochreous-white above. Fore-wing 
with fine oblique white antemedian line from subcostal nervure to 
vein 1, very slightly excurved below the cell : a fine white post- 
median oblique line arising from vein 10, incurved to above 7, 
excurved to vein 2, then straight to inner margin. Differs from the 
typical form in the uniform dark chocolate colour, the white lines of 
fore-wing being fine and farther apart, and the uniform chocolate 
cilios of both wings. Exp. 86-94 mm. 

Hal. Tangier. 

I also took plenty of larveo at Babara. It frequents large 
tracts of Zentiscus and ilex scrub. The larva feeds on 
Pistacia lentiscus and Qucrcus ilex ; it hibernates curled 
up in December, spins a slight cocoon in March, and 
emerges the beginning of April. Although carefully 
sought for we never saw a male. I only saw one form 
of larva, dark chocolate brown. 

Collection of Moths made, in Maroreo, 1900-2. 391 

87. Malacosoma franconica, Esp., Schmett., pi. 26, f. 1-2 



88. Zeuzera pyriTia, Linn., Faun. Suec, p. 300 (1761). 



89. Oreopsyche cdbida, Esp., Schmett., ii, p. 391, pi. 78, 

f. 2 (1787). ' 

The variety lorguiniella, Bruand. 

Common in the forest of Marmora, March 1902, flying 
by day, and attracted apparently by the dead birds, etc., 
that were lying by us as we sat at lunch, hovering over 
them and possibly mistaking their smell for that of the 


90. Zygvna eamiolica, Scop., Ent. Cam., p. 189 (1703). 

The variety or ana, Dup. 
Laraishe, April 3rd, 1902. 

91. Zygoma favonia, Fit., Beitr. Eur. Schmett., v, 
p. 76, pi. 428, f. 1 (1845). 

Zygsena aurata, Blachier, Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr., 1905, p. 213. 

Two varieties (1) aurata mostly clothed with fulvous 
to whitish hair, the abdomen with two crimson bands on 
terminal segments, the fore- wing pale brassy golden yellow. 
(2) favonia : thorax with few whitish hairs ; abdomen with 
one' crimson band, fore-wing blackish. Very abundant at 
great heights on the Atlas, up to 12,400 ft., in July on 
Tizi Gourza. 

92. Procris orana, Aust., de. Nat. ii, p. 284 (1880). 
Taken on grass at Imi Ouern on a branch of the Quad 

Amsmiz, July 11th, 1902, about 9,000 ft, 



93. Scirpoplmga prsdata, Scop., Ent, Cam., No. 198 

Ras Doura. April 1st, 1902. 

392 Mr. E. G. B. Meade-Waldo on Moths. 


94. Myclois cribrella, Hiibn., Eur. Schmett., Tin., f. 67 

(1827). ' 

Ras Doura. April 1st, 1902. 

95. Acrobasis porphyrella, Dup., Lep. Fr., x, p. 191, 
pi. 279, f. 2 (1836). 

Forest of Marmora. March 7th, 1902. 


96. Cledcobia intcrjunctalis, Guen., Luc, Expl. Alg., 
p. 398 (1848). 

Ras Doura. April 1st, 1902. 


97. Nymphula stratiotata, Linn., Syst. Nat., i, p. 529 

Forest of Marmora. March 1902. 


98. Phlychvnodcs palcalis, Schiff., Wien Verz., p. 123 

Forest of Marmora. March 1902. 

99. Mccyna poh/gonalis, Hiibn., Vog., p. 76 (1827). 
Forest of Marmora. March 1902. 

100. Pyrausta fiavalis, Schiff., Wien Verz., p. 121 (1776). 
The Atlas. 

Explanation of Plates. 393 

Explanation of Plates XVIII, XIX. 

Plate XVIII. 

Sketch map showing Mr. Meade- Waldo's route in Marocco. 

Plate XIX. 

Fig. 1. Gamonympha mucheri, £ , p. 377. 

2. „ „ $,p. 377. 

3. Satyrus mniszechd, var. maroccanar, £ , p. 375. 

4. ,, ,, ,, ,, y , p. 37o. 

5. Lycxna hylas, var. atlantiea, g , p. 380. 

6. „ „ „ „ ?,p. 380. 

7. Euehloe eupheno, $ var. androgyne, p. 372. 

8. Teracolvs daira, var. nuuna, ^, p. 372. 

9. „ „ „ „ ?,.p. 372. 

10. Macroth/ylacia rubi, subsp. dujramma, 5) P- 390. 

11. Cleophana pavli, 9 > p- 383. 

12. Cleophana diffluent*, var. maroccana, $ , p. 384. 

( 395 ) 

XXII. A new species of the Hynienopterous Genus 
Megalyra, Westwood. By J. Chester Bradley, 
Ithaca, N.Y., U.S.A. Communicated by Col. 
C. T. Bingham, F.Z.S. 

[Read November 1st, 1905.] 

I FIND among some material from the American Museum 
of Natural History an undescribed species of Megalyra. 
In order that its position may be readily seen I append 
a translation of a table to the genus published by 
Szepligeti in the " Termeszetrajzi Fiizetek," xxv, p. 526, 
adding the new species in its proper place. 

1. Wings black, short, scarcely longer than the head above- 

Mulilis, Westwood. 
Wings not shorter than normal (2) 

2. Wings black or brown (3) 

Wings hyaline, with brown crossbands .... (5) 

3. Wings black, almost opaque, with a hyaline spot ; forehead and 

vertex longitudinally grooved . . Sfvackardii, Westwood. 

Wings more or less brown, without a hyaline spot ; forehead 

and vertex not longitudinally grooved ... (4) 

4. Entirely black • head, venter, legs, and propodeum heavily 

clothed with grey hair ; a hairy spot on the side of each 
abdominal segment . . Melomoptera, Schletterer. 
Base of the antenna 1 , legs beyond the femora, and the abdomen 
red ; not heavily clothed with hair ; the abdomen without 
hairy spots Bufiventris, Szepligeti. 

5. The posterior ocelli further removed from each other than from 

the compound eyes (6) 

The posterior ocelli equally removed from the compound eyes 

and from each other (7) 


396 Mr. J. C. Bradley on a New Species of the 

6. Entirely black ; scutellum coarsely punctured, smooth mesally ; 

the first and a narrow margin on the second and third dorsal 
segments smooth and polished, the rest shagreened by minute 
puctulations ...... Szepligetti, n. sp. 

Dark brown with reddish areas, the anterior legs beyond the 
femora and the posterior beyond the tibiae reddish-brown ; 
scutellum longitudinally wrinkled ; abdomen not sculptured 
as above Caudata, Szepligeti. 

7. Cheeks thickly and rather coarsely punctured ; terebra about 

three times as long as the body . . Fasciipennis, Westwood. 
Head equally punctured all over, finer than on the mesonotum ; 
head red ; terebra four times as long as the body. 

Longiseta, Szepligeti. 

Megalyra SZEPLIGETII, n. sp. 

5 . Entirely black. Slightly pubescent, the truncature of the 
propodeum tomentose. Head globular, the occiput broad behind 
the eyes, the posterior margin rounded ; antennas inserted below the 
base of the eyes, a lateral oblique groove on each side marked by a 
high ridge above receiving the scape when pressed downwards, and 
separating the face from the cheeks and forehead ; head except face 
rather coarsely closely not deeply, umbilicately reticulate-punctate. 
Prothorax concealed ; mesonotum convex, produced laterally into 
two anterior blunt angles ; dorsum punctured similarly to the head, 
but punctures larger, a sub-smooth area in the middle of the 
scutellum ; pleura? more finely punctured, venter much more finely 
and shallowly punctured ; distinct oblique grooves in the pleura? 
for the reception of the anterior and middle femora ; propodeum 
indefinitely shallowly reticulate ; seen from above the posterior 
margin is concave, the lateral angles sharp ; the posterior face of the 
propodeum is concave, the abdomen fitting into it. 

Posterior legs covered evenly with well separated punctures ; the 
coxaa and trochanters short, the femora stout, the single spine on 
the apex of the tibia reduced to a mere rudiment, the metatarsus 
longer than the other tarsal joints united, the fourth joint about one 
half as long as the third ; middle and posterior and to some extent 
the anterior legs covered with sparse long white hairs, about as long 
as the third tarsal joint. 

Wings hyaline, a broad brown band extending all the way across 
at the stigma, a slightly dark spot at the apex ; the free part of M 4 
and the spur of the transverse part of M, wanting. 

Abdomen sessile but constricted, the first dorsal segment and a 
very narrow apical margin on the second and third smooth, 

Hymenopterous Genus Megalyra. 397 

impunctate, and polished, the remaining dorsal segments shagreened 
by very minute punctulations. 

Length 12 mm. ; of the head and thorax 6*5 mm. ; of the abdomen 
5-5 mm. ; of the fore-wing 9 mm. ; of the ovipositor 34 mm. 

Hob. South Australia. 

Type. — 1 $ in the collection of the American Museum 
of Natural History in New York City. 

A fine specimen of Megalyra melanoptera, Schletterer, 
from New South Wales is also contained in that collection. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1905 — PART IV. (DEC.) 27 

( 399 ) 

XXIII. Hymenoptera aculeata collected in Algeria by the 
Rev. A. E. Eaton, M.A., F.E.S., and the Rev. 
Francis David Morice, M.A., F.E.S. Part 
II. Diploptera. By Edward Saunders, F.R.S., 

[Read November 15th, 1905.] 

$. Biskra, in grounds of Chateau Landon, 8.10 a.m., 24, 

v, 93. {A. E. E.) 
$. „ between Fort St. Germain and the brick kiln 

on Ammi visnaga in the afternoon, 19, v, 97. 

{A. E. E.) 
$ „ between Fort St. Germain and the brick kiln 

on Ammi visnaga, in the afternoon, 18, vi, 

97. (A. E. E.) 
$. Medea, Route d'Alger, north of town, on low plants, 

such as Convolvulus arvcnsis, Malva sylvestris 

and Echium, 26, vi, 93. (A. E. E.) 
$. „ wood towards Kef-el-azeri, on Daucus sctifolius, 

2, viii, 93. (A. E. E) 

Celonites fischeri, Spin. 

$. Koudia Sma, a hill east of Medea, alt. abt. 3,180 ft., 
on Microlonchus salmanticus, 15, vii, 93. {A. E. E.) 

%. Constantine, visiting Echium italicum, "rolls itself 
into a pill and shams death," 21, v, 95. (A. E. E.) 
£$. Biskra, on Echium humile, 19, v, 97, and 18, vi, 97 
(A. E. E.) 


$ 4. Sidi Ferruch, about sixteen miles from Algiers 
westwards on the coast, on the glacis of the fort, 
resting on flowers of Asteriscus maritimus, 8, v, 
93. (A. E. E.) 


400 Mr. E. Saunders on 

Quartinia DILECTA, Andre. 

$ 1. Biskra, on Picridium tingitannm, 3, iv, 97. (A.E.E.) 


$ 1. Biskra, cornlands bordering the route des Zibans on 

Avimi visnaga, Lam., 25, v, 93. (A. E. E.) 
$ 1. ,. hollows between the railway near Kilometre 

199, and the scrub bordering the pasture, 

6, v, 97. {A. E. E.) 
£ 1. „ scrub bordering the pasture, on Antirrhinum 

ramosissimuni, 13, v, 97. (A.E. E.) 
¥ 2. Tunis in the Cimetiere de Sidi-ben-Hassen, 20, xii, 

93. {A. E. E) 

Eumenes NIGRA, Brulle. 

£ 2. Road to Hamman-es-Salahin, opposite the new 
Beni Mora racecourse, visiting Peganum harmala, 
21, iv, 95. {A. E. E.) 

Eumenes coarctata, F. 

Various localities and dates from April to November. 
{A. E. E. and F. D. M.) 

Eumenes coarctata, F., var. dubius, Sauss. 

$ 1. Ravines, near Mount Ben Omar, north of Medea, 
alt. 2,730-3,130 ft., on Eryngium triquetrum, 11, 
vii, 93. (A. E. E.) 

$ 1. Bone, on Mentha rotundifolia, 10, viii, 97. (A. E. E.) 

Eumenes picteti, Sauss. var. (?) 

$ 1. Biskra, amongst Tamarix, 30, ix, 97. (A. E. E.) 


Nigra ; rufo flavoque picta ; pronotum antice truncatum angulis 
rectis ; post-scutellum sub-lamelliforme lateribus elevatis, apice 
eniarginato, lingua elongata ad coxas intermedias attingens, abdomen 
segmento primo cupuliformi, margine apicali subelevato. 

£. Black, mandibles, clypeus, scape of antennae in front, and face 
from just above the sinus of the eyes, except two short black divergent 
lines originating at the insertion of the antenna? flavous, flagellum 
of antennae beneath, a spot behind eacli eye, the pronotum except at 

Hymcnoptcra aculeata collected in Algeria. 401 

its posterior angles, the tegulse, a spot below the tubercles, the pos- 
terior angles of the scutellum, and the raised margin of the post- 
scutellum flavo-testaceous, abdomen with the 1st segment, except 
a basal triangular spot, testaceous, the other segments black 
with a trisinuate testaceous apical band, legs with the apices of the 
femora, the tibia? and tarsi rufotestaceons. Head closely and coarsely 
punctured, mandibles tridentate, clypeus deeply and angularly 
emarginate, apical joint of the antennae small, slightly curved and 
subtruncate; thorax punctured very similarly to the head, prothorax 
truncate in front, its angles not produced and nearly rectangular ; 
wings slightly dusky especially along the costal margin, nervures 
brown, clear testaceous towards the base of the wings ; 2nd recurrent 
nervure received near the base of the third submarginal cell ; 
post-scutellum flattened and produced horizontally over the pro- 
podeum, slightly emarginate posteriorly, its margins reflexed, a 
strong carina runs along the sides of the propodeum, below which 
the surface is bright and shining ; abdomen strongly punctured 
1st segment cupuliform, its apical margin slightly raised. 

$ . Very like the <£ and similarly punctured, but with the base 
and under-side of the antenna?, the mandibles, the head posteriorly, 
and a spot in the sinus of each eye rufotestaceous ; on the face, its 
apex between the insertion of the antenna?, is a triangular spot of a 
paler testaceous colour, clypeus only slightly sinuate at its apex, 
pronotum truncate with its angles more produced than in the g , and 
if anything slightly less than a right angle, flavotestaceous in front 
blending through a brownish colour into black posteriorly ; wings as 
in the $ . Sides of the propodeum rufotestaceous, abdomen with the 
basal segment rufotestaceous, its apex of a more flavous tint, its 
disc with a round blackish spot, the rest of the segments black, 
with a testaceous trisinuate apical band, more or less margined with 
rufous, apex of terminal segments entirely testaceous ; legs as in 
the (J. 

Long. 7-8 mm. 

$ 1. Biskra, on Antirrhinum ramosissimum, 21, iii, 97. 

' {A. E. E.) 
$ 2. „ 22, iv, 97. {A. E. E.) 
$ 2. „ on Atractylis serratuloides, 10, v, 97. 

{A. E. E.) 
$ 1. ,. on Deverra chlorantha, 13, v. 97. (A. E. E.) 

Apparently allied in colour to P. pulchra, Mor., but 
differing in the shape of the pronotal angles and that of 
the lamelliforni post-scutellum. 

402 Mr. E. Saunders on 

Raphidoglossa eufescens, n. sp. 

Rufotestacea, nigro-variegata, clypeo, abdominisque segmento 
primo et secundo rufotestaceis primo fascia apicali nulla, $ clypei 
marginibus elevatis, nigris ; 

Rufotestaceous, head and thorax largely and closely punctured, 
the former black with the clypeus, a large somewhat triangularly- 
shaped spot, its base situated just below the anterior ocellus and its 
apex just above the insertion of the antennas, and a large spot behind 
each eye rufotestaceous, mandibles in the centre and antennas at the 
base of the same colour, mandibles with four blunt teeth, clypeus in 
the £ bidentate, with a small, deep emargination between the teeth, 
$ with the free sides of the clypeus widely reflexed, shining and 
black, the apical margin which lies between them slightly emargin- 
ate, with two small prominent teeth near the centre. Thorax above, 
black only on the mesonotum (in one specimen entirely red), 
and the base of the scutellum and post-scutellum, beneath black 
with the exception of a red spot on the mesopleura. Pronotum 
truncate in front meeting the sides in angles slightly less than right 
angles, the sides slightly sinuate immediately behind the angles 
which are consequently somewhat produced, post-scutellum truncate 
posteriorly wings slightly smoky especially towards the costa, 
veins rufotestaceous, 2nd submarginal cell sub-triangular, very 
narrowly truncate at its upper margin ; propodeum black in the 
centre, red and clothed with silvery hairs at the sides ; abdomen 
dull, finely punctured and clothed with very short white pubescence, 
with the basal and 2nd segments entirely rufotestaceous, the 
former strongly punctured, with a large round impression near the 
apex, and in some examples with the latter more or less suffused witli 
black, following segments black, their posterior margins more or 
less rufous, sometimes widely so, the colour band of a more or less 
bisinuate form ; legs entirely rufotestaceous except the anterior coxse 
in front. 

Long. 15-16 mm. 

$ 2. Biskra, near railway, kilometre 199, "asleep on 
Devcrra scojMria, 25, v, 94, holding on to the extreme tips 
of the stems by the mandibles only, with wings folded 
longitudinally and widely spread, the legs tucked up close 
to the body not touching the stems, which waved about in 
the breeze." 

$ $. Biskra ; same locality on Zizyphus lotas, 21 and 29, 
iv, 95. 

Hymenoptera aculeata collected in Algeria. 403 

$ 2, ^ 5. Biskra, on Atractylis serratuloidcs and Antir- 
rhinum ramosissimum, 6-13, iv, 97. 

$ 2. Biskra, on Amberboa lippii, 8, iv, 97. 

Several of the above specimens are stylopized (JCenosl). 

Pterochilus aterrimus, n. sp. 

Ater, atrohirtus, punctatus, mandibulis, capite utrinque pone 
oculos, et in femina interdum clypeo et oculorum orbitis interioribus, 
tibiis anterioribus antice, articuloque apicali palporum labii, rufo- 
ornatis ; alis valde infumatis. 

Black, densely clothed with long black hairs, especially in the <$ , 
mandibles more or less red, generally nearly entirely so, but in one $ 
with only the extreme apices of that colour, a spot of variable size 
behind 'each eye, and in one female two large spots on the clypeus and 
the inner orbits of the eyes red. Anterior tibiae in front in both sexes 
and the much curved, flattened apical joints of the labial palpi of 
the same colour, wings dark brown with purple reflections. Head 
and thorax rugosely punctured, somewhat shining, anterior margin 
of the clypeus narrowly emarginate in the <$ semicircularly rounded 
and entire in the $ ; apical joint of labial palpi in the $ fiat and 
dilated, fringed with very long hairs, in the <£ sub-cylindrical with 
hairs as long as those of the § > but nner an d less regular. Antennas 
in the $ slightly rolled at the apex. Penultimate and apical joints 
very small, especially the latter, posterior wings clearer than the 
anterior ; legs shining, punctured, the inner sides of the first and 
third pairs of tibia? densely clothed with fine pubescence in both 
sexes ■ projjodeum with an angular tooth on each side ; abdomen 
nigro cyaneous, largely punctured on its basal segment which bears 
a slightly raised tubercle in the centre of its basal brow, finely 
punctured on the rest, first and second segments in the £ first only in 
the § clothed with long hairs, apical margins of the ventral segments 
with a row of exceedingly short bristles. 

Long. 14-16 mm. 

Biskra, $ 1, amongst hummocks of Limoniastrum guyo- 
nianum on the Dunes by the route des 
Zibans, 19, iii, 94. 

£ 1, visiting Brassica napus, 3, iii, 97. 

$ 1, between Biskra and Hamman-es-Salahin. 

$ 3, at rest on dead twigs of D&niia cordata at 
5 p.m., holding on by the mandibles and 
legs; wings divergent, 14, ii, 97. 

404 Mr. E. Saunders on 

Pterochilus grandis, Lep. 

£ Medea, about a mile along the road to Lodi 12.30 to 
2.30 p.m., on Eryngium triguetrum, 28, vi, 93. (A. E. E.) 

£ 1, hill north of railway station, alt. 3,000 feet, 10, 
vii, 93. (A. E. E.) 

^ 1, ravines, near Mount Ben Omar, on Eryngium 
triguetrum, alt. 2,730-3,130 ft., 11, vii, 93. (A. E. E) 

$ 1, on Koudia Sma, a hill to the east, of an altitude of 
about 2,700 ft., about 4 p.m., 15, vii, 93. {A. E. E.) 

Pterochilus coccineus, Andre. 

£ 1. Fontaine Chaude, near Biskra, on the dunes near 
the stream among Limoniastrum guyonianum, 3 to 5 p.m., 
16, v, 94. 

Pterochilus linguarius, n. sp. 

Niger albo et ferrugineo variegatus, lingua longissima ad apicem 
abdominis extensa, abdominis segmento primo cupuliformi apice 
elevato, ^secundo margine posteriore membranaceo, ad basin seri- 
atim punctato-impresso. 

Black with white and ferrugineous markings. Head black, shin- 
ing and strongly punctured, mandibles, scape of the antenna? and 
the flagellum beneath, testaceous, the latter darker on its upper-side ; 
Clypeus in the male flavous, in the $ sometimes with a testaceous 
spot, semicircularly emarginate in the $ , in the $ with its free sides 
reflexed, face densely clothed with silvery hairs in the <$ , sparsely 
so in the $ . Tongue very long reaching in repose to the apex of the 
abdomen, labial palpi slightly flattened and plumose in the $ , nearly 
simple in the £ : behind the eye in both sexes is a very small whitish 
spot, antennae in the £ with a sharp reflexed apical joint thorax 
black, shining, rather remotely punctured pronotum except at its 
extreme basal angles, tegulse, a spot on the mesopleura, scutellum 
except a triangular patch at its base and post-scutellum, ivory white ; 
prothorax truncate in front, its angles nearly rectangular, legs tes- 
taceous, the femora darker at the extreme base, propodeum clothed 
with silvery white hairs, excavated posteriorly and with a long sharp 
spine at each side of its extreme apex especially in the $ ; on each 
side there is a testaceous spot of variable size ; abdomen sparsely 
clothed with silvery hairs, largely and remotely punctured especially 
on the basal segment which is campanulate in form, its apical margin 
raised and rounded, entirely testaceous or with its base more or less 
suffused with black, the raised apical ring ivory white, 2nd segment 
black with its apical margin flavous the colour spreading at the sides 

Hymcnoptera aculcata collected in Algeria. 405 

and sometimes produced on to the disc in the form of two spots, the 
sides of the segment are generally more or less brown, the apical 
margin of this segment is produced into a rather wide membrane 
bearing a row of punctures at the base especially noticeable in the 
$ , the following segments are black or piceous with pale apical 
bands, apical segment black. 
Long. 7-8. mm. 

£ 1. Fontaine Chaude, near Biskra, on the dunes near 
the stream, 9, v, 94. (A. E. E.) 

$ 1, $ 2. Biskra, Hamman-es-Salahin, on the sandhills, 
5, v, 97. (A. E. E.) 

$ 3. Biskra, 20 and 31, v, 98. (F. D. M.) 

A small species superficially like a small Ckevrieramts 
but easily distinguished by its extremely long tongue, a 
character which almost warrants the erection of a new 
genus for its reception. 

Pterochilus affinis, n. sp. 

Niger flavopictus, clypeo maris emarginato, femina? punctato, 
sine rugis longitudinalibus, apice truncate, alis subluteis, segmentis 
ventralibus maris 3-5 dense aureofnnbriatis, segmenti secundi 
feminae disco valde sed sparse punctato. 

Black with the following parts yellow, mandibles except their 
piceous teeth and apices, the entire clypeus in the £, the base 
only in $ , a spot between the antennas and a spot behind each eye 
and another in the sinus of each in both sexes, and the scape of 
the antennas in the $ a somewhat triangular spot on each side of 
the prothorax not reaching either the anterior or posterior angle 
a spot below the wing, the tegulag, two spots on the scutellum, the 
post-scutellum and two small spots on the propodeum, the borders 
of the abdominal segments more or less trisinuately except that of 
the basal which is straight, and the apical, which has a central spot 
only ; beneath with a Insinuate band on the second and following 
segments, except the apical ; all the above markings are the same 
in both sexes ; legs testaceous-yellow, coxa?, trochanters and bases 
of the femora black. Head and thorax dull, closely punctured, 
clothed with long hairs, brownish-red in the £, nearly black in 
the $. Clypeus semi-circularly emarginate in the $, narrowly 
truncate in the $, spot between the antennae in the $ slightly 
raised, wings slightly brownish especially along the costa, the 
nervures testaceous-red. -2nd submarginal cell, receiving both 
recurrent nervures ; posterior tarsi with their 2nd and claw-joints 

406 Mr. E. Saunders on 

subequal in length, the 4th joint about two-thirds as long as the 
third. Abdomen somewhat shining, very densely and microscopic- 
ally punctured, the basal segment sparsely clothed with rather long 
brownish hairs, 3rd, 4th and 5th ventral segments in the $ with 
a dense fringe of short golden hairs. 
Long. 13-14 mm. 

Bone, $ 1. 28, iv, 96. (A. E. E.) 
Alger, ? 1. 29, iv, 98. (F. D. M.) 

Apparently closely allied to hellenicus of Morawitz, but 
the £ differs in having the clypeus destitute of longitu- 
dinal rugosities, in having a central spot between the 
antennas instead of two side by side, and in having the 
second segment of the abdomen beneath, with larger 
punctures scattered on the disk and without the larger 
punctures on the apical margin. The $ of hellenicus is 
not described. The head and thorax are also clothed with 
longer hairs than in hellenicus. 

Odynerus {Hojolopus) luteolus, Lep. 

$ 2. Medea, ravines near Mount Ben Omar, alt. 2,730- 
3,130 feet, 8 to 10 a.m., on Eryngium triquetrum, 11, vii, 
93. (A.E.E.) 

$ 1. Oonstantine, 16, vi, 98. {F. D.M.) 

Odynerus (Hoplopus) spiricornis, Spin. 

$ 1. Oonstantine, on M'cid, 21, vi, 94. {A. E. E.) 
?2. „ „ „ 2, vi, 95. {A.E.E.) 

Odynerus (Hoplopus) consobrinus, Duf. 

$ 2. Algiers, 14 and 17, ii, 93. (A. E. E.) 

$ 1. Biskra, about walls of " adobe," village Negre, 
13, ii, 94. (A. E. E.) 

$ 1. Biskra, visiting Moricandia arvensis. 3, ii, 97. 
(A. E. E) 

? 1. Biskra, 15, ii, 94. {A. E.E.) 

£ 1. Bone, host of Philcrcmus oranicnsis, 2, iii, 96. 

$ 3, £ 9. Algiers, March 1898. (F. D. M.) 

Odynerus (Hopl&pus) caroli, Mor. 

$ 2. Bone, footpath and river-bank by the Bon 
Djemma, 24, iii, 96. {A.E.E.) 

Hymenoptera aculcata collected in Alycria. 407 

$ 1. , Alger, 27, iv, 98. (F. I). 3D 

(?) $ 1. Constantine, on M'cid, 22, v, 95. (A. E. E.) 

(?) ? 1. Alger, 27, iv, 98. (F. D. M.) 

The <£ of this species is known at once by the spine at 
the base of the anterior femora (beneath). The £ which 
I have assigned to it agrees with it in size and general 
coloration, and has the post-scutellum rather sharply 
elevated as in the $. It lacks the long hairs of conso- 
brinus and rotundigastcr, but has the yellow band of the 
second abdominal segment dilated at the sides as in those 
species, although more distinctly so. The scutellum and 
post-scutellum are entirely black. 

Odynerus {Hoplopus) deceptor, n. sp. 

0. variegato simillimus, ab illo mas coxis intermediis nigro 
spinosis facile distinguitur, femina, angulis propodei subproductis, 
segmento secundo abdominis latiori subtus testaceo, minus crebre sed 
obsoletius punctato aegre distinguenda. 

Resembling 0. variegatus in colour but at once recognizable by the 
black spines on the intermediate coxaj of the ^ and the very largely 
laterally produced bands of the abdomen which on the 1st and 2nd 
abdominal segments leave only the central basal portion black. In 
the $ (?) of this species the lateral angles of the propodeum although 
not acute are more produced than in variegafais, the 2nd abdominal 
segment is wider in proportion to the 1st and on its under-side is 
testaceous, more shining than in variegatus less closely and more 
obsoletely punctured, but only having one example of this ? I am 
unable to say how far these characters are constant. 

£ . Head and thorax black, closely punctured, dull, clothed rather 
sparingly with greyish-brown hairs, clypeus yellow, shining, deeply 
and semieircularly incised at the apex, labrum yellow, mandibles 
black, spotted with yellow at the base, a somewhat straight yellow 
spine projects from the gena on each side of their extreme base ; 
this spine is slightly curved towards the apex and viewed laterally 
appears nearly truncate, a transverse tubercle between the antennae 
and the scape in front testaceous, spire entirely black, pronotum with 
a ferruginous band not extending to its posterior angles, anterior 
angles slightly produced and sharp, tegulai ferruginous, wings smoky, 
especially along the costal margin, scutellum slightly raised, post- 
scutellum nearly perpendicular, ferruginous, slightly concave and 
very shining, sides of the propodeum obtusely angled, its concavity 
dull, diagonally striate, widely channelled, with a narrow longi- 
tudinal carina running along the bottom of the channel— legs 

408 Mr. E. Saunders on 

testaceous femora black at the base, intermediate coxae each bearing 
a black, slender, nearly straight spine. Abdomen slightly shining 
very finely rugulose with the first segment clothed with hairs as the 
thorax, the rest glabrous, all the segments bearing broad bisinuate 
apical testaceous bands, the bands of the 1st and 2nd segments so 
produced at the sides towards the base, as to leave a square black 
central emargination, segments beneath very finely and closely 
punctured, 2nd with a free testaceous spot on each side in some 
specimens, often wanting. 

9 (?) The female which I associate with the <$ has exactly similar 
bands on the abdomen, and is very similar otherwise, with the 
exception that the scutellum is ferruginous except at its extreme 
base and that the sides of the propodeuin have the angles rather 
produced but obtuse and widely yellow and the 2nd segment of the 
abdomen beneath is nearly entirely ferruginous, shining, and rather 
obsoletely punctured, there is also a testaceous line on the lower 
internal orbit of the eye and a large spot behind nearly on the vertex 
scarcely indicated in the $ and a spot on the mesopleura under 
the wing. 

Long. 10-12 mm. 

$ 4. Bone, 20, iv, 96. {A. E. E.) 

$ 3. „ foot-path and river bank by the Bon 
Djemma, 24, iii, 96. (A. E. E.) 

$ 1. Medea, hill north of railway along the edge of the 
enclosure on the west side, on Eryngium 
triquetrum, 27, vi, 93. (A. E. E.) 


? 4. Constantine, 15, 16, vi, 98. (F. D. M.) 

Odynerus (Hbpl&pus) angustior, n. sp. 

Augustus, parce griseo-hirsutus niger, scapo antennarum antice 
flavo, flagello toto nigro, clypeo, tuberculo transverso inter antennas, 
prothoraceque antice flavis, scutello nigro, immaculato, post-scutello 
flavo, piano, sub-laevi, basi solo punctato, abdominis segmentis 
apicibus late flavo-fasciatis, subtus segmento secundo crebre et minute 
punctato, punctis majoribus inter mixtis. 

<$ . Black, clypeus, labrum, a line along the anterior lower orbit of 
the eye and a spot behind the eye yellow, antennas with the scape in front 
yellow, otherwise entirely black. Thorax with the anterior margin 
of the pronotum, the colour widened at the sides but not produced 
to the posterior angles, the tegulse and post-scutellum testaceous, 
abdomen with a wide, angularly emarginate band on the basal 

Hymenoptera acnleata collected in Algeria. 409 

segment, a wide nearly straight band on the 2nd and a very slightly 
bi-sinuate band on the 3rd to 6th testaceous. These bands are 
all continuous on the ventral segments. Legs testaceous yellow, 
base of the anterior femora above, about three-fifths of the inter- 
mediate femora above, and the posterior femora, except at the apex, 

Head and thorax closely and rugosely punctured, clothed with short 
greyish white hairs, clypeus deeply and semicircularly emarginate, 
pronotum rather produced at the sides and sharply angulated, post- 
scutellum shining, propodeum very declivous, its sides rounded, not 
much excavated posteriorly, the sides of the excavation irregularly 
and diagonally striate, wings nearly hyaline, but smoky along the 
costal margins, nerves and stigma dark brown, abdomen coarsely and 
irregularly punctured on the basal segment, finely but irregularly on 
the second, finely closely and regularly on the rest, beneath closely 
and finely punctured throughout, and with a larger (but still rather 
fine) puncturation scattered over the surface — observable chiefly on 
the 2nd and 3rd segments — legs simple. 

Long. 9 mm. 

A slenderer species than usual but bearing no very marked 
characters, its entirely black flagellum combined with the 
wide abdominal bands separate it from any other species I 
can find described. 

$ 1. Biskra, 21, iii, 95. (A. E. E.) 

$ 1. „ 23, iii, 97 on Tamarix. (A. E. E.) 

$ 1. Bone, 1, v, 96. (A. E. E.) 

Odynerus (Ancistrocerus) atropos, Lep. 

$ 2. Biskra, sandy banks bordering the fallow 
near the market garden by the river and 
railway near kilometre 199, 17, iii, 94. 
^ 4, $ 4. Biskra, near the Barrage, 22, iii-iv, 97. 

"Makes a curved tubular portico to its 
burrow with irregular elongate longitudinal 
loopholes ; tube 18 mm. long and 35 mm. 
external diameter." 

In one $ there are 6 submarginal cells in the right 
wing and 4 in the left, all the other specimens have the 
normal 3. A character observable in the $ which does not 
appear to have been noticed in descriptions is that the 
clypeus is practically 3-dentate — as there is a very small 
tooth in the centre of the eniargi nation. 

410 Mr. E. Saunders on 

Odynerus (Ancistrocerus) parietum, Linn. 

Various localities ; Biskra ; Bone ; Algiers ; Azazga, 
alt. 1,900 ft. (A. E. E. and F. D. 31.) 

Odynerus (Lionotus) chloroticus, Spin. 
? 2. Biskra, 31, v, 98. (F. D. 31.) 

Odynerus (Lionotus) egregius, H. Sff. 

$ 1. Biskra, 22, iv, 97. (A. E. E.) 
$ 1. „ 6, v, 98. (F. I). 31.) 
$ 1. Medea, 28, vi, 93. (A. E. E.) 

Odynerus (Lionotus) saussurei, Andre'. 

$ 1, ^ 2. Biskra, on Ammi visnaga, 18-22, vi, 97. 

Odynerus (Lionotus) dantici, Rossi. 

$ 2. Biskra, on Ammi visnaga, 18, v, 93. (A. E. E.) 
¥ 1. Tizi-Ouzou,on Zizyphus lotus, 14, vi, 93. (A. E.E.) 
¥ 2. Constantine, on Ferula scabra, 22, v, and 2, 

vi, 95. (A. E. E.) 
$ 1. Biskra, on Zizyphus lotus, 15, v, 97. (A. E. E.) 
$ 1. Bone, 25, vii, 97. (A. E. E.) 
£ 2, ? 6. Biskra, 13, v-10, vi, 98. (F. D. 31.) 
$ 1. Philippeville, 20, vi, 98. (F. D. 31.) 

Odynerus (Lionotus) bidentatus, Lep. 

$ 1. Biskra, railway, near kilometre 199, 31, iii, 94. 

(A. E. E.) 
$ 1. „ Fontaine Chaude, on Tamarix pauci- 

ovulata, 19, iv, 94. J. Gay MS. (A. E.E.) 
$ 1. „ ridge of hills north-east of Hamman-es- 

Salahin, visits Ferula vesceritensis, 

5, iv, 95. (A. E. E.) 
$ 2. „ visiting Antirrhinum ramosissinmm 

21, iii, 97. (A. E. E.) 
¥ 1. „ on 31oricandia arvensis, 12, iv, 97 

(A. E. E.) 

Hymenoptera aculeata collected in Algeria. 411 

Odynerus (Lionotus) specularis, d. sp. 

0. bidentato colore assimilis minus hirsutus, post-scutello arete 
elevato, crista media subdentata, postice perpendiculari, nitidissimo, 
propodeo linea dorsali ad basin explanata nitidissima, lateribus 
utrinque bi-angulatis, squamis magnis subquadratis. 

Group of dantici and allied to bidentatus, Lep. 

£ . Black, clothed with short grey hairs, those on the head and front 
of the thorax rather longer. Head and thorax rugosely punctured, 
clypeus and labrum flavous, punctured, the former deeply and semi- 
circularly emarginate, clothed with silvery pubescence, mandibles 
testaceous, brown at the apex, a spot between the antenna 3 , the lower 
anterior orbits of the eyes, a spot behind each eye, and the first two 
antennal joints flavo-ferrugineous, apical joints of the antenna? 
including the recurved hook testaceous, at least beneath ; pronotum, 
except its posterior angles, the tegula?, two transverse spots along 
the apex of the scutellum, and a spot on each side of the propodeum 
along the lateral margin yellow, anterior margin of the pronotum 
very slightly produced in the centre, its angles slightly prominent 
and rectangular, tegulse punctured, wings including nerves anteriorly 
and on the apical half, suffused with brown colour becoming yellower 
towards the base, post-scutellum sharply elevated with a shining 
semi-circular area on its perpendicular posterior side, scarcely 
crenulate, but with a slight central tooth, propodeum angulated at 
the sides with a strong emargination beneath the larger angle, 
depression rugosely punctured, but with a very bright shining sub- 
triangular central space meeting the shining area of the post-scutellum, 
apical scales very large and subquadrate ; abdomen thinly clothed 
with fine grey pubescence, giving it a greyish look in some lights, 
rugosely punctured, all the segments with broad yellow trisinuate 
apical bands, that on the first segment very wide, only leaving a 
sub-triangular black spot at the base ; beneath shining, strongly 
punctured, with a band on the second and third segments only, basal 
crenatures of the second segment long and well developed, legs yellow, 
coxae and trochanters black, all the former spotted with yellow in front. 

Long. 13-14 mm. 

<£ 1. Biskra, to the north of railway, kilomdtre 199, 
4.30-6 p.m., on Tcncrmm polium, 28, v, 
94. (A. E. E.) 

$ 1. „ on Echinops spinosus. (A. E. E.) 

I have described the bands, etc., of this species as 
yellow, as they are evidently discoloured in both my 

412 Mr. E. Saunders on 

Odynerus {Lionotus) blanchardianus, Sauss. 

$ 1. Le Tarf, 27, vi, 96. {A. E. E.) 

$ 2. Biskra, on Ammi visnaga, 15, 17, v, 97. (A. E. E.) 

£ 1. Bone, on Euphorbia paralias, 7, viii, 97. (A E. E.) 

^ 1. „ „ Mentha rotundifolia, 10, viii, 97. (A. E. E.) 

Odynerus {Lionotus) sp. (?) 

$ 1. Biskra, on Tamarix, 28, iv, 97. {A. E. E.) 

Odynerus {Lionotus) sp. (?) 

? 1. Bone, 10, vi, 96. {A. E. E.) 

Odynerus {Lionotus) tripunctatus, Fab. 

$ 1. Biskra, 23, i, 97. (A. E. E.) 

$ 1. Biskra, on Ammi visnaga, 24, v, 97. {A. E. E.) 

Odynerus {Lionotus) regulus, Sauss. 

$ 3. Bone, on Euphorbia paralias, 7 and 23, viii, 97. 

{A. E\ E.) 
$ 1. „ „ Bubus discolor, 13, viii, 97. {A. E. E.) 
$ 1. „ „ Mentha rotundifolia, 10, viii, 97. {A. E. E.) 
£ 1. „ ,, Juncus acutus, 25, viii, 97. {A. E. E.) 
$ 1. La Calle, 4, viii, 96. {A. E. E.) 
$ 1. Biskra, 7, iv, 97. {A. E. E.) 

Odynerus {Lionotus) eatoni, n. sp. 

Citrinus, glaber, fortiter punctatus, capitis vertice, mesonoto, 
sternis, et propodei postice macula centrali nigris ; abdominis 
segmentis primo et secundo nigro maculatis, tegulis magnis, valde 

Bright citron yellow, glabrous, very largely punctured, head in 
both sexes with only the vertex black, clypeus narrowly emarginate 
and bidentate, antennae sometimes darker towards the apex, 
apical recurved joint in the £ very small ; thorax with the 
mesonotum, except a quadrate spot in front of the scutellum, and 
the sterna black, propodeum black with its sides yellow, tegulae 
large very strongly and closely punctured, wings very slightly 
dusky rather more so along the costal margin, nervures brown, post- 
scutellum slightly raised and crenulated, sides of the propodeum 
rounded and crenulated, apical scale produced above into a long sharp 

Hymenoptera aculeatcc collected in Algeria. 413 

spine ; abdomen closely but not quite so coarsely punctured as the 
head and thorax, posterior margin of the 1st segment very slightly 
and of the 2nd very distinctly raised, a spot on the apical margin 
of the first segment, a transverse spot on the disk of the 2nd towards 
the apex black, apical segments sometimes more or less infuscate ; 
beneath with the 2nd segment convex, its basal costaj rather lung 
but not very strongly developed, legs with the coxse at the base 

Long. 8 mm. 

A very distinct species by the strongly punctured 
tegulse, the peculiar coloration, somewhat resembling 
clilorolicus, and the long spines of the apical scales of the 

$ 1, $ 4. Biskra, cornlands bordering the route des 
Zibans, on Amvvi visnai/a, 10.30 a.m. and 
1-3 p.m., 18 and 24, v, 93. (A. E. E.) 
$ 2. Biskra, outskirts of the oasis, 17 and 19, v, 
97. {A. E. E.) 

$1, ? 5. Biskra, 5, v-9, vi, 98. (F. J). M.) 

Odynerus (Lionotus) doursii, Sauss. 

$ 1. Constantine, visiting Marubium vulgare, 29, v, 95. 
(A. E. E.) 

Odynerus {Lionotus) pontebvE, Sauss. 

t 1. Medea, 28, vi, 93. {A. E. E.) 

$ 1. Constantine, 18, vi, 98. (F. 1). 31.) 

Odynerus (Lionotus) parvulus, Lep. 

Numerous specimens of both sexes from Biskra, Le Tarf, 
Hippone, Bone, frequently on Ammi visnaga, iv- 
viii. (A. E. E. and F. D. M.) 

Odynerus (Lionotus) bispinosus, Lep. 

$ 2. Biskra, 28, v, 3, vi, 93. {A. E. E.) 
$ 1. Algiers, 13, iv, 98. (F. D. M.) 
$ 1. Constantine, 17, vi, 98. (F. B. M.) 
% 1. Biskra, 24, v, 98. (F. D. M.) 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1905. — PART IV. (DEC.) 28 

414 Mr. E. Saunders on 

Odynerus {Lionotus) hannibal, Sauss. 

$ 1. Constantine, entering a snail shell " on busi- 
ness," 16, v, 95. {A. E. E.) 
$ 2, $ 1. Biskra, visiting flowers of Tamarix br achy sty lis, 

4 and 8, iv, 95. (A. E. E.) 
$ 4, £ 4. „ visiting flowers of Tamarix brachystylis, 
29, iii, 18, iv, 97. {A. E. E.) 
$ 1. „ 19, v, 98. {F. D. M.) 
? 1. Constantine, 18, vi, 98. {F. D. M.) 

Odynerus {Lionotus) alpestris, Sauss. 

$ 1. Biskra, Fontaine Chaude, 4, iv, 94. {A. E. E.) 
$ 1. „ visiting Moricanclia arvensis, 25, iii, 95. 

(A. E. E.) 
$ 3. „ visiting Antirrhinum ramosissimum, 1 

and 21, iii, 97. {A. E. E.) 
$ 1. Bone, visiting Euphorbia, paralias, 23, viii, 97. 

(A. E. E.) 

Odynerus {Lionotus) floricola, Sauss. 

$ 2. Bone. 6, viii, 96, and 29, vii, 97. {A. E. E.) 
Z %. Algiers. 22 and 30, iv, 98. {F. D. 31.) 
$ 1. Le Tarf. 26, vii, 96. {A. E. E.) 

Odynerus {Lionotus), sp. (?) 

$ 1. Biskra and Oued Biskra, above the Barrage, 
amongst Tamarix scrub, 4, iv, 97. (A. E. E.) 

This male is peculiar in having the claw joints of the 
intermediate and posterior tarsi black. 

Odynerus {Lionotus), sp. (?) 

$ 2. Biskra, a little above the Barrage, amongst Tamarix, 
30, iv, 97. {A. E. E.) 

£ 1. „ between the railway and the scrub border- 
ing the pasture, 10, v, 97. (^4. E. E.) 

This may prove to be the $ of the preceding, but the 
tarsi are entirely pale, and both my specimens are much 
discoloured ; they are very closely allied to floricola, but 
the post-scutellum is slightly raised and the mesopleurse 
are not carinated under the yellow spot as in that species. 

Hymenoptcra aculcata collected in Algeria. 415 

Odynerus (Lionotus), sp. (?) 

^ 1. Constantine, on Inula viscosa, 9, x, 93. (A. E. E.) 
? 1. Philippeville, 20, vi, 98. (F. I). M.) 

Apparently only differing from the preceding by having 
the pronotal emargination narrower. 

These three species are so closely allied that I do not 
feel that it would be safe on the material before me to 
describe them as new. 

Odynerus {Microdynerus) pedunculatus, n. sp. 

Niger, flavo rufoque ornatus ; segmento primo abdominali maris 
petiolato (Eumeniformi), foeminse forma consueta, in utroque sexu 
plus minus rufotestaceo, apice flavo fasciato, -segmento secundo nigro 
fascia apicali pallida, ipso apice membranaceo, punctorum serie 

Black, head and thorax shining, strongly punctured, face entirely 
clothed with silvery hairs in the $ ; mandibles piceous in the £ t 
fulvo-testaceous in the 9 , clypeus white in the £ except at the apex. 
Scape of the antennae in front white in the (J, fulvo-testaceous in the 
$ , recurved apical joint in the £ testaceous, terminating in a black 
knob, reaching to the base of the 11th joint, which is testaceous 
beneath, the very short 12th joint being entirely of that colour. 
Anterior margin of the pronotum truncate, with an entire narrow 
pale band in the £ , two spots in the $ , angles nearly right angles, 
sides of the pronotum nearly parallel, very long in the 2 j tegulse 
whitish in the $ , fulvo-testaceous in the 9> wings slightly smoky, 
darker along the costa and in the radial cell, scutellum nearly square 
in the $ and fulvo-testaceous at the apex, transverse in the <$ , with 
two apical pale spots, post-scutellum black in the £ , concolorous 
with the scutellum in the $ , propodeum black with a strong central 
impression, its sides clothed with silvery hairs, the impression 
shining in the $?> sides of the propodeum gradually converging 
towards the apex in the male and terminating in two rather long 
pale spines which somewhat embrace the petiole of the body, sides 
much more rounded in the ^ > the spines short, and further apart 
not conspicuously pale, but piceous in colour, propodeal scales small, 
not spinose ; abdomen slightly shining, punctured and clothed with 
greyish, very fine pubescence, with the basal segment fulvo-testaceous 
in both sexes, very narrow and petiolate in the <$ , of ordinary form 
in the 9 > the extreme apex with a pale whitish band, in the $ the 
base of the segment is black, and the apical margin is raised, callose, 

416 Mr. E. Saunders on 

and densely fringed posteriorly with very short fine white hairs, 
second segment with a pale apical band beyond which is a mem- 
branous appendix, which in the g bears a row of elongate 
punctures ; beneath with the second segment more shining than the 
rest and strongly punctured, with the apex pale as on the upper-side. 
Legs fulvo-testaceous, paler in the <$ , extreme base of the femora 

Long. 7-8 mm. 

$ 1. Biskra, near railway, kilometre 199, in the scrub 
between the fringe of reeds and the farm mule-track, 
22, iv, 97. (A. E. E.) 

$ 1, $ 1. The same place, 25, iv, 97. {A. E. E.) 

The $ and £ are so different in form that I feel great 
diffidence in uniting them, at the same time their colours 
are so similar and the locality identical that I hope I 
have done right ; the $ is of the ordinary form of a 
Microdynerus, but the £ more resembles those species of 
the minutus group, with constricted petioles, crueniatus, 
catoni, etc., but is much more elongate. 


Of this widely-distributed genus, numerous specimens 
have been brought home by Messrs. Eaton and Morice, 
all of which belong to the gallica group — but the 
majority are females which in the present state of our 
knowledge cannot be referred for certainty to their 
respective males. Dr. F. F. Kohl (Ann. d. K. K. Naturhist, 
Hoftnuseums, Wien, Band xiii, 1898, p. 87, taf. iii) 
describes and figures the males of five species of this group, 
which appear to be easily distinguishable, and of these 
Mr. Eaton has brought home two. 

$£ are recorded from Biskra, Boae, Medea, and Mustapha 
Superieur. (A. E. E. and F. D. M.) 


$2. Biskra, in the grounds of Chateau Landon, and in 
the fields between that and The Negro Village, on Ammi 
visnaga, 24, v, 93 ; " eyes " in life " subolivaceous." (A. E. E.) 


£ 1. Bone, near the Plage, 28, xi, 93. {A. E. E.) 

Hymcnoptera aculeata collected in Algeria. 417 

Vespa germanica, F. 

$ 1. Constantine, 12, xi. 94. 

$ 1. Mustapha Superieur, 25, ii, 93. 

<J5 1. Colonne Voirol, 4, v, 93. 

g 1. Medea, 1, vii, 93. 

This is the only species of Vespa sent home. 

( 419 ) 

XXIV. On the Ichneumonidous Group Tryphonides schizo- 
donti, Holmgr., with Descriptions of New Species. 
By Claude Morley, F.E.S. 

[Read December 6th, 1905.] 

These injurious parasites have upon several occasions 
come before the notice of our Society. Thomas Desvignes 
published (Trans. Ent. Soc, 1862, pp. 215-222) descriptions 
of ten supposedly new species of the genus Bassus, unfor- 
tunately with no knowledge that Holmgren had previously 
brought out (Sv. Ak. Handl.,1855, pp.353-37l) an elaborate 
revision of the group, wherein all such species, indicated 
by the former, as had been unknown to Gravenhorst (Ichn. 
Europ., 1829, pp. 310-357) are fully dealt with. Desvignes' 
names have ever since remained unsynonymized, a mere 
encumbrance to catalogues, and it is only now that they 
are for the first time relegated to their true positions. 
Bridgman also described five supposititiously new species 
in our Transactions (1882, p. 161 j 1883, p. 170; 1886, 
pp. 364-5 ; 1887, p. 375), of which there are still three 
considered to be good. No reliable mention of British 
representatives of this group was made till the publication 
in 1856 of Desvignes' "Catalogue of British Ichneumonidse," 
wherein are recorded eighteen Gravenhorstian and one 
new species. Of these, B. rujipes is no more than a variety 
of B. biguttatus, and B. insignis of B. exultans ; the same 
author's paper of 1862 added four species under preoccupied 
names, leaving the total at twenty-one kinds. In 1870 
the Rev. T. A. Marshall's " Ichneumonidum Britannicorum 
Catalogus " enumerated thirty - nine species, of which 
thirteen are now regarded as synonyms. Kirchner's 
"Catalogus Hymenopterorum Europse" of 1867 mentions 
sixty-two kinds, among which, however, at least twenty- 
four are synonyms and three of the Fabrician titles apper- 
tain to other groups. In 1872, the Entomological Society 
published "A Catalogue of British Hymenoptera," which 
has ever since, though now sadly obsolete, been the basis- 
list of entomophagous work in Britain. In it we find 

420 Mr. Claude Morley on the 

Basms rufiventris incorrectly placed in the genus Pohj- 
blastus, and Desvignes' names are still treated as valid ; 
the number of species is placed at forty, though thirteen 
of these are now considered synonymous. To these I was 
enabled to compile nine additions, in the paper I had the 
honour of reading before you on March 6th, 1901, which 
brought the actual total to thirty-six indigenous species. 
The palsearctic fauna now includes little more than sixty 
species (a few of which I do not know), and of these I am 
herein able to add eight to our catalogue, and to describe 
four kinds which appear to be new. 

Phthorimus anomalus, sp. n. 

Head not narrowed posteriorly, entirely black and subglabrous 
with the strongly pilose maxillary palpi apically white ; vertex 
posteriorly entire ; frons nitidulous, shortly pilose, sparsely and 
obsoletely punctulate, centrally subcarinate with the scrobes large 
and glabrous ; face strongly nitidulous ; epistoma somewhat convex 
and distinctly discreted from the short, broad, apically strongly 
emarginate clypeus by a straight fossa which is laterally produced 
upwards to the orbits ; cheeks much shorter than basal width of the 
stout and laterally margined mandibles. Antennse short, not reaching 
beyond apex of thorax ; black with the pedicellus pale above ; 
flagellum possessing about nineteen joints, ferrugineous beneath with 
apices of the joints subnodulose and infuscate ; apical joint conical 
and obtuse. Thorax strongly nitidulous, immaculate ; mesonotum 
anteriorly subconvex, evenly and finely punctate, with distinct 
notauli ; mesopleurae sparsely and evenly punctate, basally impressed 
in the centre ; metathorax very strongly and evenly punctate with 
the petiolar area subobsolete and spiracles circular ; areola glabrous, 
parallel-sided and twice longer than bi'oad, with lateral cost* dis- 
tinct, but costula? wanting ; metapleurse sparsely pilose. Scutellum 
black, hardly convex, nitidulous and obsoletely punctate ; post- 
scutellum very small. Abdomen longer than head and thorax, 
immaculate, very strongly and evenly punctate throughout, with 
only the apices of the segments glabrous, and broadest at the apex 
of the first ; second segment with distinct thyridii ; terebra exserted, 
as long as the abdomen, with spicula flavous and strongly acuminate 
apically, valvulse black and very strongly setiferous-pilose through- 
out. Legs clear red with all the coxae and basal joint of trochanters 
black, with all the apical tarsal joints infuscate ; hind metatarsi, 
except apically, flavescent and four times longer than their con- 

Ichneumonidous Group Tryphonidcs schizodonti. 421 

colorous calcaria ; tarsi not longer than the tibia?, of which the hind 
pair is very slightly intumescent before the flavescent base. Wings 
hyaline with the stigma luteous, tegulse and base of costa pale 
flavous ; areolet sessile, twice broader than long ; nervellus opposite 
and intercepted distinctly below the centre. 
Length, 6 mm. (Terebra, 4 mm.) $ only. 

There can be no doubt that this anomalous species, 
from the conformation of the mandibles and spatulately 
compressed abdomen, belongs to this genus as set forth by 
Thomson (Opusc. Ent., xiv, 1474); and perhaps also to 
Phthorima, Forst, (Verh. pr. Rheinl., 1868, p. 162), but the 
latter's diagnosis is too short and he presents no type. It 
is closely allied to P. compressus, Desv., but differs abund- 
antly in the posteriorly broader head, distinct notauli, 
the metathoracic structure, abdominal puncturation, 
strongly exserted terebra and very much broader areolet. 

The Rev. F. D. Morice took a single specimen at Long- 
cross, on June 17th, 1904 ; the type is in my collection. 

Promethus dodsi, sp. n. 

Black ; legs, scutellum, post-scutellnm and centre of abdomen 
broadly, red ; antennas beneath, part of the face and of the mouth 
flavous ; mesonotum closely and coarsely punctate, dull ; antennas 
as long as the body ; clypeus bifoveolate. 

Length, 6 mm. ? . 

This species is so closely allied to P. scutellaris, Bridg., 
as to require no detailed description. Therefrom it differs 
in its twice longer antennse (which possess twenty-four, 
not twenty-two, joints), its bifoveate clypeus which is sub- 
dentately produced apically in the centre and distinctly 
impressed transversely before the base; in its dull and 
coriaceously punctate mesonotum, distinct and discally 
coalesced notauli, strongly transverse areola ; in the broadly 
flavous facial orbits, entirely rufescent clypeus, apically 
black epistoma, the antennoe entirely flavidous beneath, 
darker scutellum and red post-scutellum, immaculate 
trochanters, testaceous stigma; and in having the abdomen 
and especially its basal segment stouter, with segments 
three, four, base of the fifth and apex of the second entirely 
clear red, the last-mentioned being striolate from its base 
nearly to its apex. In the dull and confluently punctate 
mesonotum it resembles P. pulchellus, from which the 

422 Mr. Claude Morley on the 

entirely pale coxse and scutellum, as also the clypeal 
structure, at once distinguish it. 

Taken by Dr. Capron, probably in Surrey ; the type is 
in my collection. 

Uxori mihi hoc insectum dicatum volo. 


Head as broad as thorax, closely and finely punctate, somewhat 
dull ; black with face, mouth except apices of mandibles, frontal 
orbits and the cheeks shortly, stramineous ; vertex narrow and not 
posteriorly emarginate ; frons strongly canaliculate centrally and the 
epistoma subdeplanate ; clypeus convex, apically margined, evenly 
rounded and hardly emarginate apically in the centre ; cheeks as 
long as breadth of mandibles at their base. Antenna? slightly longer 
than head and thorax, filiform, black above, scape and pedicellus 
stramineous and flagellum ferrugineous beneath. Thorax stout, 
somewhat nitidulous, strongly and evenly but not confluently 
punctate ; notauli anteriorly wanting, though traceable from the 
oroad and hamate pale line before the wing to the subdeplanate disc 
of the mesonotum ; dots beneath both pairs of wings as well as 
before the anterior pair pale, as also is the mesosternum anteriorly ; 
metathorax scabriculous, with the lateral costae, petiolar and sub- 
quadrate basal arese entire. Scutellum strongly deplanate, black ; 
deeply and evenly but not confluently punctate. Abdomen sub* 
parallel-sided, entirely black ; the two basal segments coarsely and 
confluently punctate, with their ventral plica dull testaceous ; the 
first basally bicarinate nearly to its centre and the second basally 
irregularly striolate ; the third segment basally scabrous, apically 
(with the following) nitidulous, obsoletely punctate and pilose ; 
sixth apically truncate and not compressed, the two last incon- 
spicuous and hardly exserted. Legs clear fulvous ; all the coxa? and 
trochanters clear stramineous with the hind coxae basally black ; 
hind tarsi not infuscate, with calcaria one-third the length of their basal 
joint. Wings normal, radix stramineous, stigma fulvous ; areolet 
sessile with the outer nervure sub-obsolete ; nervellus sub-opposite 
and intercepted below its centre. 

Length, 5 mm. <$ only. 

Tins species is certainly allied to H. brevicornis, Thorns, 
(only known in the $ sex), and it is just possible that it 
may represent its male, though differing in the short 
petiolar carinse, posteriorly entire vertex, entirely pale 
stigma, substriate second segment and the colour of the 

Ichneumonidous Group Tryplionides scliizodonti. 423 

legs. At first I had thought it possibly the unknown $ 
of H. longipes, Holmgr., to which the colour of the legs is 
more nearly referable, but the comparatively short antenna, 
entirely black abdomen and fulvous hind tarsi seem to 
preclude such a situation. In its distinct metathoracic 
arese, it appears related with the Aniarophron-gYO\jL\>, with 
which, however, it has no other character in common. 

I swept this species from rank herbage in Wroxham 
Broad in the evening of June 14th, 1901 ; the type* is in 
my collection. 


Head closely and confluently punctate, dull, black ; vertex not 
broad, posteriorly entire ; frons centrally distinctly, but not deeply, 
canaliculate ; face coriaceously punctate somewhat broader apically, 
with the epistoma a little convex and quadrately pale in the centre ; 
clypeus testaceous, deplanate, not laterally elevated, but with the 
apical margin entire and strongly reflexed ; palpi and base of the 
stout mandibles flavescent, latter slightly broader than the length of 
the cheeks. Antenna? longer than head and thorax, and slightly 
pilose, filiform, entirely black with the apices of the seven basal 
flagellar joints subnodulose. Thorax black, with a hamate line and 
a dot before with a longitudinal callosity beneath the front wings, 
and the basal margin of the mesopleura? fiavous ; mesothorax some- 
what nitidulous, finely and evenly punctate throughout with the 
notauli entirely wanting ; metathorax evenly scabriculous throughout 
with minute circular spiracles, and the apex centrally substrigose 
between two broad and shallow fovea?. Scutellum subdeplanate, 
evenly and closely punctate, somewhat nitidulous, with the apical 
margin, together with that of the post-scutellum, transversely flavidous. 
Abdomen elongate-oval, immaculate, centrally as broad as thorax, 
finely alutaceous and dull, becoming nitidulous towards the slightly 
compressed anus ; basal segment quadrate, laterally marginate with 
no carina?, the following transverse with the second obsoletely 
aciculate at its base ; terebra reflexed. Legs clear red, with the tibia? 
and front tarsi testaceous ; the hind tibia? becoming gradually 
nigrescent from centre to apex, and their tarsi entirely and the anterior 
at the apex, black ; hind calcaria testaceous and not reaching centre 
of the metatarsus. Wings hyaline, with tegula? white, stigma 
testaceous ; areolet subpetiolate, broad with the outer nervure well 
defined ; nervellus a little postfurcal and intercepted only slightly 
below the centre. 

Length, 6 J mm. $ only. 

424 Mr. Claude Morley on the 

From all the other members of the genus bearing an 
areolet and no petiolar carinse, the present is very distinct 
in its apically entire and strongly reflexed clypeus. The 
alutaceous abdomen, thoracic coloration and general con- 
formation ally it with H. crassicrus, Thorns., from which it 
is sufficiently distinct in its clypeal and vertical structure, 
canaliculate frons, apically explanate face, the antennae 
entirely and scutellum laterally immaculate, the intercep- 
tion of the nervellus, acutely margined basal segment, the 
dull testaceous hind tibiae and abdominal plica. 

The type, which is in my collection, was taken by 
Dr. Capron probably in Surrey ; I also took this species 
in a greenhouse at Ryde in the Isle of Wight in 
August 1902. 

Homoporus incisus, Thorns., $. 

Its author only knew the female of this species ; the male differs 
in nothing but size and coloration. Ejiistoma, clypeus and mouth 
excepting apices of mandibles, stramineous, orbits and cheeks 
immaculate : a broad subhamate line before and a callosity beneath 
the front-wings, with the basal margin of the mesopleurce stramineous; 
apices of scutellum and of post-scutellum, with the sides of the 
former somewhat broadly flavous ; legs pale red with all the coxse 
and trochanters, and the hind tibiae (except at their extreme base 
and apex), whitish ; abdomen subparallel-sided, broadest behind 
the centre. 

Length, 5 -J- mm. 

A Synopsis of the Pal^earctic Bassides. 

(2). 1. Metathoracic spiracles large and 

pale ; scutellar fovea costate. Trichomastix. 

(1). 2. Metathoracic spiracles small and 
immaculate ; scutellar fovea 

(8). 3. Face dull and punctate, not dis- 
tinctly impressed longitudi- 

(5). 4. Notauli deeply impressed; scape 

excised to its centre . . . Zootrephus. 

(4). 5. Notauli obsolete ; scape not 
deeply excised. 

Ielincumouidous Group Tryphonides bchizodonti. 42-"> 

(7). 6. Anterior segments transversely 

impressed ; tibia) white . . Bassus. 
(6). 7. Anterior segments not impressed 

or tibia? not white .... Homoporus. 
(3). 8. Face shining and subglabrous, 

bicarinate longitudinally. 
(10). 9. Areolet wanting ; abdomen not 

entirely black Peomethus. 

(9). 10. Areolet present ; abdomen black 

and spatulately compressed . Phthorimus. 

Trichomastix, Voll. 

A large black, shining species, 
with legs red ; scutellum 
laterally white 1. JlitvijU's, Holmgr. 

Zootrephus, Thorns. 
(2). 1. Flagellum 18-jointed ; anus 

broadly black ; metathorax 

more rugose 1. rujkcntris, Grav. 

(1). 2. Flagellum 22-jointed ; anus 

narrowly black ; metathorax 

less rugose 2. holmgreni, Bridg. 

Bassus. Fab. 

(6). 1. Anterior coxae not entirely pale ; 
abdomen rarely red-marked. 

(3). 2. Hind coxa? red ; basal segment 

apically pure white .... 1. albosicjuatus, Grav. 

(2). 3. All the coxae black ; basal seg- 
ment not white-marked. 

(5). 4. Apex of hind tibiae black ; 2 

epistoma white-marked . . 2. varicoxa, Thorns. 

(4). 5. Apex of hind tibiae ferrugin- 

eons; 2 epistoma immaculate 3. annulatus, Grav. 

(1). 6. Anterior coxae entirely pale ; 
abdomen usually centrally red. 
(10). 7. All the coxae pale. 

(9). 8. Abdomen not broadly red cen- 
trally ; hind tibiae bicolored . 4. tricinctus, Grav. 

(8). 9. Abdomen broadly red centrally; 

hind tibiae tricolored . . .5. leetatorius, Fab. 

(7). 10. Hind coxae basally black ; cen- 
tral segments red-banded . . 6. multicolor, Grav. 

426 Mr. Claude Morley on the 

Homoporus, Thorns. 

(30). 1. Areolet wanting (ISyrphocto- 

nus, Forst.). 
(19). 2. Metathoracic arese not entirely 

(14). 3. Second segment transverse ; 

anus often somewhat dull. 
(11). 4. Basal area distinct and entire ; 

hind tibi;e not white. 
(8). 5. Notauli wanting ; scutellum 

(7). 6. Femora entirely, abdomen not 

broadly, red 1. ductus, Grav. 

(6). 7. Femora basally black ; abdomen 

usually broadly red .... 2. bizonarius, Grav. 
(5). 8. Notauli distinct ; scutellum 

(10). 9. Hind femora black ; orbits 

alone pale 3. graculus, Grav. 

(9). 10. Hind femora red ; face im- 
maculate 4. brevitarsis, Thorns. 

(4). 11. Basal area obsolete ; hind tibiae 

(13). 12. Scutellum, and often the meso- 

notum and pleurae, red . . 5. pedoratorius, Gr. 
(12). 13. Scutellum centrally black, apex 

or also the sides flavous . . 6. alpinus, Holmgr. 
(3). 14. Second segment quadrate ; anus 

strongly nitidulous. 
(16). 15. Clypeus convex ; antennae 

shorter than expanded wings 7. caudatus, Thorns. 
(15). 16. Clypeus deplanate ; antennae 

as long as expanded wings. 
(18). 17. Coxae red ; epistoma immacu- 
late ; second segment striolate 8. longipes, Holmgr. 
(17). 18. Coxa? black ; epistoma pale ; 

second segment not striolate . 9. punctiventris, Th. 
(2). 19. Metathoracic areae entirely 

(21). 20. Scutellum subtumidous, im- 
maculate 10. borealis, Holmgr. 

(20). 21. Scutellum normal, nearly 

always pale. 

Ichncumonidous Group Tryplionidcs schizodonti. 427 


(27). 24. 













(41). 32. 




















Vertex of head more or less 

Scutellum only partly pale ; 

hind tibiae usually black 

with base white. 
Meso-humeral marks, and usu- 
ally the epistomal, wanting. 
Metathorax not apically red . 
Metathorax apically red . . 
Meso-humeral marks, and the 

epistoma always pale . . 
Scutellum entirely pale ; hind 

tibia? red with apex black 
Vertex of head not emarginate ; 

scutellum laterally pale . . 
Areolet present or abdomen 

broadly fulvous. 
Abdomen with no segment 

entirely red ; hind tibiae 

usually white. 
Petiolar carina? distinct and 

usually elongate ; tibiae not 

mainly white. 
Hind tibia? basally white. 
Petiolar carina? parallel . . . 
Petiolar carina? divergent 

(?ENIZEMUM, Forst.) . . . 

Hind tibia' not white-marked. 

Clypeus not apically excised ; 
scutellum black; areolet weak. 

Anterior coxa? and hind tarsi 

Anterior coxa? and hind tarsi 

Clypeus apically excised ; scu- 
tellum pale ; areolet strong . 

Petiolar carinas short or wan ting; 
hind tibiae usually mainly 
white (1 homotropus, Forst.) 

Scutellum not entirely pale, nor 
the second segment strongly 

Scutellum of normal size and 

11. biguttatus, Grav. 

12. abdominator, Bridg. 

13. flavulineatus, Gr 

14. tarsatorius, Panz. 

15. Jissorius, Grav. 

16. ornatus, Grav. 

17. deplanatus, Grav. 

18. brevicornis, Thorns. 

19. niijer, Mori. 

20. sundevallL Holmur. 

428 Mr. Claude Morley on the 














. 44. Clypeus apically reflexed and 

entire 21. reflexus, Mori. 

. 45. Clypeus apically not reflexed 
nor entire. 

. 46. Clypeus apically strongly ex- 
cised and laterally elevated 22. incisus, Thorns. 

. 47. Clypeus apically emarginateand 
not laterally elevated. 

. 48. Clypeus laterally foveate. 

. 49. Hind tibia) basally infuscate. 

. 50. Scutellum apically white ; 5 

flagellum red 23. ruficorrvis, Holmgr. 

. 51. Scutellum usually laterally 

white ; $ flagellum black . 24. pumilus, Holmgr. 

. 52. Hind tibia) often externally, 
though hardly basally, in- 
fuscate 25. dimidiatus, Schr. 

. 53. Clypeus not laterally foveate. 

. 54. Hind tibia) normal and basally 

infuscate 26. longiventris, Thorns. 

. 55. Hind tibia) stout and not basally 

infuscate 27. cmssicrus, Thorns. 

. 56. Scutellum large and somewhat 
strongly convex. 

. 57. Metathorax rugulose ; second 
segment longitudinally stri- 
gose . 28. strigator, Fab. 

. 58. Metathorax finely punctate ; 

second segment not strigose . 29. megaspis, Thorns. 

. 59. Scutellum entirely pale ; second 

segment strongly elongate . 30. xcmthaspis, Thorns. 

. 60. Abdomennearly always broadly 
red centrally ; tibia) not 
61. Scutellum not entirely black or 
basal segments scabrous. 

. 62. Scutellum at most apically pale ; 

second segment punctate . . 31. elegans, Grav. 

. 63. Scutellum mainly pale ; second 
segment subglabrous. 

. 64. Areolet present ; second seg- 
ment elongate 32. pallidipes, Grav. 

. 65. Areolet wanting ; second seg- 
ment transverse .... 33. pulcher, Holmgr. 

Ichnewmonidous Group Tryphonidcs schizodonti. 429 

(61). 66. Scutellum entirely black ; basal 
segments notscabrous (? ania- 
rophron, Forst.) 

(68). 67. All the cox?e pale ; areolet pre- 
sent 34. signatus, Grav. 

(67). 68, Hind coxse basally black ; areo- 
let wanting 35. hygrobius, Thorns. 

1. dodsi, Mori. 

2. scutellaris, Bridg. 

3. nigriventris, Thorns. 

4. melanaspis, Thome. 

Promethits, Thorns. 

(12). 1. All the coxse pale; petiolar area 
not coarsely sculptured. 
(7). 2. Scutellum pale. 
(6). 3. Abdomen broadly red centrally. 
(5). 4. Mesonotum dull ; second seg- 
ment mainly striolate . . . 
(4). 5. Mesonotum shining ; second 
segment basally striolate . . 
(3). 6. Abdomen nearly entirely black 
(2). 7. Scutellum black. 
(11). 8. Notauli present ; coxa? flavous. 
(10). 9. Abdomen nearly entirely black 
(9). 10. Abdomen broadly red in the 

centre 5. sidcator, Grav. 

(8). 11. Notauli wanting ; coxae white 6. albicoxa, Thorns. 
(1). 12. Hind coxse mainly black ; peti- 
olar area finely sculptured. 
(14). 13. Basal segment twice longer than 
broad ; coxse white . . . 
(13). 14. Basal segment not elongate ; 

coxse flavescent. 
(16). 15. Third segment with a basal 
fascia or lateral gutta citri- 


(15). 16. Third segment with no citri- 

nous markings. 
(18). 17. Mesonotum dull and confluently 

punctate 9. pidehellus, Holmgr, 

(17). 18. Mesonotum shining and sparsely 

(20). 19. Stout ; second segment apically 

glabrous 10. festivus, Fab. 

(19). 20. Slender ; second segment en- 
tirely scabrous 11. dorscdis, Holmgr. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1905. — PART IV. (DEC.) 29 

7. cognatus, Holmgr. 

8. Icdicarpns, Thorns. 

430 Mr. Claude Morley on the 

PHTHORIMU8, Tlioms. 

(2). 1. Areola transverse ; temples nar- 
row ; abdomen not strongly 
punctate 1. compressus, Desv. 

(1). 2. Areola elongate ; temples broad ; 

abdomen strongly punctate . 2. anomalus, Mori. 

Synonymy, Economy and Distribution. 

During the course of the last ten years I have been 
enabled to amass a little over seven hundred specimens of 
this group in Britain, and perhaps it may not be out of 
place to here indicate their relative frequency in our islands. 
The species bearing an asterisk have not yet been noted as 
indigenous ; of the rest there are only three species not 
represented in my collection, from the closely examined 
specimens of which alone this summary is drawn up, the 
respective number of specimens there representing each 
species is indicated in parentheses. A dagger indicates that 
the species is new to Britain. 

T. fiavipes, Holmgr. (1.) Very rare ; my only specimen was 
taken by Dr. Capron, probably about Shere in Sur- 
rey ; Bridgman records it from Worcester in May, and 
doubtfully from Norfolk. It has been bred from a 
Syrphais pupa. [ = T. polita, Voll. ; = B. tibialis, 
Bridg. ; = T. pallipes (sic), Thorns.] 

Z. rufiventris, Grav. (7.) Not rare at Brandon in Suffolk 
in June 1903 ; Lowestoft on umbelliferous flowers, 
August ; Wicken in Cambs., June ; Reigate in July. 
[ = sulcator, var. 2, Grav., $ .] 

Z. holmgrcni, Bridg. (16.) Somewhat common in the 
Breck district of Suffolk, June to August ; Surrey 
(Capron) ; Greenings (W. Saunders) ; Hartiug in May 
(Beaumont) ; Point of Aire (Tomlin). [I have fol- 
lowed Thomson in considering the species of Zootre- 
plms as distinct ; it is quite possible that Bridgman 
did not know Z. rufiventris, which stocd under an 
incorrect genus in the British list. The relative 
rugosity of the metathorax and rufescence of the 
abdomen are the only features of separation which to 
me appear to be at all constant. Thomson separates 
them thus : — 

Ichneumonidous Group Tryphonides schizodonti. 431 


Flagellum ferrugineous, 22-jointed infuscate above, 18-jointed. 

Metathorax more rugose less rugose. 

Basal segment longer. 

rugose with carina? distinct less rugose with shorter 


2nd segment fulvous or (var. b) black with red line thyridii 

basally black with thyridii obsolete large and subcircular. 

2nd to Uh with epipleura indexed 2nd and 3rd with epipleura? 


3rd and 4th always red red, discally black-marked. 

Hind legs elongate less elongate. 

femora red red with black dot beneath. 

trochanters citrinoua stramineous, basally black. 

coxse basally black black to beyond their centre. 

Intermediate coxx citrinoua basally black.] 

B. albosignatus, Grav. (4.) Certainly rare, occurring only 
in July ; Cadney, Lines. (Peacock) ; Nairn ( Ycrbury) ; 
Southwold on flowers of Heracleum spliondylium ; 
Kessingland, Suffolk, flying on the beach. It has 
been bred from Syrp>hus sp. [ = albosignatus, Grav., 
$ et var. 3, $ ; Holmgr., excl. var. 3.] 

B. varicoxa. Thorns. (17.) Common, June to August ; 
Suffolk, Cambs., Herts., Point of Aire. [ = albosig- 
natus, var. 3, Holmgr. = ? albosignatus, var. 1, Grav.] 

B. annulatus, Grav. (9.) Not very common from middle of 
July to end of September ; Suffolk, Surrey. [ = ? 
albosignatus, var. 2, Grav. It differs from B. varicoxa, 
Thorns., in the less deeply impressed incisures, 
entirely ($) and internally (£) ferrugineous apices of 
hind tibiae ; smaller humeral and scutellar pale marks 
and immaculate $ epistoma. The latter is probably 
no more than a variety.] 

B. tricinctvs, Grav. (43.) Abundant, May to September ; 
Isle of Mull (Tomlin); Yorks. (Askrigg, [Elliott), 
Gloucester, Hereford, Herts., Suffolk, London, Surrey, 
Sussex, Hants., Devon. [= albosignatus, var. 4, $, 
Grav. = nemoralis, Holmgr. This species differs from 
nemoralis in nothing but the abdominal coloration ; 
the latter is a var.] 

B. Isdatorius, Fab. (90.) Abundant, May to September ; 
Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, Lines., Herts., Gloucester, 

432 Mr. Claude Morley on the 

London, Kent, Surrey, Sussex, Isles of Wight and 
Purbeck, Cornwall (Cremyl, Newbery). Also from 
Bucarest. It is said to have been bred from such 
varied hosts as Adimonia rustica, Tortrices, Syrphus 
baltcatns and S. pinastri (= ? corolhv); — cf. also 
En torn., 1884, p. 167. 

B. multicolor, Grav. (13.) Very local but common where it 
occurs, in marshes, June ; Horning Ferry in Norfolk 
and Tnddenham Fen in Suffolk ; Sussex, Surrey. 
[= dclctus, Thorns, $ $.] 

H. cinctus, Grav. (18.) Uncommon in woods in May and 
June, also found in autumn; Lines., Herts., Suffolk, 
Surrey. [= lateralis, Grav. = albicinctus, Desv., £ ; 
var. = scabriculus, Holmgr.] 

H. bizonarius, Grav. (15.) By no means common, June to 
September ; Herts., Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex ; ap- 
parently commoner in Surrey. Also from Nantes. 
[= cingulatus, Holmgr. = ? frontalis, Brisch. This 
species greatly resembles Bassus multicolor superfici- 
ally in its more or less distinct tranverse segmental 
impressions, entirely white scutellum and usually 
brightly cinctured central segments ; the coloration 
of the hind tibiae, however, readily distinguishes it 
from that genus. The outer recurrent nervure is 
rarely entirely wanting.] 

H. graculus, Grav. (18.) Not uncommon in boggy spots in 
May, July and August; Suffolk, Herts., Gloucester, 
Surrey, Conwall. [ B. graculus, Grav., £ = obscuripes, 
Holm., $ $ = rufocinctus, Desv., $ £.] 

H. brevitarsis, Thorns.* Switzerland. 

H. pectoratorius, Grav. (11.) Local in woods in May and 
August ; Suffolk, Surrey, Isle of Wight. 

H. alpinus, Holmgr. $ [= ? monticola, Voll., $.]* Scandi- 
navia and ? Switzerland. 

H. caudatus, Thoms.f (1.) The only specimen I have seen 
was taken by Capron in Surrey. 

H. longipcs, Holmgr.* Scandinavia. 

H. punctiventris, Thoms.-j- (2). Felden near Boxmoor, in 
Herts. (Piffard) ; Cornworthy near Totnes, in Devon 

H. borealis, Holmgr.* Lapland. 

H. Uguttatns, Grav. (9.) Probably not common; I only 
possess it from Surrey and Herts. [= var. rufip>cs, 
Grav., Holmgr. = var. (scut, apically white) deplanatus, 

Ielineumonidous Group Tryphonides schizodonti. 433 

Grav. et Holmgr., excl. $ ( = bigultatus, var. e, 
Thorns.) ; = confusus, Woldst. This is a most 
variable species and the sexes are dissimilar.] 

H. dbdominator, Eridg. The unique $ was taken by 
Bignell at Dousland (Devon.), August 23rd, 1884, and 
is in his collection. [This is probably no more than 
a colour variety of H. bigultatus, though considered 
valid by Thomson.] 

H. tarsatorius, Panz. (52.) Abundant in woods and marshes 
in May and June, also occurs on flowers of Angelica 
sylvcstris in the autumn ; Yorks. (Askrigg, Elliott), 
Lines., Suffolk, Herts., Surrey, Sussex, Isle of Wight. 
Also from Bucarest. It is said to have been bred 
from Syrphus balteatus, Depressaria angcliella and 
Coccinella sp. [ = insignis et exultans, Grav. et 
Holmgr. == pulclielliLS, Desv., $ (nee Holmgr.) = 
flavits, Desv., $ (var. c, alis areola completa, Thorns.). 
This is the only species I know which may or may 
not possess an areolet ; when present it is very small, 
oblique, consisting of little more than the duplication 
of its basal nervure ; only one $ of my fifty specimens 
possesses it.] 

II. flavolineatus, Grav. (11.) Not very common, June and 
August; Suffolk, Herts., Surrey, Devon. [= inter- 
rupts, Holmgr., $ = bimaculakcs, Holmgr. $ ; nee Zett.] 

H. fissorius, Grav. (9.) Uncommon and always occurs 
singly, May, July, and September; Kent (Hunting- 
field, Morice), Surrey, Hants., Suffolk, Herts., 
Gloucester. [ = punctatus, Bridg. ; nee fissorius, 

H. ornatus, Grav. (7.) Very uncommon, May, August, 
and September; Suffolk (Lowestoft and South wold), 
London (Blackheath and Plumstead, Beaumont), 
Hants. (Lyndhurst, Adams), Isle of Wight (Ryde). 
It has been bred from Syrphus sp. [ = frenator, 
Desv., £ . = ornatus, Thorns., $ $. = var. ^; deplanatus, 
Holmgr., "£"] 

H. deplanatus, Grav. (3.) In Dr. Capron's collection from 
Surrey. It has been bred from Syrphus sp. {deplan- 
atus, Grav. et Holmgr., excl. $ = nigricornis, Thorns., 
£. Gravenhorst's Z differs from that of B. ornatus 
(with which it is incorrectly synouymized by Thomson) 
in its immaculate face, red antennae, immaculate 
sternum, black-marked front coxae, simply white- 

434 Mr. Claude Morley on the 

circled hind tibiae, the pale marking of which does 
not extend down the leg, etc.] 

H. brevicornis. Thorns.* France. 

H. niger, Morl.f (1.) Norfolk. 

H. sundevalli, Holmgr. I have not seen this species ; 
recorded from Devon, in September (cf. Trans. Devon. 
Ass., 1898, p. 501). [= scabrosus, Desv., $.] 

H. reflcxns, Morl.-f- (2.) Isle of Wight and Surrey. 

H. incisus, Thoms.f (4.) Apparently rare ; Surrey and the 
Isle of Wight, in August. 

If. ruficomis, Holmgr. [= ? sttspiciosus^risch.] * Sweden 
and ? Prussia. 

H. pumilus, Holmgr. (15.) Common from June to Sep- 
tember; Cheshire, Herts., Suffolk, London (Wimble- 
don and Blackheath), Surrey, Isle of Wight. [ = 
thoracicus, Desv., $ = ? pichts, Grav. part. One $ I 
examined possessed a distinct areolet in the left wing 
but no trace of one in the right.] 

H. dimidiates, Schr. (45.) Abundant, May to September ; 
Scotland (Crockston and Bonhill, Dalglish), Suffolk, 
Herts., Sussex, Surrey, Hants., Isle of Wight and 
Cornwall. [= pidus, Grav., Holmgr., Thorns. = 
planus, Desv., £ £ (£ = var. b, Thorns.).] 

H. longiventris, Thorns, f (1.) The only male I have seen 
was swept in a marsh at Brandon in Suffolk, July 4th, 
1903. [ = pnmilus, Holmgr. part.] 

H. crassieribs, Thoms.f (6.) Apparently not common, 
August and September; Suffolk, Sussex, Surrey. 
[ = fissorius, Holmgr., nee Grav.] 

H. strigator, Fab. (1.) The only specimen of this species 
I have seen was swept from herbage in Henstead 
marsh (Suffolk), August 28th, 1898. Said to have 
been bred from larvae preying upon Siphonophora 
absinthii. [This $ is very like that of H. tarsatorius 
in facies, but — besides the distinct areolet and 
scutellar coloration — the second segment is longer, 
coarsely longitudinally strigose with the thyridii 
obsolete ; metathorax rugulose and much narrower 
above the hind coxae, with the petiolar area centrally 
striolate and bearing some traces of a basal area ; 
head narrower behind the eyes, with the vertex 
much less emarginate ; face more distinctly punctate 
with the epistoma more prominent and cheeks 
shorter ; clypeus similarly excised centrally but 

Ichneumonidons Group Tryplwnidcs schizodonti. 435 

acuminately explanate at the sides ; antennas shorter 
and consisting of 21 (not 20, as in the latter) flagellar 
joints and the scutellum is more convex and coarsely 
punctate (cf. also Brischke, Schr. Nat. Ges. Danz., 
1878, no. 6, p. 112). The areolet and sculpture will 
also distinguish it from H. fissorius. It appears to 
only differ from H. megaspis, Thorns., in the sculpture 
of the metathorax and second segment, and in the 
colour of the hind tibias.] 

H. megaspis, Thorns.* Bavaria. 

H. xanthaspis, Thorns. j- (4.) Rare ; three from Surrey in 
Capron's collection and one I swept in Tuddenham 
Fen (Suffolk), August 23rd, 1905. 

H. elegans, Grav. (35.) Abundant; June to October; London 
(Blackheath), Norfolk, Suffolk, Herts., Kent, Sussex, 
Surrey, Isle of Wight, Devon. Also from Nantua and 
Nantes. It has been bred from Bombyx quercus, 
and Gracilaria phasianipennclla. [= elegans, Grav., ^ 
(<£ in error), Holmgr., Desv. = rufonotatus, Holmgr. 
= nigritarsus, Grav., Holmgr., = picitans, Desv., £ $ 
($ = var. f. Thorns.).] 

IT. pallidipes, Grav. I have not seen this species ; re- 
corded from Devon in August (cf Trans. Devon. 
Ass., 1898, p. 501). 

H. pulcher, Holmgr. (2.) Very rare ; two from Surrey in 
Capron's collection. 

H. signatus, Grav. (28.) Abundant, June to September ; 
Lines., Norfolk, Suffolk, Herts., Surrey, London, 
Hereford, Ireland (Rossbeigh in Kerry). It has 
been bred from Syrphus sp. 

H. hygrobius, Thorns. (13.) Not uncommon, May to October; 
Surrey, Suffolk, Lines., Scotland (Giffnock). Also 
from Nantes. [ = festivus, Holmgr., part ; wee Grav.] 

P. dodsi, Morl.f (1.) Surrey. 

P. Scutellaria, Bridg. (4.) Certainly rare ; all my specimens 
are from Surrey ; Bridginan describes it from Devon. 
[B. scutcllaris, Bridg., $ (nee $), Thorns., ^ $.] 

P. nigriventris, Thorns.* Sweden. 

P. melanaspis, Thorns.* Bavaria. 

P. sulcator, Grav. (78.) Abundant, May to October ; Devon., 
Hants., Worcester, Herts., Suffolk, Norfolk, Cambs., 
Scotland (Crockston, DalglisK). It has been bred 
from Syrphus sp. [sulcator, Grav., excl. var. 2-5 et 
1 ^ = areolatus, Holmgr.] 

436 Mr. Claude Morley on the 

P. albicoxa, Thoms.f (9.) Probably not uncommon, June 
to August; Stafford., Herts., Norfolk, Surrey, Isle of 
Wight. [ = ? sidcator, var. 5, Grav., g .] 
P. cognatus, Holmgr. (20.) Common, May to September ; 
Suffolk, Norfolk, Herts., Surrey, Sussex, Cornwall 
(Botusrlcming, Marshall). 
P. laticarpus, Thorns, f (5.) Rare, in boggy situations ; $ £ 
swept in Henstead marsh (Suffolk), 12, vii, 1900, 
and Rockland Broad (Norfolk), 10, vi, 1901 ; $ $ 
at Metton (Norfolk), 30, viii, 1903 ; and Greenings 
(Surrey) from W. Saunders' collection, viii, 1871. 
Also from Nantes. [ = ? gracilentus, Holmgr. J 
P. pulchellus, Holmgr. (54.) Very common May to Octo- 
ber ; Suffolk, Norfolk, Northants., Herts., Wilts., Wales 
(Trefriw, Newbery), Devon., Cornwall, Isle of Wight. 
[ = sulcator, var. 1^,3 et 4, Grav. = festivus, var. 
2 et 3, Grav. —frcdcrculns, Forst.] 
P. festivus, Fab. (20.) Uncommon, July only; Suffolk, 
Herts., Surrey, Kent. It has been bred from Syrph/us 
sp., and Heliodincs roesella (rf. Isis, 1848, p. 986). 
\_= festivus, Grav., $$, excl. var., 2 et 3 ; Grav. var. 
1, facie totn nigra, £.] 
/'. dorsalis, Holmgr. (9.) Not common, in marshy places, 
June and July ; Suffolk, Surrey. [B. dorsalis, Holmgr. 
£ = macukttus, Desv. £ £.] 
P. compressus, Desv. (1.) Very rare ; I took a female at 
Felden in Herts., while staying with Mr. A. Piffard, 
flying on a chalky hillside, on August 9th, 1903 — 
probably the only localized British specimen. I 
noticed that in life the abdomen was no less 
compressed. [ = Bassus ibalioides, Kriech.] 
P. anomalus, Morl.f (1.) Longcross. 

I propose to conclude this paper with the description of 
four little-known species of Bassus (sensu, Grav.), which 
have been utterly ignored by all systematists : — 

Bassus hispanicus, Spinola, 

Ann. Soc. Fr., ser. ii, I (1843), p. 118. 

Dull and strongly punctate, black. Face deplanate, clypeus 
apically truncate and not discreted. Antennae filiform, black, 32- 
jointed, and as long as the body ; scape obconical and deeply 
excised- flagellar joints cylindrical with the second and third ob- 
conical, very short and the fourth elongate. Metathorax with a 

Ickneumonidous Group Tryplionidcs schizodonti. 437 

central transverse carina and the petiolar area basally rounded. 
Scutellaria and post-scutellum subconvex, immaculate. Abdomen 
black with segments two to four red ; the basal longer than broad 
and apically explanate ; second and third uniformly convex, with 
no transverse impressions. Legs red with coxa?, base of the front 
trochanters and apices of their tarsi, black. Wings hyaline ; 
nervures basally, and tegulae, red. 
Length, 9 mm. 

Southern Spain {Victor Ghiliani). 

Bassus athalIjEperda, Curtis. 

Farm Insects (I860), 53. 

Black, minutely punctate and finely pubescent. Face and mouth 
-white, with epistoma longitudinally, and the clypeal foveae black ; 
labrum and apices of mandibles dull ferrugineous. Antennae as long 
as the body. Legs red and somewhat stout ; coxae flavous ; tarsi 
and basal half of hind tibiae fulvous, the latter apically and their 
tarsi black. Wings iridescent ; costa and stigma fulvous, nervines 
piceous ; areolet wanting. 

Length, 6 mm. 

England ; bred from Athalia spinarum. 

Bassus carinulatus, Ruthe. 

Stett. Ent. Zeit. xx (1859), p. 373, Z % 

Black. Palpi infuscate ; g with face, mouth and apices of cheeks 
stramineous ; $ with clypeus and mandibles ferrugineous. Antennae 
of <$ as long as the body, basally fulvous, with the scape clear 
stramineous, beneath ; of ? shorter, with the flagtdlum subrufescent 
beneath. Thorax of $ immaculate, with mesosternum closely 
punctate ; of £ with lines before and beneath the radix, and the 
mesopleura? anteriorly flavous. Scutellum black. Abdomen imma- 
culate, with the basal segment rugosely punctate, bearing two sub- 
parallel carinae ; the second rugosely striate ; anus of $ closely and 
finely punctate, of $ sparsely punctate and nitidulous. Legs pale 
red, with the hind tarsi and tibiae black, the latter basally more or 
less broadly white ; front coxae of $ black, of $ stramineous. 
Wings with tegulae of £ flavous ; areolet triangular, petiolate, entire. 

Length, 5-6 mm. 

The £ resembles B. dcplanatus, but is much more 
slender; the $ is nearer B. ornatas. 
Iceland {Dr. Staudinger). 

438 Mr. Claude Morley on Tryplionides schizodonti. 

Bassus peronatus, Marshall. 

E. M. M., xii (1876), p. 194, % 

Shining, punctulate, black. Head, transverse and broader than 
thorax ; face deplanate and not centrally canaliculate. Antennas 
as long as the body, infuscate, testaceous beneath. Thorax nitidu- 
lous; mesosternum fulvous ; metathorax rugose with distinct area?, 
areola elevated and acutely margined. Scutellum convex, testaceous 
with its centre and two elongate lateral marks infuscate. Abdomen 
shining, with all the segments narrowly white apically, and not 
transversely impressed ; basal segment broad, depressed, and sub- 
contracted in front, with carina? extending a little beyond its centre. 
Legs fulvous, hind ones stout ; hind femora infuscate with their 
tibiae, except basally, and tarsi black. Wings with tegulae white ; 
areolet wanting ; nervellus intercepted far below the centre. 

Length, 6 mm. 

This species is said to be closely related to B. pedor- 
atorius, differing therefrom in its immaculate pleura? and 
metathoracic costse. I very strongly suspect, however, 
that it represents the unknown $ of B. strigator, Fab. 

England ; bred from Nematus cadderensis (cf. E. M. M., 
xii, p. 127). 

I have quite failed to discover where Bassus pipizx, 
Gir.j is described ; it is mentioned as parasitic upon Pipiza 
nodiluca in one of that author's posthumous works (cf. 
Laboulbene in Ann. Soc. Fr., 1877, p. 408). Dr. Giraud's 
memoirs are numerous, extending from 1854 to 1871 
according to Mocsary, but this species is not mentioned in 
the Annales from 1852 (when he joined the Society) to 
1872, nor do I find it in the Zoological Record ; it may 
appear in one of his contributions to the Verh. Wien. 
z. b. Ver., but it is more probably a MS. name (cf. Mar- 
shall, Bracon. d'Europ. i, 199). 

January 3rd, 1906. 







For the Year 1905. 

February 1st, 1905. 

Mr. F. Merrifield, President, in the chair. 

Mr. Merrifield, taking the chair as President, said it would 
be in accordance with some recent precedents if he expressed 
his acknowledgments for the honour which had been conferred 
on him. It was also a responsibility. He succeeded one 
under whose Presidency the Society, which had been steadily 
rising for years in numbers, in utility, and in scientific estim- 
ation, had reached the highest point yet attained. At the 
last meeting, when Professor Poulton vacated the office which 
he had filled with so much distinction, two past Presidents of 
the Society appropriately bore testimony to his services ; it 
would not be inappropriate if he took the opportunity which 
this meeting afforded him of saying how cordially he con- 
curred in all that was then said. The Presidency of one so 
widely known, and so appreciated in all parts of the world 
where biological research, united with powers of exposition, 
was valued, reflected honour on the Society with which he 
was thus associated. In the speaker's little research work he 
had had the kindest help from Professor Poulton, and he might 
add that also of the many other Fellows who had taken the 
leading part in the work of the Society. With their con- 
tinued aid and support he hoped he might be able to perform 
the duty which was incumbent on every one who filled that 

PROC. ENT. SOC. LOND., I. 1905. A 

( a ) 

chair — to do all in his power to promote the interests of the 
Society and the advancement of science, and, as he intended 
to take some trouble towards these ends, he hoped he might 
attain some of the moderate success which usually attends pn 
well-meant exertion. 

Nomination of Vice-Presidents. 

The President then announced that he had appointed Dr. 
Thomas Algernon Chapman, M.D., F.Z.S., Dr. Frederick 
Augustus Dixey, M.A., M.D., and Professor Edward B. 
Poulton, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., as Vice-Presidents for the 
Session 1905-6. 


Mr. H. St. J. DoNiSTnoRPE exhibited specimens of Oligota 
grana/ria found in a granary in Holborn, the only other 
localities reported hitherto being Shoe Lane, London, and 

Mr. W. J. Kaye exhibited a specimen of the Erycinid butter- 
fly Mesosemia euviene pinned in its natural position of rest to 
show its resemblance to the head of a small mammal, such as 
a mouse. The eye-spots of both fore- and hind-wings came 
together in such a way as to resemble the two eyes of the 
animal, while the outline of the wings so closed constituted 
a family class-likeness to the sharp outline of the mouse's 

Professor Poulton remarked that, as the eye-spot was 
placed close to the body near the base of the wings, the 
ordinary protective value thereof might be explained in some 
such way. 

Dr. T. A. Chapman exhibited a variety of the female of 
Lyceena melanops. As a mere aberration it was interesting ; 
but it was of value as showing that the position in the genus 
for long accorded to the species, whether by accident or design, 
close to the avion — eujihemus group, was correct. 

The considerable extension of the blue in this specimen 
showed up certain black spots on the upper surface of both 
upper and lower wings, strictly similar to these characteristics 
of the avion — euphemus group. He placed with it for illus- 

( iii ) 

tration specimens of avion, euphemus, alcon and areas. Also a 
fairly typical $ melanops from Digne, and another from Spain, 
perhaps more usual in colour, viz. with very little blue, but 
of large size ; also two other specimens from Digne, in which 
traces of the black spotting were easily seen, after the variety 
exhibited had shown what to look for. Dr. Chapman pro- 
posed to name the variety, which seemed to be undescribed, 

Lycsena melanops, Boisd., var. wheeleri, Cliapni. 

var. wheeleri, in recognition of the work of the Eev. George 
Wheeler on Alpine Butterflies. 

Mr. F. Enock exhibited a living $ Hybernia defoliaria, 
taken as late as February 1st, and another $ taken January 
28th, both at rest on north side of an oak-tree, in the same 
wood at Bexley. He also exhibited on behalf of Mr. Leonard 
Newman, of Bexley, two fine hybrids bred from a $ Noto- 
donta ziczac, and a § N. dromedarius, the colour being that 
of dromedarius, while the markings were those of ziczac. He 
also showed two varieties of JY. ziczac var. bred from larvae 

( iv ) 

taken in Kent, which had the pebble marking much suffused, 
and the ground-colour darker than the types. 

Mr. O. E. Janson exhibited a living specimen of Acridium 
eegyptium, L., found in a cauliflower in Bloomsbury, and 
probably imported from Italy. Professor Poulton said he 
had also received similar examples introduced in the same 

Mr. G. C. Champion exhibited two examples of Malachius 
barnevillei, Puton, captured by Mr. Thouless at Hunstanton, 
Norfolk, in June 1899, a recent addition to the British List. 

Mr. H. W. Andrews exhibited a $ and $ of Machimus 
msticus, Mg., a rare Asilid, taken in cop. at Freshwater, Isle 
of Wight, on August 13th, 1903. 

Mr. W. J. Lucas exhibited a $ Panorpa cognata taken 
at Byfleet Canal on August 23rd, 1904. The species occurs 
at Folkestone, and is said to be found in the New Forest. 
It is a little difficult at times to identify the $ alone, but 
Mr. K. J. Morton also had determined the insect in question 
to be P. cognata. For comparison he brought also $ 
specimens of P. communis and P. germanica. 


Mr. T. Gilbert Smith read a paper entitled " A revision of 
the genus Criocephalus, with notes on the habits of Asemum 
striatum and Criocephalus ferns," by himself and Dr. D. 
Sharp, M.A., F.R.S., and exhibited specimens to illustrate his 

A discussion followed in which Mi-. Donisthorpe remarked 
that he had bred Criocephalus polonicus, and Mr. A. J. Chitty, 
commenting on the life history of these beetles, said that he 
thought the longevity of some Coleopterous insects had hardly 
been appreciated. He possessed a Dytiscus still alive which 
he had taken in October 1902, while Mr. Donisthorpe 
mentioned the case of a Longicorn bred by Mr. C. O. 
Waterhouse which lived for twenty-one years. Commander 
Walker,, Mr. G. C. Champion, and other Fellows continued 
the discussion. 

Papers were also read by Dr. T. A. Chapman, M.D., F.Z.S., 
" On the Matrivorous Habit of Heterogynis," and " On the 

( v ) 

Pupal Suspension of Thais," the author exhibiting a number 
of specimens of Heterogynis from Spain, and elsewhere. 

Mr. E. Meyrick, B.A., communicated a paper on " Lepi- 
doptera from New Zealand." 

Mr. G. C. Champion, F.Z.S., contributed a paper entitled 
« Another Entomological Excursion to Spain (with description 
of two new species of Hemiptera by Dr. 0. M. Renter)," by 
Dr. T. A. Chapman and himself. 

Wednesday, March 1st, 1905. 

Mr. F. Merrifield (President) in the Chair. 

Election of Fellows. 
The Duke of Bedford, K.G., President of the Zoological 
Society, etc., of Woburn Abbey, Beds., and 15 Belgrave 
Square, S.W. ; M. Lucien Chopard, Membre de la Societe 
Entomologique de France, of 98 Boulevard St. Germain, Paris : 
Mr. Wilfrid Fleet, F.R.A.S., of "Imatra," Bournemouth; 
and Mr. Robert Sidney Mitford, C.B., of 35 Redcliffe 
Square, S.W., were elected Fellows of the Society. 

The decease of M. Henri F. de Saussure, of Geneva, 
Honorary Fellow, of the Rev. Francis Augustus Walker, 
D.D., and of Mr. Alexander Fry, F.L.S., was announced. 


Mr. H. St. J. Donisthorpe exhibited an example of Oxypoda 
sericea, Heer, taken in Dulwich Wood, June 17th, 1904, a 
species new to Britain; also 0. nigrina, Wat., with a type 
lent by Mr. E. A. Waterhouse, to demonstrate that it is not 
synonymous with sericea as stated on the Continent ; and 0. 
exigica, which is also regarded there as synonymous with 

( vi ) 

Mr. Hugh Main and Mr. Albert Harrison exhibited a 
long series of Colias edusa, with vav. helice (bred from one $ 
helice sent by Dr. T. A. Chapman from the South of France), 
to show the proportion of type and variety obtained. The 
percentage worked out as follows : — 

Total specimens : $ $ = 79 . . . 53% 

type: $ ?. = 19] . . . 

var.: $ ? = 52 J . . . 

150 100 

Of the $ ? type,= 19 . . . 27% 
variety, = 52 . . . 73% 

71 100 

They also showed the results of similar experiments with 
Amphidasys hetularia, bred from a $ var. doubledayaria, 
and a type $ taken in cop. at Woodford, Essex, in 1903, 
as follows : — 





6 6 


21 = 

- 21% 


? ? 


26 = 

= 34% 






Of the 43 6 6 22 = 51% = type, following the $ parent. 

21 = 49% = var. „ 6 „ 

Of the 01 $ ? 35 = 57% = type, following the ? parent. 

26 = 43% = var. „ 6 » 

As the result of " assembling" at Woodford, in June 1904, 
it was found that : 17 = $ type = 63% 

10 = var. doubledayaria =37% 

27 100 

Mr. E. A. E. Priske exhibited a specimen of Ilelops striatus, 
with a photograph, showing an abnormal formation of the 

( vii ) 

right antenna, which was divided into two branches from the 
fifth joint. 

Mr. Percy H. Grimshaw showed examples of llydrotxa 
pilipes, Stein, <$ and $ , the latter sex being previously un- 
known. The species was first recorded as British by the 
exhibitor in July 1904, the first specimens having been taken 
at Aberfoyle by Mr. A. E. J. Carter in July 1903. Since that 
date it has also been discovered by Col. J. W. Yerbury at 
Porthcawl. Mr. Grimshaw also exhibited several specimens 
of llydrotxa tuberculata, Rond, not hitherto recorded as 
British, captured by Mr. C. W. Dale and Dr. J. H. Wood in 
various localities. 

Dr. F. A. Dixey exhibited some cocoons and perfect insects 
of hybrid Satumias, and made the following observations : — 

" I ventured some time ago (see Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1897, 
pp. 1-liii) to draw attention to the experiments in hybridisa- 
tion made by Dr. Standfuss, of Zurich, and to lay before the 
Entomological Society a brief summary of his principal results. 
In the year 1898 I published in 'Science Progress' a more 
extended account of Standfuss's work in this direction, giving 
particulars of several of the hybrid forms obtained by him, 
and adding comments of my own on what appeared to be their 
biological significance. This paper is included in vol. ii of 
the 'Hope Reports' (1901), and portions of it may be found, 
though (doubtless from inadvertence) without clue acknowledg- 
ment, in the pages of an important work on Lepidoptera, now 
in course of publication. An excellent translation, by Mr. 
E. M. Dadd, of Dr. Standfuss's account of some later results 
than those recorded in his ' Handbuch ' (Jena, 1896), was 
also published in the 'Entomologist' for 1900 and 1901. It 
is illustrated by four well-executed photographic plates. 

" Dr. Standfuss has been good enough at various times to 
present me with some of his specimens ; these are now, with 
two exceptions, in the Hope Collection at Oxford. 

"The examples I exhibit to-night consist of hybrids of two 
kinds. The first is a pair, male and female, of the hybrid 
between Saturnia pavonia, Linn., $ , and S. pyri, Schiff , $ (see 
'Science Progress,' 1898, pp. 188, 189; pp. 4, 5 of the paper 
as included in the 'Hope Reports,' vol. ii, 1901). I have 

( viii ) 

added specimens of both sexes of the parent forms for com- 
parison, and it will be seen that the cross-product (which 
Standfuss calls S. emiliee) resembles a large S. pavonia rather 
than a small S. pyri ; except that the sexual disparity in size 
and colour, which is so marked in S. pavonia as compared with 
S. pyri, is very little developed in the hybrid. In most of 
Standfuss's specimens of this hybrid, some of the veins are 
forked terminally. This it will be seen is the case with one 
vein of the right fore-wing in the male exhibited. 

" The second form is a hybrid with a somewhat more 
complex ancestry. It consists of three males and three females 
of which the female parent is S. pavonia, and the male parent 
a hybrid between S. pavonia, $ , and S. spini, Schiff , ^ , i.e. 
the cross-product to which Standfuss has given the> name 
S. bornemanni. The present form (called by Standfuss S. 
schaufussi) is therefore, in the common way of reckoning, 
three-quarters S. pavonia and one-quarter S. spini. Dr. 
Standfuss's first attempt to rear it ended in failure, his speci- 
mens all dying in the larval stage. Subsequent trials, however, 
were more fortunate, and some examples of Standfuss's own 
rearing are figured in the 'Entomologist' for 1900, PI. VII, 
figs. 6, 7, 8. The six individuals I now exhibit were reared 
from eggs kindly sent me by Dr. Standfuss in 1895, and are 
some of the actual specimens mentioned in the footnote on 
p. 189 (p. 5 in the 'Hope Reports') of the paper above 
referred to. 

"Their history is briefly as follows : — 
May 11. Eggs received from Dr. Standfuss. 
,, 23. Eggs nearly all hatched. Larvae black, hairy. 
Fed on whitethorn. Show distinctly gregarious 
June 3. Larvse undergoing first moult. Some in second 
stage show a rather indistinct yellowish-brown 
lateral line. They are still gregarious. 
,, 14. Larva? in second moult. In third stage still 
black, but some have a yellow or orange lateral 

( i* ) 

June 24. Third moult. Larvse in fourth stage are still 
black ; hairs whitish. Front of head pale green ; 
some show small portions of green colour on body. 

,, 29. Eighteen larvse in fourth stage given to Professor 
Poulton, for the Hope Department. Five others 
were afterwards given to another friend. The 
subsequent history refers only to six specimens 
finally retained by me. 
July 5. Fourth moult. In fifth stage the ground-colour is 
generally black ; a variable amount of green may 
be present in addition ; in two out of the six the 
green predominates. Tubercles yellow, deepening 
to orange. 

,, 20. First larva began to spin cocoon. 

„ 21. Three larvse now spinning. The cocoons are those 
marked 1969 in the exhibit. These three larva? are 
black with orange tubercles, one is mottled with a 
little dull green. All the larvse have throughout 
been variable, but especially so in the last stage, 
varying from bright green with black rings (like 
S. pavonia) to uniform black. Tubercles orange 
in all. 

,, 24. A bright green larva with definite black rings, 
began to spin. This cocoon is the one marked 

„ 27. Another larva, resembling the last, now spinning 
(cocoon numbered 1327). The last larva retained 
by me, a specimen with much less green ground- 
colour than the two just noted, also spinning 
to-day (cocoon 1273 in the exhibit). 

" These larvse all had a profuse diarrhoeal discharge before 
spinning ; the discharge was clear and colourless when emitted, 
afterwards becoming brown. A period of quiescence, lasting 
for twenty-four hours or thereabouts, intervened between the 
discharge and spinning. During this period the larvse seemed 
shrunken and looked torpid and unhealthy. The cocoons were 
spun among twigs of the food-plant (whitethorn) with few or 
no leaves, in a glass cylinder resting on a white glazed plate. 

( * ) 

They were all brown in colour, two (Nos. 1230 and 1327) being 
a little paler than the rest. 

"The first emergence took place on March 17, 1896. It is 
the female numbered 1327 in the exhibit, and resulted from 
the bright green pavonia-like larva which spun on July 27, 
making a rather light-brown cocoon. Only one more of my 
six specimens reached the perfect state, and this did not 
appear until Dec. 1, 1896. It came from the bright green 
larva which spun a dark reddish-brown cocoon on July 24, 
1895, and is the male numbered 1443. The other four 
specimens having shown no sign of emergence, I opened and 
examined the cocoons in April, 1898. Three of them (num- 
bered 1969), all dark brown, each contained a dead larva. 
The fourth (the last one to be spun) was a somewhat pale- 
brown cocoon of a curious shape, having two orifices for 
emergence, only one of which was furnished with converging 
bristles (No. 1273). It contained the cast larval skin and a 
dead pupa. 

" The four remaining examples of this hybrid now shown 
belong to that portion of the original batch which was con- 
signed on June 29 to the Hope Department. They were 
reared with the rest, as I have related, up to the fourth larval 
stage. I have no record of the time of their emergence. 

" It will be seen that in this form (*S'. schaufussi) there is far 
less difference between the sexes than in S. pavonia. In spite 
of the fact that only one grandparent is 8. sjnni, the influence 
of this latter species is seen both in the reduction of the sexual 
disparity and also in the prevailing aspect of the larva? in their 
last stage. The difference between the male (No. 1443) and 
those which emerged in the Hope Department is very notice- 
able. A similar variability in the males of the same hybrid 
was observed by Standfuss ('Entomologist,' 1900, p. 346, 
note; and PI. VII, figs. 6, 7). I attribute the semitranspar- 
ency of most of the specimens to the want of vigour char- 
acterising the batch generally, and showing itself in another 
wa y by the number of larva; that failed to attain the perfect 

" While on the subject of Saturnia I may perhaps be allowed 
to mention that a passage in Mr. Tutt's very complete account 

1 xi ) 

of the larva of S. pavonia (' British Lepidoptera,' vol. iii, 
pp. 325, 326) may give rise unintentionally to a false impres- 
sion. The eighty larva? there spoken of as having been 
received from Norfolk were reared by myself, and not, as 
might appear from Mr. Tutt's account, by Professor Poultou, 
who indeed to the best of my belief never saw them. I must 
therefore assume the entire responsibility for the description 
of their markings which Mr. Tutt quotes. In the succeeding 
year I raised a fresh brood, numbering 120, from two of the 
pink-tubercled larva? of 1885, the parent imagines being still 
in my possession; 40 of these 1886 larvae were reared and 
described by myself, and 80 were given by me to Professor 
Poulton, who also duly noted their appearance in the last 
stage, as recorded by Mr. Tutt. My original account will be 
found in Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1887, pp. 310, 311, having 
been kindly incorporated by Professor Poulton, at my own 
request, with his 'Notes in 1886 upon Lepidopterous Larvae.' 
On reference to this account it will be seen that Professor 
Poulton fully acknowledges the source of the description." 

The President exhibited some Pyrameis atalanta, some of 
them lent by Mr. R. 8. Mitford, bred from pupa? found by 
Mr. Harwood, Colchester, which emerged on the last half of 
November and the first week of December last. Others in 
large numbers which had emerged earlier presented no 
remarkable features, but many of the later ones presented 
considerable differences, especially the following: — On the upper 
surface a patch or streak of blue or grey-blue scales on the fore- 
wings above the scarlet band and just below the large white spot 
on the costa ; also a narrowing and partial interruption of the 
scarlet band by the invasion of black scales ; on the under-side 
of the hind-wings a considerable increase of variegation, with 
an increase of the light areas, especially towards the outer 
margin. These effects are no doubt owing to the greater cold 
to which the pupae were exposed than are the ordinary 
summer pupa?, as they resemble in their general nature the 
effects caused by artificially low temperatures ; two specimens 
of which the President showed obtained by him ten years 
since ; also, for comparison with these and Mr. Harwood's, a 
specimen at normal temperature, and a specimen bred at 

( xii ) 

80°-90° F., both also obtained ten years ago. Mr. Harwood 
kept no exact records of temperatures or dates, but states 
that most emerged in November, the last six in December; 
severe frost having set in early in November, when some just 
emerging died, apparently from this cause, and they were then 
brought into a fireless room ; after a milder interval severe 
frost again set in, which caused them to be removed into a 
room with a fire. He remarks that probably all the very 
late larvse and pupoe perish in this country under natural 
conditions ; in which the President agreed with him — he 
never could get the pupaB to survive ten or eleven weeks of 
cooling, and believed that, as with Pyrameis cardui, the 
swarms of atalanta that decorate our gardens in the summer 
are all immigrants or their descendants; in the South of 
England there are certainly two broods in the year, perhaps 
more in hot summers. Mr. Harwood's experience was 
interesting, as it showed that there are natural variations of 
temperature which may produce effects on the facies of a 
butterfly corresponding with some of the results obtained by 
artificial temperatures ranging from that of an ordinary winter 
to that of a hot summer. 

Commander J. J. Walker drew attention to the white spot 
on the scarlet band that most showed, which had been thought 
to indicate the female sex. The President said he thought all 
the specimens he had bred showed traces of the white spot on 
the under-side, so that he did not think it was an indication 
of sex; he had understood that the American examples were 
without the white spot. 

Professor E. B. Poulton, F.R.S., exhibited (1) Groups of 
Synaposematic Hymenoptera and Diptera captured by Mr. 
A. H. Hamm, of the Hope Department, Oxford University 
Museum, and (2) Three specimens of Papilio hesj)erus, taken 
at Entebbe in 1903, by Mr. C. A. Wiggins. The attention 
of the exhibitor had to be called by Mr. W. Holland, of the 
Hope Department, to the fact that the tails of the hind-wing 
had not been broken off in these excessively worn and torn 
specimens. The evidence supports the conclusion that the 
tails of a Papilio, if untouched by enemies, can endure a great 
deal of wear. (3)^Professor Poulton also showed Nymphaline 

( -™i ) 

butterflies from Northern China, apparently mimetic of the 
male Hypolimnas misippus, which is not known to occur in 
this region. 

A discussion followed, in which Sir George Hampson, Col. 
J. W. Yebrury, Mr. A. Bacot, and other Fellows joined. 


Sir George Hampson read for Mrs. De la B. Nicholl a 
paper on " Butterfly-hunting in British Columbia and Canada," 
illustrated by numerous examples of the species captured 
during the summer of 1904. 

Sir George Hampson, B.A.,F.Z.S., also communicated a paper 
"On three remarkable new Genera of Micro-lepidoptera." 

Mr. Herbert Druce, F.L.S., F.Z.S., communicated a paper 
entitled " Descriptions of some new species of Diurnal Lepi- 
doptera, collected by Mr. Harold Cookson in Northern 
Rhodesia in 1903-4 : Lycsenidse. and Hesperiidee, by Hamilton 
H. Druce, F.Z.S." 

Mr. F. Du Cane Godman, F.B.S., D.C.L., communicated a 
paper entitled " Descriptions of some new species of Satyridae 
from South America." 

Mr. W. L. Distant communicated a paper entitled, 
" Additions to a knowledge of the Homopterous family of 

Wednesday, March 15th, 1905. 
Mr. F. Merrifield (President) in the Chair. 

Election of an Honorary Fellow. 

Senor Don Ignacio Bolivar, of Paseo de Recoletos Bajo, 
20, and Calle Jorge Juan, 17, Madrid, was elected an Honorary 
Fellow of the Society, in the place of Professor F. M. Brauer, 

Election of Fellows. 

Mr. Frank P. Dodd, of Kuranda, vid Cairns, Queensland ; 
Mr. Cecil Floersheim, of 16 Kensington Court Mansions, 

( ™ ) 

S.W. ; Mr. Joseph Lane Hancock, of 3757 Indiana Avenue, 
Chicago ; and Mr. Herbert C. Robinson, Curator of the State 
Museum, Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, were elected Fellows of 

the Society. 

Mr. C. 0. Watbrhouse announced that the late Mr. 
Alexander Fry, a Fellow of the Society, had bequeathed his 
large and important collections of Coleoptera to the British 


Dr. F. A. Dixey exhibited some butterflies from Natal which 
had been presented by Mr. G. A. K. Marshall, F.E.S., to the 
Hope Department at Oxford, and read the following note : — 

" It will be remembered that some few years ago Mr. 
Marshall conducted certain experiments with a view to 
ascertain whether the assumption of the wet- or dry-season 
form of various African butterflies could be controlled by 
exposure in the pupal state to artiBcial conditions of tempera- 
ture and moisture. Some of the results of these experiments 
were recorded and discussed by Mr. Marshall in Ann. Mag. 
Nat. Hist., 1901, vol. ii, p. 398. Others were dealt with in a 
paper published in Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1902, p. 189. Most 
of the material produced in the course of this research was 
exhibited on the